Identification systems enabling unambiguous information interchange - Requirements - Part 1: Principles and methods

IEC 62507-1:2010 specifies basic requirements for systems for the identification of objects (such as products, 'items', documents, etc., excluding human individuals). It focuses on assigning identifiers to an object for referencing purposes. It includes recommendations for the human readable presentation of identifiers and its machine readable representation, to be considered when constructing the identifiers and identification numbers and also requirements for the application of identifiers in a computer sensible form in accordance with such systems, and requirements for their interchange.

Anforderungen an Identifikationssysteme zur Unterstützung eines eindeutigen Informationsaustauschs - Teil 1: Grundsätze und Methodik

Systèmes d'identification permettant l'échange non ambigu de l'information - Exigences - Partie 1: Principes et méthodes

La CEI 62507-1:2010 spécifie les exigences fondamentales pour des systèmes d'identification d'objets (tels que des produits, des 'entités', des documents, etc, à l'exclusion des êtres humains). Elle se concentre sur l'attribution d'identificateurs à un objet, à des fins de références. Elle inclut des recommandations pour la présentation lisible par l'homme et la représentation lisible par une machine des identificateurs, à prendre en considération lors de la construction des identificateurs et des numéros d'identification ainsi que des exigences pour l'application des identificateurs sous une forme adaptée à l'ordinateur, conformément à de tels systèmes, et des exigences pour leur échange.

Zahteve za identifikacijske sisteme, ki omogočajo nedvoumno izmenjavo informacij - 1. del: Načela in metode (IEC 62507-1:2010)

Ta del IEC 62507 določa osnovne zahteve za sisteme za identifikacijo objektov (kot so proizvodi, »predmeti«, dokumenti itd., pri čemer so izključeni ljudje). Osredotoča se na določevanje identifikatorjev objektu za namene sklicevanja. Klasifikacije objektov za vsak in kateri koli razlog in potrditev, da je objekt res objekt, za katerega trdi, da je, so izvzete. Ta standard vključuje priporočila za človeku berljivo predstavitev oznak in njihovo strojno berljivo predstavitev, ki jih je treba upoštevati pri gradnji identifikatorjev in identifikacijskih številk. Ta standard prav tako vključuje zahteve za uporabo identifikatorjev v obliki, primerni za računalnike, v skladu s takimi sistemi in zahtevami za njihovo izmenjavo. Specifikacija fizične datoteke ali formata prenosa (sintaksa) za izmenjavo informacij stroj – stroj ni vključena niti ni specifikacije formatov prenosov za vpeljavo s fizičnim medijem npr. datotek, črtne kode, identifikacije radijskih frekvenc (RFID), uporabljene za medsebojno izmenjavo informacij in označevanje identifikatorjev na vključenem objektu.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Feb-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Completion Date
04-Feb-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
01-april-2011
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Requirements for identification systems enabling unambiguous information interchange -

Part 1: Principles and methods (IEC 62507-1:2010)

Identifikationssysteme zur Unterstützung eines eindeutigen Informationsaustauschs -

Anforderungen - Teil 1: Grundsätze und Methodik (IEC 62507-1:2010)
Conditions pour des systèmes d'identification permettant l'échange non ambigu de
l'information - Partie 1: Principes et méthodes (CEI 62507-1:2010)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62507-1:2011
ICS:
35.240.01 Uporabniške rešitve Application of information
informacijske tehnike in technology in general
tehnologije na splošno
SIST EN 62507-1:2011 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62507-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2011
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.140; 35.240
English version
Identification systems enabling unambiguous information interchange -
Requirements -
Part 1: Principles and methods
(IEC 62507-1:2010)
Systèmes d'identification permettant Anforderungen an Identifikationssysteme
l'échange non ambigu de l'information - zur Unterstützung eines eindeutigen
Exigences - Informationsaustauschs -
Partie 1: Principes et méthodes Teil 1: Grundsätze und Methodik
(CEI 62507-1:2010) (IEC 62507-1:2010)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2011-01-02. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2011 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62507-1:2011 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
EN 62507-1:2011 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 3/1007/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62507-1, prepared by IEC TC 3, Information

structures, documentation and graphical symbols, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

was approved by CENELEC as EN 62507-1 on 2011-01-02.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2011-10-02
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
(dow) 2014-01-02
with the EN have to be withdrawn
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62507-1:2010 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 81346-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 81346-1.
ISO 9000:2005 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 9000:2005 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
- 3 - EN 62507-1:2011
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61360-1 - Standard data elements types with EN 61360-1 -
associated classification scheme
for electric items -
Part 1: Definitions - Principles and methods
IEC 81346-2 - Industrial systems, installations and EN 81346-2 -
equipment and industrial products -
Structuring principles and reference
designations -
Part 2: Classification of objects and codes for
classes
IEC 82045-1 - Document management - EN 82045-1 -
Part 1: Principles and methods
IEC 82045-2 - Document management - EN 82045-2 -
Part 2: Metadata elements and information
reference model
ISO/IEC 646 1991 Information technology - ISO 7-bit coded - -
character set for information interchange
ISO/IEC 6523-1 - Information technology - Structure for the - -
identification of organizations and organization
parts -
Part 1: Identification of organization
identification schemes
ISO/IEC 15418 - Information technology - Automatic - -
identification and data capture techniques -
GS1 Application Identifiers and ASC MH10
Data Identifiers and maintenance
ISO/IEC 15434 - Information technology - Syntax for high-- -
capacity automatic data capture (ADC) media
ISO/IEC 15459-1 - Information technology - Unique identification - -
of transport units -
Part 1: General
ISO/IEC 15459-2 - Information technology - Unique identifiers - - -
Part 2: Registration procedures
ISO/IEC 15459-4 - Information technology - Unique identifiers - - -
Part 4: Individual items
ISO/IEC 7064 - Information technology - Security techniques -- -
Check character systems
ISO 3166-1 - Codes for the representation of names of EN ISO 3166-1 -
countries and their subdivisions -
Part 1: Country codes
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
EN 62507-1:2011 - 4 -
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
ISO 10303-11 - Industrial automation systems and - -
integration - Product data representation and
exchange -
Part 11: Description methods: The EXPRESS
language reference manual
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
IEC 62507-1
Edition 1.0 2010-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Identification systems enabling unambiguous information interchange –
Requirements –
Part 1: Principles and methods
Systèmes d’identification permettant l’échange non ambigu de l’information –
Exigences –
Partie 1: Principes et méthodes
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 01.140; 35.240 ISBN 978-2-88912-227-1
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN 62507-1:2011
– 2 – 62507-1 Ó IEC:2010
CONTENTS

FOREW ORD .................................................................................................................. 4

1 Sc o pe ...................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ................................................................................................ 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................ 7

4 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Purpose of identification ................................................................................. 10

4.2 Referencing and traceability ............................................................................ 11

4.3 Permanence .................................................................................................. 12

4.4 Kinds of objects ............................................................................................. 13

4.5 Changes to an identified object........................................................................ 14

4.6 Identification schemes .................................................................................... 14

4.7 Identifying attributes of an object ..................................................................... 15

4.8 Identification of an issuing domain ................................................................... 15

4.9 Multiple identification of the same object .......................................................... 17

4.10 Storage and use of identification numbers ........................................................ 18

5 Documentation of an identification system ................................................................. 18

6 Generation of identification numbers......................................................................... 19

6.1 Principle methods .......................................................................................... 19

6.1.1 General .............................................................................................. 19

6.1.2 Method 1 ............................................................................................ 19

6.1.3 Method 2 ............................................................................................ 19

6.2 Construction of identification numbers .............................................................. 20

6.2.1 General .............................................................................................. 20

6.2.2 Issue (Registration) ............................................................................. 21

6.2.3 Identification number generators ........................................................... 21

6.2.4 Validation ........................................................................................... 22

7 Identification within a global context ......................................................................... 22

8 Representation and presentation of identification numbers.......................................... 22

8.1 Representation for use in computer systems ..................................................... 22

8.2 Presentation for human readers ....................................................................... 23

8.2.1 General .............................................................................................. 23

8.2.2 Presentation of concatenated identifiers for human readers ..................... 23

8.2.3 Presentation of multiple identifiers for human readers ............................. 24

8.3 Indication of sub domains ............................................................................... 24

8.4 Application of the domain identifier .................................................................. 24

9 Recommendations with regard to organization changes .............................................. 25

10 Conformance ......................................................................................................... 25

Annex A (informative) Types of identification systems ..................................................... 26

Annex B (normative) Reference information model .......................................................... 30

Annex C (informative) Example of documentation of an identification system ..................... 52

Annex D (informative) Invariant characters of ISO/IEC 646 .............................................. 54

Bibliography ................................................................................................................. 55

Figure 1 – Illustration of the referencing mechanism ........................................................ 12

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SIST EN 62507-1:2011
62507-1 Ó IEC:2010 – 3 –

Figure 2 – Relations among occurrences (identified by concatenated letter codes) of

types (identified by numbers) in a tree-like structure ........................................................ 13

Figure 3 – Information model principle ............................................................................ 15

Figure 4 – Examples of identifying attributes for an object within a given domain ................ 15

Figure 5 – Illustration of domains ................................................................................... 16

Figure 6 – Organization-defined domain identification ...................................................... 17

Figure 7 – Illustration of identification in multiple domains ................................................ 18

Figure 8 – Illustration of domain identification .................................................................. 22

Table 1 – Use of identifiers in a product context ............................................................. 13

Table 2 – Relations among domains, identifiers and identification numbers ........................ 17

Table 3 – Number of possible identification numbers ........................................................ 20

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SIST EN 62507-1:2011
– 4 – 62507-1 Ó IEC:2010
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS
ENABLING UNAMBIGUOUS INFORMATION INTERCHANGE –
REQUIREMENTS –
Part 1: Principles and methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62507-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 3:

Information structures, documentation and graphical symbols..
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
3/1007/FDIS 3/1024/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
62507-1 Ó IEC:2010 – 5 –

A list of all parts of the IEC 62507 series, published under the general title, Identification

systems enabling unambiguous information interchange – Requirements, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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SIST EN 62507-1:2011
– 6 – 62507-1 Ó IEC:2010
IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS
ENABLING UNAMBIGUOUS INFORMATION INTERCHANGE –
REQUIREMENTS –
Part 1: Principles and methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62507 specifies basic requirements for systems for the identification of

objects (such as products, “items”, documents, etc., excluding human individuals). It focuses

on assigning identifiers to an object for referencing purposes.

The classification of objects for any and whatever reason and the verification that an object is

really the object it claims to be, are excluded.

This standard includes recommendations for the human readable presentation of identifiers

and its machine readable representation, to be considered when constructing the identifiers

and identification numbers.

The standard includes also requirements for the application of identifiers in a computer

sensible form in accordance with such systems, and requirements for their interchange.

The specification of the physical file or transfer format (syntax) for a machine to machine

information interchange is not included, nor is the specification and transfer formats for the

implementation by a physical medium, e.g. file, bar code, Radio Frequency Identification

(RFID), used for information interchange and the identification labelling on an object included.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 61360-1, Standard data element types with associated classification scheme for electric

components – Part 1: Definitions – Principles and methods

IEC 81346-2, Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products –

Structuring principles and reference designations – Part 2: Classification of objects and codes

for classes
IEC 82045-1, Document management – Part 1: Principles and methods

IEC 82045-2, Document management – Part 2: Metadata elements and information reference

model

ISO/IEC 646:1991, Information technology – IS0 7-bit coded character set for information

interchange

ISO/IEC 6523-1, Information technology – Structure for the identification of organizations and

organization parts –Part 1: Identification of organization identification schemes

ISO/IEC 15418, Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture

techniques – GS1 Application identifiers and ASC MH 10 data identifiers and maintenance

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
62507-1 Ó IEC:2010 – 7 –

ISO/IEC 15434, Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture

techniques – Syntax for high-capacity ADC media

ISO/IEC 15459-1, Information technology – Unique identifiers – Part 1: Unique identifiers for

transport units

ISO/IEC 15459-2, Information technology – Unique identifiers – Part 2: Registration

procedures

ISO/IEC 15459-4, Information technology – Unique identifiers – Part 4: Individual items

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions –

Part 1: Country codes
ISO 7064, Information technology – Security techniques – Check character systems

ISO 10303-11, Industrial automation systems and integration – Product data representation

and exchange – Part 11: Description methods: The EXPRESS language reference manual

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
batch number
lot number

identification number assigned to a group of specimens considered as one object to identify

the specimens that are manufactured together under assumed identical conditions and in a

limited time interval

NOTE The batch number / lot number is normally assigned at the manufacturing of the object.

3.2
domain
distinguished part of an abstract or physical space where something exists
NOTE A domain can be e.g. an organization or a country or a part of it.
3.3
domain number
domain ID
identification number assigned to a domain
NOTE The assigned domain number can coincide with the organization number.
[IEC 82045-2 derived]
3.4
identification [activity]
act of associating identification numbers to an object
3.5
identification number
string of characters representing the value of the identifier

NOTE 1 It is practice that although the term says “number” the string can contain other types of characters as

well.

NOTE 2 Note that the term “identifier” as being an attribute and the term ”identification number” as being the

value of that attribute are here considered different things, but they are often mixed in existing definitions.

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SIST EN 62507-1:2011
– 8 – 62507-1 Ó IEC:2010

NOTE 3 Identification numbers are often required to be unique (an object shall have one number only). This is an

unnecessary strong requirement, it is sufficient if they are unambiguous within a specified domain. An object may

have more than one identification number.

Furthermore, it is assumed in the definition that an organization may be responsible for more than one

identification number domain. This is a commonly occurring situation when organizations are merged, etc.

[IEC 82045-2 derived]
3.6
identification scheme
definition and description of the structure of identifiers
3.7
identification system

system of defined and documented rules and procedures within an organization aiming at the

unambiguous identification and retrieval of any object of interest by applying an identification

scheme
3.8
i dentifie r

attribute associated with an object to unambiguously identify it in a specified domain

NOTE In an identification system several types of identifiers may be required.
3.9
identity
established relation between an object and an identification number
3.10
issuing organization

organization being entrusted by a registration authority or of the management of an

organization to assign identification numbers in a given domain
[ISO 6523 derived]
3.11
metadata
meta information

information (irrespective of its form) used to describe a real or abstract object

[IEC 82045-1 derived]
3.12
object
entity treated in a process of development, implementation, usage and disposal

NOTE 1 The object may refer to a physical or non-physical “thing”, i.e. anything that might exist, exists or did

exist.
NOTE 2 The object has information associated to it.
[IEC 81346-1, 3.1]
3.13
object number
object ID
identification number assigned to an object

NOTE 1 The terms product number, item number, part number, article number, product identifying number,

traceability number (serial or batch) are sometimes used as synonyms to object number.

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
62507-1 Ó IEC:2010 – 9 –

NOTE 2 For products the identification number is normally assigned at the engineering of the object. Objects with

the same identification number are supposed to have the same “form, fit and function” and hence being

interchangeable.
3.14
object individual
specimen of an object type irrespective of where it is being used
3.15
object occurrence

use of an object type within a specified context (another object or system) irrespective of

which object individual that is being used
3.16
object type
class of objects having the same set of characteristic properties
3.17
organization

company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof,

whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration

3.18
organization number
organization ID
identification number assigned to an organization
NOTE The assigned organization number can coincide with the domain number.
[ISO 6523-1 derived]
3.19
registration authority

organization responsible to receive and acknowledge applications from organizations wishing

to become an issuing organization in a given domain
[ISO 6523 derived]
3.20
serial number

identification number assigned to an individual specimen of objects or an object type

NOTE In most industrial applications a serial number is used for tracing the different individual specimen of a

product type during their life times, e.g. the individual cars manufactured of a specific car type.

In other cases the serial number is used as a running number in order to differentiate among different objects or

among different objects within a given domain.
3.21
traceability

ability to trace (identify and retrieve) the information on the stages that lead to a particular

point in a process
[ISO 9000 3.5.4 modified]
3.22
variant
object type derived from a basic (general) object type

NOTE Variants are intended to exist at the same time and require simultaneous management, while versions

follow each other sequentially in time. Versions can, however, also exist at the same time, depending on how older

versions are phased out.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 62507-1:2011
– 10 – 62507-1 Ó IEC:2010
3.23
version

identified state of an object to indicate changes in its life cycle, related to a given object

number for the type of object

NOTE 1 A document version is an identified state in the development of a document during its life cycle, identified

and recorded for retrieval purposes. The term document revision is normally used to indicate that the document

version is formally approved, see e.g. IEC 82045-1 and IEC 82045-2. This term is not used in this standard.

NOTE 2 A product version is an identified state in the development of a product type identified with regard to the

life cycle of a series of products.
[IEC 82045-2 derived]
3.24
version number
version ID
identification number assigned to a version

NOTE The object number of the related object serves as domain number for the version numbers.

[IEC 82045-2 derived]
4 General
4.1 Purpose of identification
The purpose of identification is to ensure unambiguous and precise referencing.
Referencing is a basic requirement for traceability.
An identifier is an attribute to an object serving for its identification.

An identification number is the value of the identifier; a string of characters supplying absolute

and unambiguous reference to the particular object (product, document, information object,

etc.), hence making it unique within a specified domain (or context).
The most important requirement fo
...

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