Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)

Establishes methods of determining efficiencies from tests, and also specifies methods of obtaining specific losses. Applies to d.c. machines and to a.c. synchronous and induction machines of all sizes within the scope of IEC 60034-1

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der Verluste und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen für Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)

Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la détermination des pertes et du rendement à partir d'essais (à l'exclusion des machines pour véhicules de traction)

Définit les méthodes de détermination du rendement à partir d'essais et spécifie également les méthodes permettant de déterminer des pertes spécifiques. S'applique aux machines à courant continu ainsi qu'aux machines à courant alternatif, synchrones et à induction, de toutes dimensions, qui entrent dans le domaine d'application de la CEI 60034-1.

Električni rotacijski stroji - 2-1. del: Metode za ugotavljanje izgub in izkoristka s preskušanjem (razen strojev za vlečna vozila) (IEC 60034-2-1:2007)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
13-Nov-2007
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
14-Nov-2007
Completion Date
14-Nov-2007

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
01-marec-2009

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Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and

efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles) (IEC 60034-2-1:2007)

Drehende elektrische Maschinen - Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren zur Bestimmung der
Verluste und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen (ausgenommen Maschinen für
Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge) (IEC 60034-2-1:2007)
Machines électriques tournantes - Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la

détermination des pertes et du rendement à partir d'essais (à l'exclusion des machines

pour véhicules de traction) (CEI 60034-2-1:2007)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60034-2-1:2007
ICS:
29.160.01 Rotacijski stroji na splošno Rotating machinery in
general
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60034-2-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2007
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.160 Partly supersedes EN 60034-2:1996 + A1:1996 + A2:1996
English version
Rotating electrical machines -
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency
from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)
(IEC 60034-2-1:2007)
Machines électriques tournantes - Drehende elektrische Maschinen -
Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées Teil 2-1: Standardverfahren
pour la détermination des pertes
zur Bestimmung der Verluste
et du rendement à partir d'essais und des Wirkungsgrades aus Prüfungen
(à l'exclusion des machines (ausgenommen Maschinen
pour véhicules de traction) für Schienen- und Straßenfahrzeuge)
(CEI 60034-2-1:2007) (IEC 60034-2-1:2007)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2007-11-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2007 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60034-2-1:2007 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
EN 60034-2-1:2007 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 2/1443/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 60034-2-1, prepared by IEC TC 2, Rotating

machinery, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 60034-2-1 on 2007-11-01.
This European Standard partly supersedes EN 60034-2:1996 + A1:1996 + A2:1996.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2008-08-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2010-11-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60034-2-1:2007 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
- 3 - EN 60034-2-1:2007
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
1) 2)
IEC 60027-1 – Letter symbols to be used in electrical EN 60027-1 2006
technology -
Part 1: General
1) 2)
IEC 60034-1 – Rotating electrical machines - EN 60034-1 2004
Part 1: Rating and performance
IEC 60034-2A 1974 Rotating electrical machines - – –
Part 2: Methods for determining losses and
efficiency of rotating electrical machinery from
tests (excluding machines for traction
vehicles) -
First supplement: Measurement of losses by
the calorimetric method
1) 2)
IEC 60034-4 (mod) – Rotating electrical machines - EN 60034-4 1995
Part 4: Methods for determining synchronous
machine quantities from tests
IEC 60034-19 – Rotating electrical machines - - -
Part 19: Specific test methods for d.c.
machines on conventional and rectifier-fed
supplies
IEC 60044 (mod) Series Instrument transformers EN 60044 Series
1) 2)
IEC 60051-1 – Direct acting indicating analogue electrical EN 60051-1 1998
measuring instruments and their
accessories -
Part 1: Definitions and general requirements
common to all parts
1) 4)
IEC 61986 – Rotating electrical machines - Equivalent EN 61986 2002
loading and super-position techniques -
Indirect testing to determine temperature rise
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.

IEC 60034-2A:1974, which is included in EN 60034-2:1996, is retained for the time being. It will be incorporated in the future

IEC 60034-2-2.

Valid edition at date of issue. A revision of IEC 61986 is under consideration for publication under reference IEC 60034-29; it is

expected to be harmonized as EN 60034-29.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
IEC 60034-2-1
Edition 1.0 2007-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Rotating electrical machines –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests
(excluding machines for traction vehicles)
Machines électriques tournantes –
Partie 2-1: Méthodes normalisées pour la détermination des pertes et du
rendement à partir d’essais (à l’exclusion des machines pour véhicules de
traction)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 29.160 ISBN 2-8318-9250-3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
– 2 – 60034-2-1 © IEC:2007
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references........................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................8

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ......................................................................................13

4.1 Symbols ................................................................................................................13

4.2 Additional subscripts..............................................................................................14

5 Basic requirements .........................................................................................................15

5.1 Direct and indirect efficiency determination ............................................................15

5.2 Uncertainty ............................................................................................................15

5.3 Preferred methods.................................................................................................16

5.4 Power supply.........................................................................................................20

5.5 Instrumentation......................................................................................................20

5.6 Units .....................................................................................................................21

5.7 Resistance ............................................................................................................21

6 Test methods for determination of efficiency ...................................................................22

6.1 State of the machine under test and test categories ...............................................22

6.2 Excitation circuit measurements.............................................................................23

6.3 Direct measurements.............................................................................................23

6.4 Indirect measurements ..........................................................................................25

7 Determination of efficiency (direct current machines) ......................................................37

7.1 Determination from direct measurement.................................................................37

7.2 Determination from indirect measurement..............................................................37

8 Determination of efficiency (induction machines) .............................................................42

8.1 Determination from direct measurement.................................................................42

8.2 Determination from indirect measurement..............................................................43

9 Determination of efficiency (synchronous machines) .......................................................54

9.1 Determination from direct measurement.................................................................54

9.2 Determination from indirect measurement..............................................................55

Annex A (normative) Correction of dynamometer torque readings .........................................61

Annex B (normative) Calculation of values for the Eh-star method ........................................63

Annex C (informative) Types of excitation systems ...............................................................66

Annex D (normative) Other test methods ..............................................................................67

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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
60034-2-1 © IEC:2007 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Sketch for torque measurement test .....................................................................24

Figure 2 – Sketch for dual supply back-to-back test (for synchronous machines:

I==If, f ) .................................................................................................................24

MG M G

Figure 3 – Sketch for single supply back-to-back test, d.c. machines .....................................26

Figure 4 – Sketch for single supply back-to-back test, synchronous machines .......................27

Figure 5 – Induction machine, T-model with equivalent iron loss resistor................................31

Figure 6 – Sketch for single supply back-to-back, additional losses, d.c. machines ................32

Figure 7 – Eh-star test circuit ...............................................................................................35

Figure 8 – Vector diagram for obtaining current vector from reduced voltage test...................46

Figure 9 – Induction machines, Reduced model for calculation ..............................................49

Figure 10 – Smoothing of the residual loss data.....................................................................51

Figure 11 – Assigned allowance for additional load losses P , induction machines...............53

Table 1 – DC machines .........................................................................................................17

Table 2 – Induction machines................................................................................................18

Table 3 – Synchronous machines ..........................................................................................19

Table 4 – Reference temperature ..........................................................................................22

Table 5 – Multiplying factors for different speed ratios ...........................................................42

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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
– 4 – 60034-2-1 © IEC:2007
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses
and efficiency from tests
(excluding machines for traction vehicles)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60034-2-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 2:

Rotating machinery.

This standard cancels and replaces IEC 60034-2 (1972), its amendment 1 (1995) and its

amendment 2 (1996). IEC 60034-2A (1974) is retained for the time being.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
2/1443/FDIS 2/1460/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
60034-2-1 © IEC:2007 – 5 –

A list of all parts of IEC 60034 series, under the general title Rotating electrical machines, can

be found on the IEC website.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
– 6 – 60034-2-1 © IEC:2007
INTRODUCTION

During the revision phase for IEC 60034-2: 1972 and its amendments IEC 60034-2 A1: 1995

(defining IEC 60034-2A: 1974 as Clause 17) and IEC 60034-2 A2: 1996, WG 28 proposed and

TC 2 agreed to separate the revised standard into three sections:

– the first part (IEC 60034-2-1) to cover machines within the scope of IEC 60034-1, which

are normally tested under load;

– the second part (IEC 60034-2-2) to cover tests applicable mainly for large machines

where the facility cost for other methods is not economical (especially the calibrated-

machine test, the retardation test and the calorimetric method);
– the third part (IEC 60034-2-3) for tests on machines for converter supply..

To retain in IEC 60034-2-1 as normative the test methods that will eventually become

IEC 60034-2-2, a temporary Annex D has been added. This annex contains elements from

IEC 60034-2:1972 and its amendment 1:1995. It also makes reference to IEC 60034-2A:1974.

Both will be incorporated in the future IEC 60034-2-2.
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SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
60034-2-1 © IEC:2007 – 7 –
ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES –
Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses
and efficiency from tests
(excluding machines for traction vehicles)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60034 is intended to establish methods of determining efficiencies from tests,

and also to specify methods of obtaining specific losses.

This standard applies to d.c. machines and to a.c. synchronous and induction machines of all

sizes within the scope of IEC 60034-1.

NOTE These methods may be applied to other types of machines such as rotary converters, a.c. commutator

motors and single-phase induction motors.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60027-1, Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology – Part 1: General

IEC 60034-1, Rotating electrical machines – Part 1: Rating and performance

IEC 60034-2A, Rotating electrical machines – Part 2: Methods for determining losses and

efficiency of rotating electrical machinery form tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles)

– First supplement: Measurement of losses by the calorimetric method

IEC 60034-4, Rotating electrical machines – Part 4: Methods for determining synchronous

machine quantities from tests

IEC 60034-19, Rotating electrical machines – Part 19:Specific test methods for d.c. machines

on conventional and rectifier-fed supplies
IEC 60044 (all parts), Instrument transformers

IEC 60051-1, Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their

accessories – Part 1: Definitions and general requirements common to all parts

IEC 61986, Rotating electrical machines – Equivalent loading and super-position techniques –

Indirect testing to determine temperature rise

NOTE A revision of IEC 61986 is under consideration; it will be published under reference IEC 60034-29.

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
– 8 – 60034-2-1 © IEC:2007
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60034-1, IEC 60051-

1 and the following definitions apply.
3.1
efficiency

ratio of output power to input power expressed in the same units and usually given as a

percentage
3.2 Tests for direct efficiency determination
3.2.1
general

method by which the direct determination of efficiency is made by measuring directly the input

power and the output power
3.2.2
torque meter test

test in which the mechanical power output of a machine acting as a motor is determined by

measurement of the shaft torque by means of a torque meter together with the rotational

speed. Alternatively, a test performed on a machine acting as a generator, by means of a

torque meter to determine the mechanical power input
3.2.3
dynamometer test

test in accordance with 3.2.2 but measuring the shaft torque by means of a dynamometer

3.2.4
dual-supply back-to-back test

test in which two identical machines are mechanically coupled together, and the total losses of

both machines are calculated from the difference between the electrical input to one machine

and the electrical output of the other machine
3.3 Tests for indirect efficiency determination
3.3.1
general

test in which the indirect determination of efficiency is made by measuring the input power or

the output power and determining the total losses. Those losses are added to the output power,

thus giving the input power, or subtracted from the input power, thus giving the output power

3.3.2
single-supply back-to-back test

test in which two identical machines are mechanically coupled together, and are both

connected electrically to the same power system. The total losses of both machines are taken

as the input power drawn from the system
3.3.3
no-load test

test in which a machine run as a motor provides no useful mechanical output from the shaft, or

when run as a generator with its terminals open-circuited
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
60034-2-1 © IEC:2007 – 9 –
3.3.4
zero power factor test (synchronous machines)

no-load test on a synchronous machine, which is over-excited and operates at a power factor

very close to zero
3.3.5
equivalent circuit method (induction machines)
test in which the losses are determined by help of an equivalent circuit model
3.3.6
test with rotor removed and reverse rotation test (induction machines)

combined test in which the additional load losses are determined from a test with rotor

removed and a test with the rotor running in reverse direction to the rotating magnetic field

3.3.7
short-circuit test (synchronous machines)
test in which a machine is run as a generator with its terminals short-circuited
3.3.8
locked rotor test
test in which the rotor is locked to prevent rotation
3.3.9
eh-star test
test in which the motor is run in star connection on unbalanced voltage.
3.4 Losses
3.4.1
total losses P

difference between the input power and the output power, equivalent to the sum of the constant

losses (see 3.4.2), the load losses (see 3.4.4), the addititional load losses (see 3.4.5) and the

excitation circuit losses (see 3.4.3)
3.4.2 Constant losses
3.4.2.1
constant losses P
sum of the iron losses and the friction and windage losses
3.4.2.2
iron losses P
losses in active iron and additional no-load losses in other metal parts
3.4.2.3 Friction and windage losses P
3.4.2.3.1
friction losses

losses due to friction (bearings and brushes, if not lifted at rated conditions) not including any

losses in a separate lubricating system. Losses in common bearings should be stated

separately, whether or not such bearings are supplied with the machine. The bearing losses

are based on the operating temperatures of the bearings, the type of oil and oil temperature.

NOTE 1 When the losses in a separate lubricating system are required these should be listed separately.

---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
– 10 – 60034-2-1 © IEC:2007

For vertical machines, the losses in thrust bearings shall be determined excluding any external

thrust.

NOTE 2 Additional losses due to external thrust may be stated separately by agreement, which should then

include thrust load, temperature of the bearings, type of oil and also oil temperature.

NOTE 3 Friction losses due to thrust load may be included by agreement.

If the tested machine uses direct flow cooling of the bearings, these losses are distributed

between the tested machine and any other one coupled to it mechanically, such as a turbine, in

proportion to the masses of their rotating parts. If there is no direct flow cooling, the distribution

of bearing losses shall be determined from empirical formulae by agreement
3.4.2.3.2
windage losses

total losses due to aerodynamic friction in all parts of the machine, including power absorbed in

shaft mounted fans, and in auxiliary machines forming an integral part of the machine

NOTE 1 Losses in a separate ventilating system should be listed separately.
NOTE 2 For machines indirectly or directly cooled by hydrogen, see IEC 60034-1.
3.4.3 Excitation circuit losses
3.4.3.1
excitation circuit losses P

sum of the excitation winding losses (see 3.4.3.2), the exciter losses (see 3.4.3.3) and, for

synchronous machines, electrical brush loss (see 3.4.3.5), if any
3.4.3.2
excitation winding losses P

the excitation (field) winding losses are equal to the product of the exciting current I and the

excitation voltage U
3.4.3.3
exciter losses P

the exciter losses for the different excitation systems (see Annex C) are defined as follows:

a) Shaft driven exciter

The exciter losses are the power absorbed by the exciter at its shaft (reduced by friction

and windage losses) plus the power P drawn from a separate source at its excitation

winding terminals, minus the useful power which the exciter provides at its terminals. The

useful power at the terminals of the exciter is equal to the excitation winding losses as per

3.4.3.2 plus (in the case of a synchronous machine) the electrical brush losses as per

3.4.3.5.

If the exciter can be decoupled and tested separately its losses can be determined

according to 5.3.

Whenever the exciter makes use of separate auxiliary supplies, their consumptions are to

be included in the exciter losses unless they are considered together with the main machine

auxiliaries consumption.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60034-2-1:2009
60034-2-1 © IEC:2007 – 11 –
b) Brushless exciter

The exciter losses are the power absorbed by the exciter at its shaft, reduced by friction

and windage losses (when the relevant test is performed on the set of main machine and

exciter), plus the electrical power P from a separate source (if any) absorbed by its field

winding or its stator winding (in the case of an induction exciter), minus the useful power

which the exciter provides at the rotating power converter terminals.

Whenever the exciter makes use of separate auxiliary supplies their consumptions are to

be included in the exciter losses unless they are considered together with the main machine

auxiliaries consumption.

If the exciter can be decoupled and tested separately, its losses can be determined

according to 5.3.
c) Separate rotating exciter

The exciter losses are the difference between the power absorbed by the driving motor,

plus the power absorbed by separate auxiliary supplies, of both driving and driven

machines, including the power supplied by separate source to their excitation winding

terminals, and the excitation power supplied as per 3.4.3.2 and 3.4.3.4. The exciter losses

may be determined according to 5.3.
d) Static excitation system (static exciter)

The excitation system losses are the difference between the electrical power drawn from its

power source, plus the power absorbed by separate auxiliary supplies, and the excitation

...

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