Live working - Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC

NEW!IEC 60900:2018 is available as IEC 60900:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60900:2018 is applicable to insulated, insulating and hybrid hand tools used for working live or close to live parts at nominal voltages up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC. The products designed and manufactured according to this document contribute to the safety of the users provided they are used by skilled persons, in accordance with safe methods of work and the instructions for use (where appropriate). This document has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of IEC 61477 where applicable. The products covered by this document may have an impact on the environment during some or all stages of its life cycle. These impacts can range from slight to significant, be of short term or long-term duration, and occur at the global, regional or local level. This document does not include requirements and test provisions for the manufacturers of the products, or recommendations to the users of the products for environmental improvement. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition, published in 2012. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) addition of a third category of tools has been added, namely hybrid hand tools; b) introduction of a new informative Annex A on examples of insulated, insulating and hybrid hand tools. Key words: Live Working, Insulated, Insulating, Hand Tools

Arbeiten unter Spannung - Handwerkzeuge zum Gebrauch bis AC 1 000 V und DC 1 500 V

Travaux sous tension - Outils à main pour usage jusqu'à 1 000 V en courant alternatif et 1 500 V en courant continu

NEW!IEC 60900:2018 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60900:2018 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.IEC 60900:2018 est applicable aux outils à main isolés, isolants et hybrides utilisés sous tension ou à proximité de parties actives, à des tensions nominales jusqu’à 1 000 V en courant alternatif et 1 500 V en courant continu. Les produits conçus et fabriqués en conformité avec le présent document contribuent à la sécurité des utilisateurs, à condition qu’ils soient utilisés par des personnes qualifiées, conformément à des méthodes de travail en toute sécurité et aux instructions d’emploi (le cas échéant). Le présent document a été préparé conformément aux exigences de l’IEC 61477 lorsque cela s’applique. Pendant certaines ou pendant toutes les étapes de son cycle de vie, les produits couverts par le présent document peuvent avoir un impact sur l’environnement. Ces impacts peuvent être de légers à importants, de court ou de long terme, et se produire à un niveau local, régional ou global. Le présent document ne contient pas d’exigences et de dispositions d’essai s’adressant aux fabricants, ou de recommandations aux utilisateurs des produits ayant pour but d’améliorer l’environnement. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition, parue en 2012. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente: a) ajout d'une troisième catégorie d'outils: les outils à main hybrides; b) introduction d’une nouvelle Annexe A informative sur des exemples des différents types d’outils à main: isolés, isolants et hybrides. Mots-clés: Travaux sous tension, isolés, isolant, outils à main

Delo pod napetostjo - Ročna orodja za uporabo pri izmeničnih napetostih do največ 1000 V in enosmernih napetostih do 1500 V

Ta dokument se uporablja za izolirana, izolirna in hibridna ročna orodja, ki se uporabljajo za delo pod napetostjo ali v bližini delov pod napetostjo, katerih nazivna napetost je največ 1000 V izmeničnega toka in 1500 V enosmernega toka.
Proizvodi, zasnovani in izdelani v skladu s tem dokumentom, prispevajo k varnosti uporabnikov, kadar jih uporabljajo usposobljene osebe v skladu z varnimi metodami dela in navodili za uporabo, kjer je to ustrezno.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Aug-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
24-Aug-2018
Completion Date
24-Aug-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
01-oktober-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60900:2012
'HORSRGQDSHWRVWMR5RþQDRURGMD]DXSRUDERSULL]PHQLþQLKQDSHWRVWLKGR
QDMYHþ9LQHQRVPHUQLKQDSHWRVWLKGR9
Live working - Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c
Arbeiten unter Spannung - Handwerkzeuge zum Gebrauch bis AC 1 000 V und DC 1
500 V

Travaux sous tension - Outils à main pour usage jusqu'à 1 000 V en courant alternatif et

1 500 V en courant continu
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 60900:2018
ICS:
13.260 9DUVWYRSUHGHOHNWULþQLP Protection against electric
XGDURP'HORSRGQDSHWRVWMR shock. Live working
25.140.01 5RþQDRURGMDQDVSORãQR Hand-held tools in general
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 60900
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2018
ICS 13.260; 29.240.20; 29.260.99 Supersedes EN 60900:2012
English Version
Live working - Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V
(IEC 60900:2018)

Travaux sous tension - Outils à main pour usage jusqu'à 1 Arbeiten unter Spannung - Handwerkzeuge zum Gebrauch

000 V en courant alternatif et 1 500 V en courant continu bis AC 1 000 V und DC 1 500 V

(IEC 60900:2018) (IEC 60900:2018)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2018-07-25. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 60900:2018 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
EN IEC 60900:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 78/1221/FDIS, future edition 4.0 of IEC 60900, prepared by IEC/TC 78 "Live

working" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN IEC 60900:2018.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2019-04-25

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2021-07-25

document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60900:2012

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60900:2018 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60743 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60743
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SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
EN IEC 60900:2018 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60060-1 - High-voltage test techniques - Part 1: EN 60060-1 -
General definitions and test requirements
IEC 60212 - Standard conditions for use prior to and EN 60212 -
during the testing of solid electrical
insulating materials
IEC 60417 -
Graphical symbols for use on equipment. - -
Index, survey and compilation of the single
sheets.
IEC 61318 - Live working - Conformity assessment EN 61318 -
applicable to tools, devices and equipment
IEC 61477 - Live working - Minimum requirements for EN 61477 -
the utilization of tools, devices and
equipment
ISO 1174-1 - Assembly tools for screws and nuts - - -
Driving squares – Part 1: Driving squares
for hand socket tools
ISO 9654 - Pliers and nippers for electronics - Single- - -
purpose nippers - Cutting nippers
ISO 9655 - Pliers and nippers for electronics - Single- - -
purpose nippers - Pliers for gripping and
manipulating
ISO 9656 - Pliers and nippers for electronics - Test - -
methods
ISO 9657 - Pliers and nippers for electronics - General - -
technical requirements
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
IEC 60900
Edition 4.0 2018-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Live working –
Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC
Travaux sous tension –
Outils à main pour usage jusqu’à 1 000 V en courant alternatif et 1 500 V
en courant continu
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.260; 29.240.20; 29.260.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-5783-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
– 2 – IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Requirements .................................................................................................................. 9

4.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 9

4.1.1 Safety .............................................................................................................. 9

4.1.2 Performance under load ................................................................................ 10

4.1.3 Multiple-ended hand tools .............................................................................. 10

4.1.4 Marking ......................................................................................................... 10

4.1.5 Separating of covers ...................................................................................... 11

4.1.6 Instructions for correct adjustment and assembly........................................... 11

4.2 Requirements concerning insulating materials ...................................................... 11

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Thermal stability ............................................................................................ 12

4.3 Requirement concerning exposed conductive parts of hybrid tools ........................ 12

4.4 Additional requirements ........................................................................................ 12

4.4.1 Hand tools capable of being assembled ......................................................... 12

4.4.2 Screwdrivers .................................................................................................. 14

4.4.3 Spanners – un-insulated areas ...................................................................... 15

4.4.4 Adjustable spanners ...................................................................................... 16

4.4.5 Pliers, strippers, cable scissors, cable-cutting hand tools .............................. 17

4.4.6 Scissors ........................................................................................................ 21

4.4.7 Knives ........................................................................................................... 22

4.4.8 Tweezers ....................................................................................................... 23

5 Tests ............................................................................................................................. 24

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

5.2 Visual check ......................................................................................................... 25

5.3 Dimensional check ................................................................................................ 25

5.4 Impact tests .......................................................................................................... 25

5.4.1 Type test ....................................................................................................... 25

5.4.2 Alternative methods in cases where hand tools have completed the

production phase ........................................................................................... 28

5.5 Dielectric tests ...................................................................................................... 28

5.5.1 General requirements .................................................................................... 28

5.5.2 Conditioning (for type test only) ..................................................................... 29

5.5.3 Dielectric testing of insulated and hybrid hand tools ...................................... 29

5.5.4 Dielectric testing of insulating hand tools ....................................................... 32

5.6 Indentation test (for insulated hand tools) ............................................................. 33

5.6.1 Type test ....................................................................................................... 33

5.6.2 Alternative methods in cases where insulated hand tools have

completed the production phase .................................................................... 34

5.7 Test for adhesion of the insulating material coating of insulated hand tools ........... 34

5.7.1 Conditioning .................................................................................................. 34

5.7.2 Type test ....................................................................................................... 35

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SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –
5.7.3 Alternative methods in cases where insulated hand tools have

completed the production phase .................................................................... 40

5.8 Test of adhesion of exposed conductive parts at the working head of hybrid

hand tools ............................................................................................................. 41

5.8.1 Type test ....................................................................................................... 41

5.8.2 Alternative methods in cases where hybrid hand tools have completed

the production phase ..................................................................................... 41

5.9 Mechanical tests ................................................................................................... 41

5.9.1 Test of adhesion of insulating covers of conductive adjusting or

switching elements ........................................................................................ 41

5.9.2 Insulated hand tools ...................................................................................... 42

5.9.3 Insulating and hybrid hand tools .................................................................... 42

5.9.4 Tweezers ....................................................................................................... 43

5.9.5 Retaining force test for tools capable of being assembled .............................. 43

5.10 Durability of marking ............................................................................................. 46

5.11 Flame retardancy test ........................................................................................... 46

5.11.1 Type test ....................................................................................................... 46

5.11.2 Alternative methods in cases where hand tools have completed the

production phase ........................................................................................... 47

6 Conformity assessment of hand tools having completed the production phase ............... 48

7 Modifications ................................................................................................................. 48

Annex A (informative) Description and examples for insulated, hybrid and insulating

hand tools ............................................................................................................................. 49

Annex B (informative) Mechanical strength of insulating and hybrid hand tools .................... 50

B.1 Context ................................................................................................................. 50

B.2 General ................................................................................................................. 50

B.3 Insulating and hybrid screwdrivers ........................................................................ 50

B.4 Insulating and hybrid spanners and ratchets ......................................................... 51

B.5 Insulating and hybrid T-spanners .......................................................................... 51

B.6 Insulating and hybrid pliers and cable shears ........................................................ 51

Annex C (normative) Suitable for live working; double triangle

(IEC 60417-5216:2002-10) .................................................................................................... 52

Annex D (informative) Recommendation for use and in-service care .................................... 53

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

D.2 Storage ................................................................................................................. 53

D.3 Inspection before use ............................................................................................ 53

D.4 Temperature ......................................................................................................... 53

D.5 Periodic examination and electrical retesting ........................................................ 53

Annex E (normative) General type test procedure ................................................................ 54

Annex F (normative) Examples of calculation of the total linear length of insulation

and acceptable leakage current (see 5.5.3.1.1) ..................................................................... 55

Annex G (normative) Classification of defects and tests to be allocated ............................... 56

Annex H (informative) Rationale for the classification of defects .......................................... 57

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 59

Figure 1 – Marking of the electrical working limit adjacent to the double triangle symbol

(IEC 60417-5216:2002-10) .................................................................................................... 11

Figure 2 – Description of the insulating overlapping element and different assembly

configurations for hand tools capable of being assembled with square drives ....................... 13

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SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
– 4 – IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018

Figure 3 – Marking symbol for hand tools capable of being assembled and designed to

be interchangeable between different manufacturers (IEC 60417-6168:2012-07) .................. 14

Figure 4 – Illustration of insulation of a typical screwdriver ................................................... 15

Figure 5 – Illustration of insulation of typical spanners .......................................................... 16

Figure 6 – Insulated or hybrid adjustable spanner ................................................................. 17

Figure 7 – Illustration of insulation of typical pliers ................................................................ 18

Figure 8 – Insulation of pliers ................................................................................................ 19

Figure 9 – Insulation of multiple slip joint pliers ..................................................................... 19

Figure 10 – Insulation of pliers with a functional area below the joint .................................... 20

Figure 11 – Illustration of insulation of pliers and nippers for electronics ............................... 21

Figure 12 – Insulation of scissors .......................................................................................... 22

Figure 13 – Insulation of knives ............................................................................................ 23

Figure 14 – Example of insulation of the handles of tweezers ............................................... 24

Figure 15 – Example of test arrangement for the impact test – Method A .............................. 26

Figure 16 – Example of test arrangement for the impact test – Method B .............................. 27

Figure 17 – Dielectric testing arrangement for insulated or hybrid hand tools ........................ 30

Figure 18 – Description of dummies for dielectric tests for hand tools capable of being

assembled with square drives ............................................................................................... 31

Figure 19 – Dielectric testing arrangement for insulating hand tools ...................................... 32

Figure 20 – Indentation test .................................................................................................. 34

Figure 21 – Principle of the testing device for checking adhesion of the insulating

coating on conductive parts of the insulated hand tool – Test on the working head –

Method A .............................................................................................................................. 36

Figure 22 – Principle of the testing device for checking adhesion of the insulating

coating on conductive parts of the insulated hand tools – Test on the working head –

Method B .............................................................................................................................. 37

Figure 23 – Testing device for checking adhesion of the insulating coating of insulated

screwdrivers on conductive parts and the handle .................................................................. 38

Figure 24 – Example of mountings for checking stability of adhesion of the insulation

of the entire insulated hand tool ............................................................................................ 40

Figure 25 – Dummies for testing locking systems used with square drives of nominal

size 12,5 mm of ISO 1174 ..................................................................................................... 44

Figure 26 – Dummies for testing locking systems used with square drives of nominal

size 10 mm of ISO 1174 ........................................................................................................ 45

Figure 27 – Example of a flame retardancy test arrangement ................................................ 47

Table 1 – Dimensions and tolerances of the insulating overlapping element ......................... 13

Table 2 – Dimensions and tolerances for dummies to be used for dielectric tests.................. 31

Table B.1 – Torque values for insulating and hybrid screwdrivers ........................................ 50

Table E.1 – Sequential order for performing type tests .......................................................... 54

Table G.1 – Classification of defects and associated requirements and tests ........................ 56

Table H.1 – Justification for the type of defect ...................................................................... 57

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SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
LIVE WORKING – HAND TOOLS FOR USE UP
TO 1 000 V AC AND 1 500 V DC
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60900 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 78: Live

working.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition, published in 2012. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) addition of a third category of tools has been added, namely hybrid hand tools;

b) introduction of a new informative Annex A on examples of insulated, insulating and hybrid

hand tools.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
– 6 – IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
78/1221/FDIS 78/1229/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

Terms defined in Clause 3 are given in italic print throughout this document.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

This document has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of IEC 61477 where

applicable.

The products covered by this document may have an impact on the environment during some

or all stages of its life cycle. These impacts can range from slight to significant, be of short-

term or long-term duration, and occur at the global, regional or local level.

This document does not include requirements and test provisions for the manufacturers of the

products, or recommendations to the users of the products for environmental improvement.

However, all parties intervening in their design, manufacture, packaging, distribution, use,

maintenance, repair, reuse, recovery and disposal are invited to take account of
environmental considerations.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 60900:2018
– 8 – IEC 60900:2018 © IEC 2018
LIVE WORKING – HAND TOOLS FOR USE UP
TO 1 000 V AC AND 1 500 V DC
1 Scope

This document is applicable to insulated, insulating and hybrid hand tools used for working

live or close to live parts at nominal voltages up to 1 000 V AC and 1 500 V DC.

The products designed and manufactured according to this document contribute to the safety

of the users provided they are used by skilled persons, in accordance with safe methods of

work and the instructions for use (where appropriate).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60060-1, High-voltage test techniques – Part 1: General definitions and test requirements

IEC 60212, Standard cond
...

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