General method for assessing the proportion of recycled material content in energy-related products

This European Standard (EN) provides a general methodology for assessing the proportion of recycled material in energy related products.

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Material von energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkten

Dieses Dokument legt ein allgemeines Verfahren für die Bewertung des Anteils von recyceltem Material in einem energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkt fest. Dieses Dokument wird als Rahmenwerk verwendet, um die Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Material in spezifischen Produktgruppen zu definieren. Es ist nicht dafür vorgesehen, öffentlich zur Verfügung stehende Produktinformationen zu erstellen und Produkte, für die keine produktspezifische Norm zur Verfügung steht, auf der Grundlage dieses Dokuments zu vergleichen. Dieses Dokument behandelt keine Aspekte wie Qualität und physikalische Eigenschaften recycelter Materialien. Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für die Bewertung wiederverwendeter Komponenten. ANMERKUNG EN 45556:2019 bietet ein allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an wiederverwendeten Komponenten in ErP.

Méthode générale pour l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés des produits liés à l’énergie

Le présent document fournit une méthode générale pour l’évaluation de la proportion de matière secondaire dans un produit lié à l’énergie, ses pièces ou matériau(x). Le présent document est applicable en tant que cadre à utiliser pour définir l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés dans des groupes spécifiques de produits ; toutefois, en l’absence de normes spécifiques aux produits, il peut être appliqué directement. Le présent document ne s’applique pas à l’évaluation des composants réutilisés. NOTE Les composants réutilisés sont traités dans le prEN 45556:2018.

Splošna metoda za ocenjevanje deleža recikliranega materiala v proizvodih, povezanih z energijo

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 45557:2020
01-julij-2020
Splošna metoda za ocenjevanje deleža recikliranega materiala v proizvodih,
povezanih z energijo

General method for assessing the proportion of recycled material content in energy

related products
Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Materials von
energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Méthode générale pour l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés des produits liés à

l’énergie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 45557:2020
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
SIST EN 45557:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 45557:2020
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 45557
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2020
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General method for assessing the proportion of recycled
material content in energy-related products

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation du contenu en Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an

matériaux recyclés des produits liés à l'énergie recyceltem Material von energieverbrauchsrelevanten

Produkten
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 February 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 45557:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.1.1 Definitions related to materials ................................................................................................................ 5

3.1.2 Other definitions ............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 General assessment procedure.................................................................................................................. 7

5 Description of material composition of ErPs ........................................................................................ 7

5.1 Scope of the assessment ............................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials ............................................................ 8

5.3 Distinction between pre-consumer material and post-consumer material .............................. 8

5.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.2 Pre-consumer material ................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 Post-consumer material ............................................................................................................................. 10

6 Traceability ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

7 Calculation of recycled materials content ........................................................................................... 12

7.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................................... 12

7.2 Verification and mass balance process for parts or ErPs ............................................................... 12

7.3 General method for recycled materials content calculation for parts or ErPs ....................... 14

8 Reporting recycled materials content aspects ................................................................................... 15

8.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.2 Elements of the assessment report ........................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (normative) Additional guidance for materials ............................................................................ 16

Annex B (informative) Example for the calculation of recycled materials content in an ErP ........ 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 24

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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 45557:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 10 “Energy-

related products – Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 to 45559,

have been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are

intended to potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Directive 2009/125/EC concerning

energy-related products (ErP).

Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

aspects:
a) Extending product lifetime;

b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life;

c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products.

These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product-specific, or

product-group, standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees.

This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, and

product, or product-group, standards.

NOTE CEN/CENELEC/JTC 10 is a joint TC, and uses either CEN or CENELEC foreword templates, as

appropriate. The template for the current document is correct at the time of publication.

Attention is drawn to safety and other legislation relevant to ErP. Their purpose is to ensure that all

products intended for or likely to be used by consumers and other users under normal or reasonable

foreseeable conditions are safe.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Introduction

The recycled material content of a new product is a characteristic of the product and its parts, which

contributes to material efficiency, in addition to the potentials of reusability, recyclability and

recoverability.

With a focus on the efficient and effective use of natural resources, primary materials are often able to

be substituted by recycled materials, reducing the demand for primary materials, with related potential

environmental, social and economic implications. These could include reduced mining and consumption

of natural resources, reduced landfill, reduced emissions and energy savings. The overall environmental

impact will depend on the difference in the impacts of making materials from primary sources (oil, ore,

etc.) vs. reprocessing waste into secondary materials which would directly substitute primary

materials.

The benefit of increasing recycled materials content in products is, in many cases, the incentivisation of

recycling of end-of-life (EoL) waste material through the stimulation of demand for recycled materials.

In other cases, where there is already high demand for recycled materials compared to the available

supply, the link between specification of higher recycled materials content and the incentivisation of

recycling is weaker. In that case, specification of recycled materials content may not be relevant to eco-

design. The rationale for specifying recycled materials content, therefore needs to be considered for

each material individually depending on the specific supply/demand situation.

This document facilitates the provision of substantiated claims of the recycled materials content of

energy-related products (ErPs). Key for substantiated claims for new products is the recognition of the

chain of custody (CoC), which allows the tracing of recycled materials from different sources.

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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies a general method for assessing the proportion of recycled material in an

energy-related product. This document is applicable as the framework to be used for defining the

assessment of recycled materials content in specific product groups.

It is not intended to generate publicly available product information and compare products in the

absence of a product standard based on this document.

This document does not cover aspects such as quality and physical properties of recycled materials.

This document does not apply to the assessment of reused components.

NOTE EN 45556:2019 provides a general method for assessing the proportion of reused components in ErPs.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45559, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-related

products
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

NOTE See CLC/TR 45550:- for additional definitions related to material efficiency of ErP.

3.1.1 Definitions related to materials
3.1.1.1
primary material
material made from virgin raw material(s)
3.1.1.2
recycled material
material which is either pre-consumer material or post-consumer material

Note 1 to entry: The terms “recycled material” and “secondary material” have the same meaning in this

document.
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: CLC/prTR 45550:201X.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
3.1.1.3
pre-consumer material

material diverted from the waste generated during a manufacturing process excluding reutilization of

materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and being reincorporated in the same

process that generated it

Note 1 to entry: Same process means the same manufacturing operation for the same type of product in the

same or different physical location.

[SOURCE: ISO 14021:2016, 7.8.1.1, modified by replacement of “stream” by “generated”, addition of

Note 1 to entry and amended according to drafting rules of CEN/CLC Internal Regulations Part 3]

3.1.1.4
post-consumer material

material recovered from waste generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional

facilities in their role as end-users of a finished product

Note 1 to entry: This includes returns of products, or parts thereof, from the distribution of finished products for

end-users.
3.1.2 Other definitions
3.1.2.1
chain of custody

chain of responsibilities for, or control of, products or materials as they move through each step in the

relevant supply chain
3.1.2.2
part
hardware, firmware or software constituent of a product

Note 1 to entry: Firmware and software are not relevant for the purpose of this document.

[SOURCE: EN 45554:2020 definition 3.2]
3.1.2.3
waste

substance or object of any kind, which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
3.2 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations have been used in this document:
CoC chain of custody
EoL end-of-life
ErP energy-related product
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
4 General assessment procedure

Primary materials and recycled materials are often physically or chemically indistinguishable, and there

are currently no reliable, accurate and reproducible methods available for directly measuring the

recycled materials content in a product. For the purpose of this document, the verification of recycled

materials content therefore relies on documented proof for traceability (see Clause 6) provided by the

relevant operator in the CoC. Recycled materials content is expressed as the average ratio of recycled

materials used to the total production output of energy-related products over a specific period of time.

The assessment of recycled materials content requires:
1) description of the scope of the assessment (see 5.1);
2) description of materials composition of a single product (see 5.2 and 5.3);

3) a management system to trace the type of material inputs, for both primary and recycled materials

(see Clause 6);

4) performance of a mass balance calculation, linking recycled materials content of parts/products to

total materials in parts/products produced (see Clause 7).

While Clause 7 elaborates on how to determine the recycled materials content of an ErP or its parts,

Annex A elaborates on how to determine the recycled materials content of a material, as manufacturers

can sometimes be ErP manufacturers, part manufacturers and/or material manufacturers. It is advised

to refer to the respective part of this document.
In Annex A material manufacturers are the main audience addressed.
5 Description of material composition of ErPs
5.1 Scope of the assessment

The users of this document shall define the scope of the assessment and select its appropriate elements

as detailed below. The assessment shall be applied either to
— the ErP, or
— parts of the ErP.

It is possible to perform the assessment of the ErP or parts at different levels for

— all materials, or

— a type of material, e.g. plastic, metal, glass (more details provided in 5.2), or

— individual material, e.g. polypropylene, aluminium, float glass (more details provided in 5.2).

The elements of the scope that are applicable shall be determined by the users of this document and

shall be documented (see 8.2).

The scope of the assessment shall define whether the recycled materials content assessment is done on

the pre-consumer material or the post-consumer material or both.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials

The material declaration is a way to express the composition of the materials contained in a product or

part. To establish a material declaration, each part of the product shall be assessed for the mass of its

constituent materials, according to the scope of assessment (see 5.1). The masses of the respective

material fractions shall be summed up to obtain the material composition of the whole part/product.

In many cases a given material type can represent different grades of the same material that are not

identical but very similar and thus share the majority of physical and chemical properties.

EXAMPLE Steel or polypropylene (PP) are produced in different grades for specific applications. The Society

of Automotive Engineers lists among others different grades of nickel-chromium steels with varying proportion of

nickel and chromium, e.g. 31xx, 32xx, 33xx, 34xx. For polypropylene, the three main grades are homopolymer PP,

random copolymer PP, block copolymer PP.

Various grades of a material type shall be treated as one material to determine the proportion of

recycled materials content of a product. Alloys may require the allocation to a certain material. The

users of this document shall define the applicable material clusters for their respective product group.

It may be necessary to exclude parts from allocation to specific material clusters due to their small size,

complexity of their material composition or for other reasons, e.g. administrative or legal. To keep the

mass balance even, these unspecified parts/materials shall be classified as “other materials” and be

accounted for in the total mass of the product. These “other materials” shall be treated as primary

material. The users of this document may determine limits for materials classified as “other materials” if

applicable.
5.3 Distinction between pre-consumer material and post-consumer material
5.3.1 General

Only pre-consumer materials and post-consumer materials shall count towards recycled materials

content, in accordance with the definition provided in Clause 3, and in line with specific guidelines

provided in Annex A for different material types.

Recycled material content is typically brought into a production process to substitute some primary

material. The recycled material can be pre-consumer or post-consumer material. The point of

substitution is reached when the different properties of the input materials combine into an output

comprised of homogenous material of defined properties.
5.3.2 Pre-consumer material

A material, which is reclaimed and reutilized within the same process that generated it shall not count

towards pre-consumer material. A material which is not reclaimed and reutilized within the same

process that generated it, and which undergoes material preparation, shall count towards pre-

consumer material. This general concept is visualized in Figure 1.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Key
Potential mix of material
Pre-consumer material
Figure 1 — Concept of pre-consumer material
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)

A material, which is recovered within the same process that generated it, as shown in Figure 1, shall not

count as pre-consumer material for recycled materials content. For detailed information on specific

types of materials see Annex A.

EXAMPLE For most materials the recycled material content is fixed in a process where the material is

transformed from a liquid to a solid state. In the case of steel making, the recycled material content is fixed after

melting and casting into a solid slab, bloom, billet or ingot. Scrap originating from the meltshop, such as solidified

steel from steelmaking vessels (skulls) or rejected castings, would be excluded from the calculation of pre-

consumer material, because they can be reclaimed within the same melting process that generated them. This is

regardless of the fact that the scrap may need to be further prepared in order to make it suitable for use in a

production process, such as cutting to size. In the case of plastic injection moulding, rejects from this process

which are reclaimed and reutilized within the same process would not be considered pre-consumer material.

It is also important to describe where process A ends. Being part of the same process A can include

continuous processes (i.e. material or product cannot be diverted to different processing steps until the

end of that process step). At the end of the process A, the output can no longer change its inherent

recycled materials content (i.e. it is frozen/fixed). Material recovered from further processing after

process A could be included as pre-consumer material, because it has to go back to process A.

5.3.3 Post-consumer material

Once products have reached the end of their life, materials obtained from collected waste and treated

waste shall be considered post-consumer materials (see Figure 2). Products may reach the end of their

life shortly after being traded commercially or having left the final manufacturing facility. This might

happen when products are damaged or cannot be sold from their distribution chain (e.g. a new version

of a product replaces the previous one which cannot be sold anymore). Materials can only be

considered post-consumer after they have become part of a finished product for the end-user and are

subsequently discarded.

NOTE In this document, the term “finished product for the end-user” is used to describe a fully assembled

product. The notion of a finished product is used to distinguish product manufacturers from material/part

manufacturers.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Key
Potential mix of materials
Post-consumer material
Figure 2 — Concept of post-consumer material
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)

EXAMPLE Float glass used in the manufacture of a window is considered as post-consumer material if it has

been assembled in an insulation glass unit that had been scrapped. Prior to this moment, it will be considered as

pre-consumer material.
6 Traceability

A traceability system able to track recycled materials from the moment they are identified as recycled

materials to their final application shall be implemented. As a minimum, traceability information for the

recycled materials is needed to calculate the recycled materials content.

Primary and recycled materials are often physically or chemically indistinguishable, and there are

currently no reliable, accurate and reproducible methods available for directly measuring the recycled

materials content in a product. Therefore, the verification of recycled materials content is based

exclusively on documentation.

For the purposes of the assessment, information allowing traceability (CoC) of the recycled materials

content in an ErP shall be gathered, see Annex A.2. The type (pre- or post-consumer) and the quantity of

recycled material shall be documented.

The required level of detail will depend upon the type of material (e.g. glass, plastics, metal, etc.), see

Annex A.5. The type of data and level of detail for this information shall be defined by users of this

document.
7 Calculation of recycled materials content
7.1 General considerations

The ErP manufacturer shall verify and calculate the mass balance as described in 7.2. The calculation

will be limited to the scope of the assessment, see 5.1.

The ErP manufacturer shall collect information, based on the calculations described in Annex A on the

recycled materials content of the supplied materials.

For ErP manufacturers who are also material manufacturers, calculation of the recycled materials

content of materials shall be carried out according to Annex A.
7.2 Verification and mass balance process for parts or ErPs

Calculation and verification of the recycled materials content in parts (according to the scope of the

assessment) or an ErP consists of balancing the mass of production output over a certain period of time

(the accounting period), with the material inputs, corrected for changes in material stock and

conversions during processes:
Output = Input − Change in stock − Internal conversions − Waste (1)
where
Output is the mass of material in parts or the ErP in the accounting period;
Input is the mass of materials/parts coming to the production in the accounting
period;

Change in stock is the change in stock of material in materials/parts in the accounting period;

Internal are the losses in material flows due to production technology (e.g.:
conversions polycondensation) in the accounting period;

Waste is the mass of wasted materials/parts from the production in the accounting

period.
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EN 45557:2020 (E)

Where a process has more than one input, the inputs are allocated to the output based on the average

composition of the inputs over the accounting period (see examples 1 and 2).

EXAMPLE 1 When manufacturing parts made with equal mass of recycled and primary material as inputs

during the accounting period, the output will have 50 % recycled materials content.

EXAMPLE 2 When manufacturing parts made with equal mass of only recycled material on day one and only

primary material on day two as inputs, the output over the two-day accounting period will have 50 % recycled

materials content.

The inputs shall be defined according to the scope of the assessment, see 5.1. Inputs may be a part or a

material e.g. reagent or monomer or constituent.
The input shall be calculated by:
a) identifying the types of materials,
b) quantifying the material composition in terms of mass and

c) summing up the total mass of materials per type of material over the accounting period.

The output is a part or an ErP.
The output shall be calculated by:
1) quantifying the mass of the part or ErP being assessed,

2) establishing the production quantity of the part or ErP being assessed over the accounting period

and

3) summing up total mass of materials being assessed per type for production output over the

accounting period.

Change in stock shall be accounted for by calculating changes in material/part stock between the start

and the end of the accounting period.

Internal conversion accounts for any losses that can be used as materials for application outside the

production system under investigation or losses from chemical reactions, e.g. polycondensation.

An example of a mass-balance calculation is presented in Annex B.

The accounting period will depend on several factors, including the production setup:

• If the production is set up on the basis of mass production the accounting period shall be defined by

the users of this document and not exceed one year. The mass production can cover several

production lines, sites and even product families, provided that they are representative of the parts

or ErP as defined in the scope of the assessment.

• If the production is set up on the basis of made to order or batch production t

...

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