Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of emission - Part 4: Receivers for frequency-modulated sound broadcasting emissions

Applies to radio receives and tuners for the reception of frequency- modulated sound-broadcasting emissions with rated maximum system deviations of ±75 kHz and ±50 kHz in ITU Band 8. Deals mainly with methods of measurement using radiofrequency signals applied to the antenna terminals of the receiver.

Meßverfahren für Funkempfänger für verschiedene Sendearten - Teil 4: Empfänger für frequenzmodulierte Ton-Rundfunksendungen

Méthodes de mesure applicables aux récepteurs radioélectriques pour diverses classes d'émission - Partie 4: Récepteurs pour émissions de radiodiffusion en modulation de fréquence

S'applique aux récepteurs radio et aux syntoniseurs destinés à la réception des émissions de radiodiffusion en modulation de fréquence, ayant des excursions maximales nominales du système de ±75 kHz et de ±50 dans la bande 8 de l'UIT. Traite principalement des méthodes de mesure utilisant des signaux RF appliqués aux bornes d'antenne du récepteur.

Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of emission -- Part 4: Receivers for frequency-modulated sound broadcasting emissions (IEC 60315-4:1997)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
02-Feb-1998
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
03-Feb-1998
Completion Date
03-Feb-1998

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60315-4:1999
01-april-1999

Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of emission -- Part

4: Receivers for frequency-modulated sound broadcasting emissions (IEC 60315-
4:1997)

Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of emission -- Part 4:

Receivers for frequency-modulated sound broadcasting emissions

Meßverfahren für Funkempfänger für verschiedene Sendearten -- Teil 4: Empfänger für

frequenzmodulierte Ton-Rundfunksendungen

Méthodes de mesure applicables aux récepteurs radioélectriques pour diverses classes

d'émission -- Partie 4: Récepteurs pour émissions de radiodiffusion en modulation de

fréquence
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60315-4:1998
ICS:
33.160.20 Radijski sprejemniki Radio receivers
SIST EN 60315-4:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
NORME
CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
60315-4
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
1997-11
Méthodes de mesure applicables aux récepteurs
radioélectriques pour diverses classes d'émission –
Partie 4:
Récepteurs pour émissions de radiodiffusion
en modulation de fréquence
Methods of measurement on radio receivers for
various classes of emission –
Part 4:
Receivers for frequency-modulated
sound broadcasting emissions
 IEC 1997 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photo- including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in

copie et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission 3, rue de Varembé Geneva, Switzerland
Telefax: +41 22 919 0300 e-mail: inmail@iec.ch IEC web site http: //www.iec.ch
CODE PRIX
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
PRICE CODE XB
International Electrotechnical Commission
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 3 –
CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD ................................................................................................................... 9

Clause

1 General..................................................................................................................... 13

1.1 Scope.............................................................................................................. 13

1.2 Normative references....................................................................................... 13

1.3 Definitions....................................................................................................... 15

1.4 Standard measuring conditions ........................................................................ 17

1.5 General notes on measurements...................................................................... 27

2 Sensitivity and internal noise..................................................................................... 33

2.1 Explanation of terms ........................................................................................ 33

2.2 Signal-to-noise ratio (weighted and unweighted) and SINAD ............................. 33

2.3 Noise-limited sensitivity.................................................................................... 35

2.4 Gain-limited sensitivity..................................................................................... 37

2.5 Usable sensitivity............................................................................................. 37

2.6 Deviation sensitivity......................................................................................... 39

2.7 Input-output characteristics.............................................................................. 39

3 Rejection of unwanted signals................................................................................... 41

3.1 Capture ratio.................................................................................................... 41

3.2 Selectivity and nearby channel rejection (two-signal) ........................................ 43

3.3 Rejection of intermediate and image frequencies, and spurious responses ....... 47

3.4 Suppression of amplitude modulation ............................................................... 53

3.5 Rejection of r.f. signal intermodulation products ............................................... 55

3.6 Tuning and automatic frequency control (AFC) characteristics .......................... 63

4 Interference due to internal sources .......................................................................... 65

4.1 Single-signal whistles....................................................................................... 65

4.2 Modulation hum (interference at power supply frequency)................................. 65

4.3 Unwanted self-oscillations................................................................................ 67

4.4 Acoustic feedback............................................................................................ 69

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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 5 –
Page

5 Overall audio-frequency characteristics..................................................................... 69

5.1 Fidelity............................................................................................................. 69

5.2 Harmonic distortion.......................................................................................... 71

5.3 Intermodulation distortion................................................................................. 79

5.4 Inter-channel characteristics............................................................................ 81

5.5 Characteristics of the volume control................................................................ 83

5.6 Residual output................................................................................................ 85

5.7 Crosstalk attenuation....................................................................................... 85

5.8 Overall audio-frequency response .................................................................... 87

6 Effect of additional modulations of the input signal .................................................... 89

6.1 Rejection of signals in the ranges 16 kHz to 22 kHz and 54 kHz to 99 kHz........ 89

6.2 Rejection of signals in the range 62 kHz to 73 kHz (SCA rejection) ................... 89

6.3 Measurement of interference caused by RDS signals ....................................... 89

6.4 Suppression of the fundamental, harmonics and sidebands of the subcarrier

and the pilot-tone signal ................................................................................... 91

6.5 Suppression of interference due to adjacent channel signals with a

stereophonic receiver using the pilot-tone system............................................. 93

7 Sensitivity, antenna gain and directional response of receivers using rod, telescopic

or built-in antennas ................................................................................................... 93

7.1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 93

7.2 Method of measurement of sensitivity and antenna gain for a receiver using
a rod or telescopic antenna by the absorbing clamp described in CISPR 16-1... 93

8 Characteristics whose methods of measurement are specified in IEC 60315-1 .......... 95

8.1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 95

8.2 List of characteristics and cross-references...................................................... 95

Figures

1 Frequency response limits of band-pass filter 200 Hz to 15 kHz ................................ 97

2 Frequency response limits of band-pass filter 22,4 Hz to 15 kHz ............................... 99

3 Frequency response limits of band-pass filter 200 Hz to 1,5 kHz ............................... 99

4 Frequency response limits of the 1 kHz band-elimination filter................................... 101

5 Weighting filter for converting white noise into special coloured noise for

selectivity measurements.......................................................................................... 101

6 Arrangement for various measurements with two r.f. input signals ............................. 103

7 Antenna substitution networks for injecting one or two signals, for 50 Ω signal

generators and 75 Ω unbalanced and 300 Ω balanced receiver inputs ....................... 105

8 Arrangement for various measurements with one r.f. input signal .............................. 107

9 Signal-to-noise ratio.................................................................................................. 109

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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 7 –
Page

10 Noise-limited sensitivity as a function of signal frequency.......................................... 109

11 Gain-limited sensitivity as a function of signal frequency ........................................... 111

12 Output/input characteristics and noise output curves showing terms defined in 1.3 .... 113

13 Capture ratio ............................................................................................................ 115

14 Selectivity curves...................................................................................................... 117

15 Image and intermediate frequency rejection ratios..................................................... 119

16 Spurious responses at a tuning frequency of 94 MHz (single signal method).............. 121

17 Arrangement for measuring rejection of unwanted signals simulating cable reception,

using sinusoidal modulation ...................................................................................... 123

18 Arrangement for various measurements using three r.f. input signals ........................ 125

19 Tuning characteristics............................................................................................... 127

20 Tuning characteristics obtained by measuring the local oscillator frequency .............. 127

21 Measurement of acoustic feedback ........................................................................... 129

22 Arrangement for measuring fidelity............................................................................ 129

23 Overall total harmonic distortion as a function of a.f. output power ............................ 131

24 Distortion-limited output power as a function of modulation frequency ....................... 131

25 Total harmonic distortion as a function of r.f. input signal level .................................. 133

26 Total harmonic distortion as a function of the deviation ............................................. 133

27 Variation of distortion with detuning........................................................................... 135

28 Total harmonic distortion as a function of the a.f. modulation frequency .................... 135

29 Cross-intermodulation between the channels of a stereo receiver (pilot-tone system) ... 137

A.1 Example of a passive 1 kHz band-elimination filter capable of meeting the limits

shown in figure 4 ...................................................................................................... 139

D.1 Arrangement for r.f. signal injection into the antenna with an absorbing clamp........... 147

D.2 Correction curves for the insertion loss of the absorbing clamp ................................. 147

Annexes

A Example of a 1 kHz band-elimination filter................................................................. 139

B Standard deviations for supplementary services........................................................ 141

C Measurement of crosstalk between stereo channels.................................................. 143

D Characteristics of rod and telescopic antennas (under consideration) ............................. 145

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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 9 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_________
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT ON RADIO RECEIVERS FOR
VARIOUS CLASSES OF EMISSION –
Part 4: Receivers for frequency-modulated
sound broadcasting emissions
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60315-4 has been prepared by IEC subcommittee 100A: Multimedia

end-user equipment, of IEC technical committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia systems and

equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1982 and constitutes a

technical revision.
This part of IEC 60315 shall be read in conjunction with IEC 60315-1.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
100A/58/FDIS 100A/60/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
Annexes A, B, C and D are for information only.
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 11 –

IEC 60315 consists of the following parts under the general title: Methods of measurement on

radio receivers for various classes of emission:

– Part 1: 1988, General considerations and methods of measurement, including audio-

frequency measurements
– Part 3: 1989, Receivers for amplitude – modulated sound broadcasting emissions
– Part 4: 1997, Receivers for frequency – modulated sound broadcasting emissions

– Part 5: 1971, Specialized radio-frequency measurements – Measurement on frequency-

modulated receivers of the response to impulsive interference
– Part 6: 1991, General purpose communication receivers

– Part 7: 1995, Methods of measurement on digital satellite radio (DSR) receivers

– Part 8: 1975, Radio-frequency measurements on professional receivers for frequency-

modulated telegraphy systems

– Part 9: 1996, Measurement of the characteristics relevant to radio data system (RDS)

reception
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 13 –
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT ON RADIO RECEIVERS FOR
VARIOUS CLASSES OF EMISSION –
Part 4: Receivers for frequency-modulated
sound broadcasting emissions
1 General
1.1 Scope

This part of IEC 60315 applies to radio receivers and tuners for the reception of frequency-

modulated sound-broadcasting emissions with rated maximum system deviations of ±75 kHz

and ±50 kHz in ITU Band 8. It deals mainly with methods of measurement using radio-

frequency signals applied to the antenna terminals of the receiver. The measurements and

specified conditions of test are selected to permit the comparison of results obtained by

different observers and on other receivers. Performance requirements are not specified in

this standard.

Radiation and immunity tests and requirements are not included since these are described in

CISPR 13 and CISPR 20.
1.2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this part of IEC 60315. At the time of publication, the editions indicated

were valid. All normative documents are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based

on this part of IEC 60315 are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most

recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.
IEC 60098: 1987, Analogue audio disk records and reproducing equipment
IEC 60268-1: 1985, Sound system equipment – Part 1: General
IEC 60268-3: 1988, Sound system equipment – Part 3: Amplifiers

IEC 60315-1: 1988, Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of

emission – Part 1: General considerations and methods of measurement, including audio-

frequency measurements

IEC 60315-3: 1989, Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of

emission – Part 3: Receiver for amplitude-modulated sound-broadcasting emissions

IEC 60315-7: 1995, Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various classes of

emission – Part 7: Methods of measurement on digital satellite radio (DSR) receivers

IEC 60315-9: 1996, Methods of measurement on radio receivers for various class of emission –

Part 9: Measurement of the characteristics relevant to Radio Data System (RDS) reception

IEC 60651: 1979, Sound level meters

IEC 61260: 1995, Electroacoustics – Octave-band and fractional-octave-band filters

CISPR 16-1: 1993, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 15 –

CISPR 20: 1996, Limits and methods of measurement of immunity characteristics of sound and

television broadcast receivers and associated equipment
ITU-R Recommendation 468-4: 1990: Measurement of audio-frequency

ITU-R Recommendation 559-2: 1990: Objective measurement of radio-frequency protection

ratios in LF, MF and HF broadcasting
1.3 Definitions
For the purposes of this part of IEC 60315, the following definitions apply.
1.3.1
carrier frequency

the mean value of the instantaneous frequency or the frequency generated in the absence of

modulation. With a perfect modulation system in which no d.c. component and no non-linear

distortion are involved, the two values are the same
1.3.2
instantaneous frequency deviation

the difference between the instantaneous frequency of the modulated radio-frequency signal

and the carrier frequency
1.3.3
peak frequency deviation
the peak value of the instantaneous frequency deviation
1.3.4
peak-to-peak deviation
twice the peak frequency deviation

NOTE 1 – To avoid confusion between "peak frequency deviation" and "peak-to-peak frequency deviation", peak-to-

peak deviation is expressed as, for example, ± 50 kHz.

NOTE 2 – "Peak-to-peak frequency deviation" is generally abbreviated to "deviation" in this standard.

1.3.5
rated maximum system deviation

the maximum peak-to-peak frequency deviation (see 1.3.4) specified for the system under

consideration
1.3.6
modulation factor

the ratio of the peak-to-peak deviation of the signal to the rated maximum system deviation,

usually expressed as a percentage

NOTE – This definition arises by direct analogy with the case of amplitude modulation.

1.3.7
–3 dB limiting level

the input signal level at which the audio-frequency output voltage level is 3 dB below the value

at a specified high r.f. input signal level, preferably 80 dB(fW)
1.3.8
amplification reserve

the attenuation in decibels of the volume control when adjusted to produce rated (distortion-limited)

output voltage or power, with a specified high r.f. input signal level, preferably 80 dB(fW)

NOTE – This characteristic is undefined for a receiver or tuner without a volume control.

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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 17 –
1.3.9
deviation sensitivity

the value of deviation required to produce rated (distortion-limited) output voltage or power

with the volume control set at maximum and a specified high r.f. input signal level, preferably

80 dB(fW)
1.3.10
ultimate signal-to-noise ratio

the value of signal-to-noise ratio for r.f. input signal levels sufficiently high that no further

increase in signal-to-noise ratio occurs when the input signal level is increased

1.3.11
stereo threshold
the r.f. input signal level at which the stereo decoder begins to operate

NOTE – A marked decrease in signal-to-noise ratio is usual at this signal level unless signal-strength dependent

cross-talk circuits are included.
1.3.12
stereo indicator threshold

the input signal level at which the visual indicator shows that the receiver is operating in the

stereo mode
NOTE – This level may or may not be identical to the stereo threshold.
1.3.13
muting threshold

the input signal level at which the muting circuits allow the a.f. output signal to appear at the

output terminals

NOTE – The threshold may be different for increasing and decreasing signal levels. This hysteresis is usually

intentional as it prevents unsatisfactory operation with r.f. input signals at or near the threshold level.

1.3.14
muting attenuation

the reduction in a.f. output, selectively measured at 1 kHz, due to an input signal modulated

at 1 kHz at rated maximum system deviation, when muting occurs
1.3.15
50 dB quieting sensitivity

the r.f. input signal level at which an increase in a.f. output of 50 dB occurs under defined

conditions (see 2.3) when the modulation is changed from none (except the pilot-tone if the

measurement is to be made in stereo mode) to the standard value of deviation (see 1.4.2.1)

1.4 Standard measuring conditions
1.4.1 Measurements at audio-frequency output terminals
1.4.1.1 Standard audio-frequency output level

Standard audio-frequency output level is the reference output level for audio-frequency

measurements and shall be 10 dB below the rated output voltage or power. Alternatively, a

stated value of output voltage or power selected from 500 mV, 1 W, 500 mW, 50 mW, 5 mW

or 1 mW may be used (see IEC 60315-1).
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 19 –
1.4.1.2 Audio-frequency substitute load

The audio-frequency substitute load is a stated physical (usually resistive) impedance for

terminating audio-output terminals, (see IEC 60315-1).
1.4.1.3 Audio-frequency filters

When making measurements at audio-frequency output terminals, unless it is specifically

intended to measure low audio-frequency and ultrasonic components in the output voltage, it is

desirable to interpose a band-pass filter between the output terminals and the measuring

instrument. To allow the use of practicable impedances in this filter the substitute load shall be

connected directly to the audio-frequency output terminals. If the filter has significant insertion

loss this shall be allowed for when determining the results.

It is advisable to use the same filter for both monophonic and stereophonic receivers. This filter

prevents errors due to the presence of pilot-tone or subcarrier components in the receiver

output. The pass-band of this filter shall be 200 Hz to 15 kHz, for which frequencies the

attenuation relative to that at 1 kHz shall not exceed 3 dB. Below 200 Hz the attenuation slope

shall tend to at least 18 dB/octave. At 19 kHz the attenuation shall be at least 50 dB, and above

19 kHz it shall be at least 30 dB (see figure 1). This filter usually prevents the results of

measurements from being affected by hum.

Filters for octave and third-octave band measurements shall comply with the requirements

of IEC 61260.

Table 1 lists the audio-frequency filters which are used in measurements in this standard.

Table 1 – Audio-frequency filters
Type of filter Figure Reference Notes
200 Hz – 15 kHz band-pass 1 1.4.1.3 With 19 kHz notch
22,4 Hz – 15 kHz band-pass 2 2.2.1 With 19 kHz notch
200 Hz – 1,5 kHz band-pass 3 Figure 8 With 19 kHz notch
15 kHz low-pass None 1.4.2.3 60 dB/octave attenuation slope
1 kHz band-stop 4 Figure 8 See also annex A
1 kHz band-pass None Figure 6 / -octave: IEC 61260
A-weighting None Figure 8 See IEC 60651
Weighting filter for measurement Annex A of 2.2.1 Consistent with ITU-R
of noise IEC 60315-1 Recommendation 468-4
Weighting filter for coloured noise 5 1.4.2.3 Consistent with ITU-R
Recommendation 559-2
1.4.2 Radio-frequency signal(s)
1.4.2.1 Standard value of deviation

The standard value of deviation for measurements shall be the rated maximum system

deviation (RMSD) given in table 2. The deviation shall be stated with the results.

Measurements at lower deviations are useful in some cases: where these are carried out the

deviation used shall be stated with the results.
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4 © IEC:1997 – 21 –
Table 2 – Standard values of deviation
Mode/signal RMSD ±50 kHz RMSD ±75 kHz
Mono ±50 kHz ±75 kHz
Stereo ±45 kHz ±67,5 kHz
Pilot-tone ±4,5 kHz ±6,75 kHz

NOTE 1 – Where a single value for deviation is stated in the text, it applies to a system with RMSD = ±75 kHz.

For a system with RMSD = ±50 kHz, the stated value is reduced in proportion. In some cases, the value

for RMSD = ±50 kHz is given in parentheses: for example, (±50 kHz).

NOTE 2 – The deviations for supplementary services (such as SCA, RDS and ARI), which may vary in

different ITU regions or countries, are given in annex B.
1.4.2.2 Standard modulating frequency

The standard modulating frequency shall be the standard reference frequency (1 000 Hz).

When required, other frequencies may be chosen, if possible, from the one-third octave band

centre frequencies given in table I of IEC 60315-1.
1.4.2.3 Standard modulation using coloured noise

The noise weighting is chosen so that the spectrum of the noise resembles that of modern

(western European) dance music, which is a particularly critical form of modulation in the case

of adjacent channel interference.

The noise signal is obtained from a Gaussian white noise generator by passing the signal

through a weighting filter as specified in figure 5, followed by a low-pass filter with a cut-off

frequency of 15 kHz and a slope of 60 dB/octave, and then through a pre-emphasis network

(50 μs or 75 μs as appropriate).

The audio-frequency amplitude versus frequency characteristic of the modulation stage of the

signal generator should not vary by more than 2 dB up to the cut-off frequency of the low-pass

filter.

The accuracy of the measurement depends very much on the precision with which the

frequency deviation of the signal generators can be set; this is especially true for the unwanted

transmitter. The line-up procedure therefore should be carried out very carefully.

The deviation of the signal shall be adjusted by means of the arrangement shown in figure 6.

The meter V shall be a quasi-peak voltmeter (see annex A of IEC 60315-1). To obtain

the required deviation conditions, the switch S is placed in position 1 and the modulation

at 500 Hz from the audio-frequency generator adjusted to ±32 kHz (±21,3 kHz) deviation. The

meter reading is noted. The switch S is then placed in position 2 and the noise modulation

adjusted to give the same reading on the quasi-peak meter.

NOTE – The deviation with 500 Hz modulation should be checked with a deviation meter unless the deviation

meter, if any, included in the signal generator is known to be accurate.
1.4.2.4 Standard modulating signal

This is the base-band signal with standard modulating frequency (see 1.4.2.2) and standard

value of deviation (see 1.4.2.1). In case of stereophonic mode measurements, a pilot tone

signal with the standard deviation shall be included.
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SIST EN 60315-4:1999
60315-4
...

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