Mineral insulating oils - Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low temperatures

Specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic viscosity of mineral insulating oils, both transparent and opaque, at very low temperatures, after a cold soaking period of at least 20 h, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity throught a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. Applies at all temperatures to both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids having viscosities of up to 20 000 mm2/s.

Isolieröle auf Mineralölbasis - Bestimmung der kinematischen Viskosität bei sehr niedrigen Temperaturen

Huiles minérales isolantes - Détermination de la viscosité cinématique à très basse température

Spécifie un mode opératoire pour la détermination de la viscosité cinématique des huiles minérales isolantes, transparentes ou opaques, à très basse température, après une période de repos d'au moins 20 h, en mesurant le temps nécessaire à un volume de liquide pour qu'il s'écoule par gravité à travers un viscosimètre à capillaire en verre étalonné. S'applique à toutes les températures aux liquides newtoniens ou non-newtoniens ayant une viscosité inférieure ou égale à 20 000 mm2/s.

Mineral insulating oils. - Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low temperatures (IEC 61868:1998)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jan-1999
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
22-Jan-1999
Completion Date
22-Jan-1999

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61868:1999
01-december-1999
Mineral insulating oils. - Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low
temperatures (IEC 61868:1998)

Mineral insulating oils - Determination of kinematic viscosity at very low temperatures

Isolieröle auf Mineralölbasis - Bestimmung der kinematischen Viskosität bei sehr
niedrigen Temperaturen

Huiles minérales isolantes - Détermination de la viscosité cinématique à très basse

température
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61868:1999
ICS:
29.040.10 Izolacijska olja Insulating oils
SIST EN 61868:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 61868:1999
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SIST EN 61868:1999
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SIST EN 61868:1999
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SIST EN 61868:1999
NORME
CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
61868
INTERNATIONAL
Première édition
STANDARD
First edition
1998-11
Huiles minérales isolantes –
Détermination de la viscosité cinématique
à très basse température
Mineral insulating oils –
Determination of kinematic viscosity
at very low temperatures
 IEC 1998 Droits de reproduction réservés  Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photo- including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in

copie et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. writing from the publisher.

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CODE PRIX
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
PRICE CODE L
International Electrotechnical Commission
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
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SIST EN 61868:1999
61868  IEC:1998 – 3 –
CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD .......................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................7

Clause

1 Scope..............................................................................................................................9

2 Normative references.......................................................................................................9

3 Definitions........................................................................................................................9

4 Principle.........................................................................................................................11

5 Apparatus......................................................................................................................11

6 Calibration.....................................................................................................................13

7 Procedure......................................................................................................................15

8 Expression of results...................................................................................................... 17

Figure 1 – Viscometer bath and accessoires ......................................................................... 21

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SIST EN 61868:1999
61868  IEC:1998 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
MINERAL INSULATING OILS –
DETERMINATION OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61868 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 10: Fluids for

electrotechnical applications.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
10/443/FDIS 10/452/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
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SIST EN 61868:1999
61868  IEC:1998 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Non-Newtonian behaviour and significant increases in viscosity at very low temperatures have

been observed in some mineral insulating oils as a result of microcrystalline growth, with a

potential risk of failure for electrical equipment re-energized under very cold weather

conditions.

Microcrystalline formation is a slow process, which can take relatively long periods of low-

temperature soaking to show its full effects, and which can also be destroyed by inducing

movement in the oil, possibly as a result of heat producing friction or shear forces.

This standard presents the adaptations to be made to ISO 3104 to take into account these

effects and to allow the measurement of kinematic viscosity at very low temperatures, without

subjecting the oil sample to warming or undue movement during measurement, and with the

application of a soaking period, in order to adequately simulate the flow of oil in electrical

equipment, for example in the small cooling passages and timing mechanisms of transformers.

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SIST EN 61868:1999
61868  IEC:1998 – 9 –
MINERAL INSULATING OILS –
DETERMINATION OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the kinematic

viscosity of mineral insulating oils, both transparent and opaque, at very low temperatures,

after a cold soaking period of at least 20 h, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow

under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer.

It is applicable at all temperatures to both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids having

2 –1

viscosities of up to 20 000 mm × s . It is particularly suitable for the measurement of the

kinematic viscosity of liquids for use in cold climates, at very low temperatures (–40 °C) or at

temperatures between the cloud and pour-point temperatures (typically –20 °C) where some

liquids may develop unexpectedly high viscosities under cold soak conditions.
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,

constitute provisions of this International Standard. At the time of publication, the editions

indicated were valid. All normative documents are subject to revision, and parties to

agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility

of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. Members of

IEC and ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 3104:1994, Petroleum products – Transparent and opaque liquids – Determination of

kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3105:1994, Glass capillary kinematic viscometers – Specification and operating

instructions
3 Definitions
For the purpose of this International Standard, the following definitions apply:
3.1
kinematic viscosity

the ratio between the viscosity and the density of the liquid. It is a measure of the resistance to

flow of a liquid under gravity
2 –1

NOTE – In the SI, the unit of kinematic viscosity is the square metre per second (m × s ).

3.2
newtonian liquid

a liquid having a viscosity that is independent of the shear stress or shear rate. If the ratio of

shear stress to shear rate is not constant, the liquid is non-Newtonian
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SIST EN 61868:1999
61868  IEC:1998 – 11 –
4 Principle

The time is measured, in seconds, for a fixed volume of liquid to flow under gravity through the

capillary of a calibrated viscometer under a reproducible driving head and at a closely

controlled temperature. The kinematic viscosity is the product of the measured flow time and

the calibration constant of the viscometer derived by direct calibration with a certified reference

oil according to ISO 3104.
5 Apparatus
5.1 Viscometers

Viscometers of the glass capillary type, calibrated and capable of measuring kinematic

viscosity within the limits of precision given in 8.2, are acceptable (see note 1). The visco-

meters listed in ISO 3105 meet these requirements (see note 2). Use only calibrated

viscometers with constants measured and expressed to the nearest 0,1 % of their respective

values. It is not intended to restrict this standard either to the use of only those viscometers or

to the use of U tube viscometers; however, glass capillary viscometers of the Cannon Fenske

2 –2 2 –2

Routine type (series 500 and 600), with constants between 8 mm × s and 20 mm × s ,

have been found particularly suitable at very low temperatures.

NOTE 1 – Procedures for the calibration of viscometers are given in ISO Standard 3105.

NOTE 2 – The calibration constant C is dependent upon the gravitational acceleration at the place of calibration and

this shall, therefore, be supplied by the calibration laboratory together with the instrument constant. Where the

acceleration of gravity g in the two locations differs by more than 0,1 %, correct the calibration constant as follows:

C=× C
2 1

where the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate respectively the calibration laboratory and the testing laboratory.

5.2 Viscometer holders

The holder shall allow the viscometer to be suspended in a position similar to that adopted for

calibration. The proper alignment of a vertical datum part may be confirmed by using a plumb

line.
5.3 Viscometer bath and accessories

A suitable set-up, placed in a freezer tank, is described in figure 1. Any transparent liquid bath

may be used provided that it is of sufficient depth that at no time during the measurement will

any portion of the sampl
...

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