Environmental testing - Part 2-54: Tests - Test Ta: Solderability testing of electronic components by the wetting balance method

Outlines Test Ta, solder bath wetting balance method applicable for any shape of component terminations to determine the solderability. It is especially suitable for reference testing and for components that cannot be quantitatively tested by other methods. For surface mounting devices (SMD), IEC 60068-2-69 should be applied if it is suitable. It provides the standard procedures for solder alloys containing lead (Pb) and for lead-free solder alloys.

Umweltprüfungen - Teil 2-54: Prüfungen - Prüfung Ta: Prüfung der Lötbarkeit elektronischer Bauelemente mit der Benetzungswaage

Essais d'environnement - Partie 2-54: Essais - Essai Ta: Essai de brasabilité des composants électroniques par la méthode de la balance de mouillage

La CEI 60068-2-54:2006 décrit l'essai Ta qui consiste en la méthode de la balance de mouillage de bain de soudure applicable qui permet de déterminer la soudabilité des terminaisons de composants de toute forme. Elle est particulièrement adaptée aux essais de référence et aux composants qui ne peuvent pas être soumis à essai quantitativement par d'autres méthodes. Pour des dispositifs de montage en surface (SMD), il convient d'appliquer la CEI 60068-2-69 si cela est approprié. La présente norme fournit les procédures normalisées pour les alliages à braser contenant du plomb (Pb) et pour les alliages à braser sans plomb. Cette seconde édition annule et remplace la première édition publiée en 1985 et constitue une révision technique. Les principales modifications techniques apportées par rapport à l'édition précédente concernent: - l'addition de l'alliage à braser sans plomb (voir l'Article 7, Matériaux); - l'inversion des courbes force-temps pour se conformer à la CEI 60068-2-69 (voir la Figure 2 et la Figure B.1); - la modification de l'exigence d'essai pour la progression du mouillage (voir l'Article 9).

Okoljski preskusi - 2-54. del: Preskusi - Preskus Ta: Preskušanje spajkljivosti elektronskih komponent z metodo za določanje omočljivosti (IEC 60068-2-54:2006)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
06-Aug-2006
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
07-Aug-2006
Completion Date
07-Aug-2006

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---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60068-2-54
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2006
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 19.040; 31.020 Supersedes HD 323.2.54 S1:1987
English version
Environmental testing
Part 2-54: Tests -
Test Ta: Solderability testing of electronic components
by the wetting balance method
(IEC 60068-2-54:2006)
Essais d'environnement Umweltprüfungen
Partie 2-54 : Essais - Teil 2-54: Prüfungen -
Essai Ta : Essai de brasabilité des Prüfung Ta: Prüfung der Lötbarkeit
composants électroniques par elektronischer Bauelemente
la méthode de la balance de mouillage mit der Benetzungswaage
(CEI 60068-2-54:2006) (IEC 60068-2-54:2006)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2006-07-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2006 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60068-2-54:2006 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60068-2-54:2006 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 91/576/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60068-2-54, prepared by IEC TC 91,

Electronics assembly technology, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by

CENELEC as EN 60068-2-54 on 2006-07-01.
This European Standard supersedes HD 323.2.54 S1:1987.
The major technical changes with regard to HD 323.2.54 S1:1987 concern:
– the addition of lead free solder alloy (see Clause 7, Materials);

– reversal of force-time curves to align with EN 60068-2-69 (see Figure 2 and Figure B.1);

– modification to the test requirement for progress of wetting (see Clause 9).
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2007-04-01
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
(dow) 2009-07-01
with the EN have to be withdrawn
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60068-2-54:2006 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60068-2-44 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-44:1995 (not modified).
IEC 60068-2-58 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-58:2004 (not modified).
IEC 60068-2-69 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-69:1996 (not modified).
IEC 61190-1-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61190-1-1:2002 (not modified).
IEC 61190-1-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61190-1-3:2002 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 60068-2-54:2006
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60068-1 1988 Environmental testing EN 60068-1 1994
Part 1: General and guidance
2)
IEC 60068-2-20 1979 Environmental testing HD 323.2.20 S3 1988
Part 2: Tests - Test T: Soldering
3) 4)
IEC 61190-1-3 - Attachment materials for electronic assembly EN 61190-1-3 2002
Part 1-3: Requirements for electronic grade
solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid
solders for electronic soldering applications
EN 60068-1 includes corrigendum October 1988 + A1:1992 to IEC 60068.
HD 323.2.20 S3 includes A2:1987 to IEC 60068-2-20.
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL IEC
STANDARD 60068-2-54
Second edition
2006-04
Environmental testing –
Part 2-54:
Tests – Test Ta: Solderability testing of
electronic components by the wetting
balance method
 IEC 2006  Copyright - all rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or

mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale R
International Electrotechnical Commission
МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 2 – 60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E)
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references........................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................5

4 General description of the test ..........................................................................................5

5 Description of the test apparatus.......................................................................................6

5.1 Test system.............................................................................................................6

5.2 Solder bath..............................................................................................................6

6 Preconditioning.................................................................................................................6

6.1 Preparation of specimens ........................................................................................6

6.2 Ageing.....................................................................................................................6

7 Materials ..........................................................................................................................7

7.1 Solder .....................................................................................................................7

7.2 Flux.........................................................................................................................7

8 Procedure.........................................................................................................................7

8.1 Test temperature .....................................................................................................7

8.2 Fluxing ....................................................................................................................7

8.3 Flux drying...............................................................................................................8

8.4 Test.........................................................................................................................8

9 Presentation of results ......................................................................................................8

9.1 Form of chart-recorder trace ....................................................................................8

9.2 Points of significance...............................................................................................9

9.3 Reference wetting force ...........................................................................................9

9.4 Test requirements..................................................................................................10

10 Information to be given in the relevant specification.........................................................10

Annex A (normative) Equipment specification .......................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Guide to the use of the wetting balance for solderability testing ..........12

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................18

Figure 1 – Test arrangement ...................................................................................................6

Figure 2 – Wetting conditions ..................................................................................................9

Figure B.1 – Representative force-time curves ......................................................................15

Table 1 – Time sequence of the test........................................................................................8

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E) – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-54: Tests – Test Ta: Solderability testing
of electronic components by the wetting balance method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60068-2-54 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91:

Electronics assembly technology.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1985 and constitutes a

technical revision.
The major technical changes with regard to the previous edition concern:
– the addition of lead free solder alloy (see Clause 7, Materials);

– reversal of force-time curves to align with IEC 60068-2-69 (see Figure 2 and Figure B.1);

– modification to the test requirement for progress of wetting (see Clause 9).
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 4 – 60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E)
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
91/576/FDIS 91/587/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IEC 60068 consists of the following parts, under the general title Environmental testing:

Part 1: General and guidance
Part 2: Tests
Part 3: Supporting documentation and guidance
Part 4: Information for specification writers - Test summaries
Part 5: Guide to drafting of test methods

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E) – 5 –
ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING –
Part 2-54: Tests – Test Ta: Solderability testing
of electronic components by the wetting balance method
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60068 outlines Test Ta, solder bath wetting balance method applicable for any

shape of component terminations to determine the solderability. It is especially suitable for

reference testing and for components that cannot be quantitatively tested by other methods.

For surface mounting devices (SMD), IEC 60068-2-69 should be applied if it is suitable.

This standard provides the standard procedures for solder alloys containing lead (Pb) and for

lead-free solder alloys.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1:1988, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance
IEC 60068-2-20:1979, Environmental testing – Part 2: Tests – Test T: Soldering

IEC 61190-1-3, Attachment materials for electronic assembly – Part 1-3: Requirements for

electronic grade solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid solders for electronic soldering

applications
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions, as defined in IEC 60068-1 and

IEC 60068-2-20, apply.
4 General description of the test

The specimen is suspended from a sensitive balance (typically a spring system) and immersed

edgewise to a set depth in a bath of molten solder at a controlled temperature. The resultant of

the vertical forces of buoyancy and surface tension acting upon the immersed specimen is

detected by a transducer and converted into a signal which is continuously recorded as a

function of time on a high-speed chart recorder. The trace may be compared with that derived

from a perfectly wetted specimen of the same nature and dimensions.
Two modes of testing exist:

– The stationary mode, intended to study the solderability of a particular place on the

specimen. It is this mode which is standardized in this standard.

– The scanning mode, intended to study the homogeneity of the solderability of an extended

region of the surface of the specimen. The standardization of this mode is still under

consideration.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 6 – 60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E)
5 Description of the test apparatus
5.1 Test system
A diagram of an arrangement suitable for the test is shown in Figure 1.
Balance and Signal Computer or
transducer conditioner chart recorder
Specimen
Solder bath
Bath lifting Control
mechanism box
IEC 477/06
Figure 1 – Test arrangement

Any other system capable of measuring the vertical forces acting on the specimen is

admissible, provided that the system has the characteristics given in Annex A.
5.2 Solder bath

The solder bath dimensions shall comply with the requirements of Clause A.7. The material of

the solder bath container shall be resistant to the relevant liquid solder alloy.

6 Preconditioning
6.1 Preparation of specimens

The specimen shall be tested in the “as-received“ condition unless otherwise specified by the

relevant specification. Care should be taken that no contamination, by contact with the fingers

or by other means, occurs.

The specimen may be cleaned by immersion in a neutral organic solvent at room temperature,

but only if required by the relevant specification; no other cleaning is permitted.

6.2 Ageing

When accelerated ageing is prescribed by the relevant specification, one of the methods of 4.5

of IEC 60068-2-20 shall be used.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E) – 7 –
7 Materials
7.1 Solder
7.1.1 General
Solder composition shall be specified in the relevant specification.
7.1.2 Solder alloy containing lead

The solder composition shall be either 60 % by mass (wt %) Sn(tin) and 40 wt % Pb(lead)

according to Appendix B of IEC 60068-2-20 (Sn60Pb40A, according to IEC 61190-1-3) or

63 wt % Sn (tin) and 37 wt % Pb(lead) (Sn63Pb37A, according to IEC 61190-1-3).
7.1.3 Lead-free solder alloy

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant specification, the solder composition shall be either

3,0 wt % Ag(silver), 0,5 wt % Cu(copper) and the remainder of Sn(tin), Sn96,5Ag3,0Cu0,5, or

0,7 wt % Cu(copper) and the remainder of Sn(tin), Sn99,3Cu0,7, is preferred.

NOTE The solder alloys consist of 3,0 wt % to 4,0 wt % Ag, 0,5 wt % to 1,0 wt %Cu, and the remainder of Sn may

be used instead of Sn96,5Ag3,0Cu0,5. The solder alloys consist of 0,45 wt % to 0,9 wt % Cu and the remainder of

Sn may be used instead of Sn99,3Cu0,7.
7.2 Flux

The flux to be used shall be either rosin based non-activated or rosin based activated as

follows:

a) rosin based non-activated: consist of 25 wt % of colophony in 75 wt % of 2-propanol

(isopropanol) or of ethyl alcohol (as specified in Appendix C of IEC 60068-2-20).

b) rosin based activated flux: the activated flux which is above flux with the addition of

diethylammonium chloride (analytical reagent grade), up to an amount of 0,2 % or 0,5 %

chloride (expressed as free chlorine based on the colophony content).

Information about the used flux type shall be given in the relevant specification.

8 Procedure
8.1 Test temperature
8.1.1 Solder alloy containing lead
Solder temperature prior to test and during test shall be 235 °C ± 3 °C.
8.1.2 Lead-free solder alloy

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant specification, solder temperature prior to test and

during test shall be 245 °C ± 3 °C for Sn96,5Ag3,0Cu0,5 alloy and 250 °C ± 3 °C for

Sn99,3Cu0,7 alloy respectively.
8.2 Fluxing

After mounting the specimen in a suitable holder, the portion of the surface specified shall be

immersed in flux at room temperature. Excess flux is immediately drained off by standing the

specimen vertically on clean filter paper for 1 s to 5 s.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 8 – 60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E)
8.3 Flux drying

The temperature of the solder prior to test shall be as specified in 8.1. The specimen is then

suspended vertically with lower edge 20 mm ± 5 mm above the bath for 30 s ± 15 s to allow

most of the flux solvent to evaporate, before initiating the test. During this drying period the

suspension and the chart recorder trace shall be adjusted to the desired zero position, and

immediately before starting the test, the surface of the solder bath is scraped with a blade of

suitable material to remove oxides.
8.4 Test

The specimen is then immersed at a speed of 5 mm/s ± 1 mm/s to 20 mm/s ± 1 mm/s to the

specified depth in the molten solder and held in this position for a specified time and then

withdrawn. The relevant part of the recorder trace of force versus time is obtained when the

specimen is held stationary in the immersed position.
NOTE The specimen should be immersed to the required depth within 0,2 s.

The trace shall be recorded starting immediately before immersion into molten solder and

throughout test period.
Table 1 – Time sequence of the test
Procedure Time Duration
s s
1) Immersion in flux 0 ≈5
2) Flux drain 1 to 5
≈10
3) Hang the specimen on the apparatus --
≈15
4) Preheat ≈20 30 ± 15
5) Wipe the oxide from the solder surface
≈60
6) Start test 1 to 5
≈65
7) Solder immersion 70 max. 5

NOTE Time is elapsed time from immersion in flux. Duration is time for relevant procedure.

9 Presentation of results
9.1 Form of chart-recorder trace

The trace may be recorded in two forms, the only difference being the polarity of the force

readings.

In Figure 2, upward forces (non-wetting) are shown as negative and downward forces (wetting)

are positive. Usually, force at E is equal to force at D indicating stable wetting conditions. If

force at E is less than at D, some instability in wetting is present (see B.6.1.3).

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E) – 9 –
+Ve
Force
F : Maximum wetting force
max
2/3 of F
max
Time
Buoyancy line
–Ve
IEC 478/06
Figure 2 – Wetting conditions
9.2 Points of significance

9.2.1 Time t is, the time at which the solder surface and the specimen first make contact, as

indicated by movement of the trace from the zero force line.

9.2.2 At point A the solder meniscus starts to rise up the specimen termination. This is

normally characterized by a significant increase in the wetting force.

9.2.3 At point B the contact angle is 90°. The measured force is that due to the buoyancy of

the component.

9.2.4 At point C the wetting force reaches two-thirds of the maximum value of the resultant

wetting force. At point C, the wetting force shall exceed a specified value within a specified

time.

9.2.5 Point D is the maximum value of the resultant wetting force is reached during the

specified immersion period.

9.2.6 Point E is the point at the end of the specified immersion period. Points D and E may

have the same force value on the same specimen (see B.6.1.3).

9.2.7 Interpretation of the trace formed during the withdrawal of the specimen is not

considered in the stationary mode.
9.3 Reference wetting force

In order to obtain a practical reference against which to compare experimental results, the

following procedure shall be carried out for each kind of component to be tested.

A specimen is taken from the sample to be tested and is pre-tinned under optimum conditions

using the activated flux (refer to 7.2). This pre-tinning can be done on the wetting balance, set

at the same conditions as are used for the wetting test. The procedure of pre-tinning shall be

repeated on the same specimen till the maximum force reading does not further increase. The

reference wetting force is this maximum force.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 10 – 60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E)

In order to investigate the general suitability for soldering of a certain material, the reference

wetting force can be compared with the theoretical wetting force obtained by calculation under

the assumptions of an appropriate surface tension constant and density of the solder alloy,

together with the occurrence of "perfect" wetting.
The theoretical wetting force is obtained from the formula:
F = – gρν + γP
where
g is the acceleration of gravity
ρ is the density of the solder
γ is the surface constant of the solder; and
F is obtained in mN, if
ν the volume of the immersed part of the specimen, is given in cubic millimetres
P the perimeter of the immersed part of the specimen, is given in millimetres.

NOTE The formula is appropriate only if the cross-section of the specimen in the vicinity of the meniscus is

constant through the length of the specimen. The constants are applicable only to the conditions described in the

test. It is dependent on the alloy, temperature and flux (see B.6.2).
9.4 Test requirements

Requirements for solderability shall be expressed in terms of one or more of the following

parameters:
– For the onset of wetting:
a maximum value for the time interval (t to B)
– For the progress of wetting:
a maximum value of the time interval (t to C )
– For the stability of the wetting:
force at E
a minimum value for the fraction: .
force at D
10 Information to be given in the relevant specification

When a solderability test by the wetting balance method is specified the following details shall

be defined:
Subclause

a) whether degreasing is required...................................................................... 6.1

b) ageing method, if required............................................................................. 6.2

c) solder alloy composition to be used............................................................... 7.1

d) the type of flux to be used ............................................................................. 7.2

e) test temperature............................................................................................ 8.1

f) the portion of the specimen to be tested ........................................................ 8.2

g) the immersion depth...................................................................................... 8.4

h) the duration of immersion .............................................................................. 8.4

i) the immersion speed ..................................................................................... 8.4

j) the parameters to be measured from the trace............................................... 9.4

k) the acceptable values for these parameters................................................... 9.4

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
60068-2-54  IEC:2006(E) – 11 –
Annex A
(normative)
Equipment specification

For specification purposes the complete apparatus, including the chart recorder, shall be

considered as a single piece of equipment having the following characteristics.

A.1 The response time of the writing device of the chart recorder shall be such that its return

to centre zero on removal of a maximum load shall be accomplished within 0,3 s, with an

overshoot not exceeding 1 % of the corresponding maximum reading.

A.2 The instrument system should have a number of sensitivity settings. On the most

sensitive range, the maximum deflection from centre shall be obtainable by suspending a mass

not exceeding 200 mg in the specimen holder.
A.3 The chart speed shall be not less than 10 mm/s.

A.4 Electrical and mechanical noise recorded in the trace shall not exceed the equivalent of

0,04 mN.

A.5 The deflection of the writing device shall be directly proportional to the force being

measured over the full scale to an accuracy of better than 95 %.

A.6 The stiffness of the spring system of the mechanical balance shall be such th

...

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