Superconductivity - Part 13: AC loss measurements - Magnetometer methods for hysteresis loss in Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites

Describes considerations for the measurement of hysteretic loss in Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites using DC- or low-ramp-rate magnetometry. Focuses on the measurement of hysteretic loss in multifilamentary Cu/Nb-Ti composite conductors. Measurements are assumed to be on round wires with temperatures at or near 4,2 K. DC or low-ramp-rate magnetometry will be performed using either a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometer) or a vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). In case differences between the calibrated magnetometer results are noted, the VSM results, extrapolated to zero ramp rate, will be taken as definitive.

Supraleitfähigkeit - Teil 13: Messung der Wechselstromverluste - Magnetometerverfahren zur Messung der Hystereseverluste von Cu/Nb-Ti-Multifilament-Verbundsupraleitern

Supraconductivité - Partie 13: Mesure des pertes en courant alternatif - Méthodes de mesure par magnétomètre des pertes par hystérésis dans les composites multifilamentaires de Cu/Nb-Ti

Décrit des éléments nécessaires pour mesurer les pertes par hystérésis dans les composites multifilamentaires de Cu/Nb-Ti au moyen d'un magnétomètre à courant continu ou à faible vitesse de rampe. Concerne la mesure des pertes par hystérésis dans les conducteurs composites multifilamentaires de Cu/Nb-Ti. On suppose que les mesures sont effectuées sur des fils ronds à des températures égales ou proches de 4,2 K. La magnétométrie en courant continu ou à faible vitesse de rampe sera effectuée au moyen d'un interféromètre quantique supraconducteur (magnétomètre SQUID) ou d'un magnétomètre à échantillon vibrant (VSM). Si des différences apparaissent entre les résultats de magnétomètres étalonnés, les résultats du VSM, extrapolés à une vitesse de rampe nulle, seront considérés comme définitifs.

Superconductivity - Part 13: AC loss measurements - Magnetometer methods for hysteresis loss in Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
02-Jul-2003
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
03-Jul-2003
Completion Date
03-Jul-2003

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 61788-13:2003
English language
18 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SIST EN 61788-13:2003SLOVENSKIoktober 2003

STANDARDSuperconductivity - Part 13: AC loss measurements - Magnetometer methods for hysteresis loss in Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites©

Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljenoReferenčna številkaSIST EN 61788-13:2003(en)ICS17.220.20; 29.050

EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 61788-13 NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM

July 2003 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2003 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 61788-13:2003 E
ICS 17.220; 29.050
English version
Superconductivity Part 13: AC loss measurements -
Magnetometer methods for hysteresis loss
in Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites (IEC 61788-13:2003)
Supraconductivité Partie 13 : Mesure des pertes
en courant alternatif -
Méthodes de mesure par magnétomètre des pertes par hystérésis
dans les composites multifilamentaires
de Cu/Nb-Ti (CEI 61788-13:2003)

Supraleitfähigkeit Teil 13: Messung der Wechselstromverluste - Magnetometerverfahren zur

Messung der Hystereseverluste
von Cu/Nb-Ti-Multifilament-Verbundsupraleitern (IEC 61788-13:2003)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2003-06-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 61788-13:2003 - 2 - Foreword The text of document 90/137/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61788-13, prepared by IEC TC 90, Superconductivity, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 61788-13 on 2003-06-01.

The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement
(dop) 2004-03-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn
(dow) 2006-06-01
Annexes designated "normative" are part of the body of the standard.
Annexes designated "informative" are given for information only.

In this standard, annex ZA is normative and annex A is informative. Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC. __________ Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 61788-13:2003 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. __________

- 3 - EN 61788-13:2003
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications

with their corresponding European publications This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments). NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies. Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60050-815 2000 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) Chapter 815: Superconductivity

- - IEC 61788-5 - 1) Superconductivity Part 5: Matrix to superconductor volume ratio measurement - Copper to superconductor volume ratio of

Cu/Nb-Ti composite superconductors EN 61788-5 2001 2)
1) Undated reference. 2) Valid edition at date of issue.

NORMEINTERNATIONALECEIIECINTERNATIONALSTANDARD61788-13Première éditionFirst edition2003-05Supraconductivité –Partie 13:Mesure des pertes en courant alternatif –Méthodes de mesure par magnétomètredes pertes par hystérésis dans les compositesmultifilamentaires de Cu/Nb-TiSuperconductivity –Part 13:AC loss measurements –Magnetometer methods for hysteresis lossin Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary compositesPour prix, voir catalogue en vigueurFor price, see current catalogue© IEC 2003

Droits de reproduction réservés

Copyright - all rights reservedAucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite niutilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé,électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et lesmicrofilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur.No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in anyform or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing fromthe publisher.International Electrotechnical Commission,

3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, SwitzerlandTelephone: +41 22 919 02 11

Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00
E-mail: inmail@iec.ch

Web: www.iec.chCODE PRIXPRICE CODENCommission Electrotechnique InternationaleInternational Electrotechnical Commission

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 3 –CONTENTSFOREWORD..........................................................................................................................5INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................71Scope..............................................................................................................................92Normative references.......................................................................................................93Terms and definitions......................................................................................................94General specifications....................................................................................................135The VSM method of measurement..................................................................................176Test report......................................................................................................................21Annex A (informative)

The SQUID method of measurement.................................................25Bibliography..........................................................................................................................29

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 5 –INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION__________SUPERCONDUCTIVITY –Part 13:AC loss measurements –Magnetometer methods for hysteresis lossin Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary compositesFOREWORD1)The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprisingall national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promoteinternational co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. Tothis end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation isentrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with mayparticipate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaisingwith the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the InternationalOrganization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between thetwo organizations.2)The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, aninternational consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representationfrom all interested National Committees.3)The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the formof standards, technical specifications, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the NationalCommittees in that sense.4)In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC InternationalStandards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Anydivergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearlyindicated in the latter.5)The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for anyequipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.6)Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subjectof patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.International Standard IEC 61788-13 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 90:Superconductivity.The text of this standard is based on the following documents:FDISReport on voting90/137/FDIS90/141/RVDFull information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report onvoting indicated in the above table.This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until2008. At this date, the publication will be•reconfirmed;•withdrawn;•replaced by a revised edition, or•amended.

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 7 –INTRODUCTIONIEC technical committee 90 proposes magnetometer and pickup coil methods for measuringthe AC losses of Cu/Nb-Ti composite superconducting wires in transverse time-varyingmagnetic fields. These represent initial steps in standardization of methods for measuring thevarious contributions to AC loss in transverse fields, the most frequently encounteredconfiguration.It was decided to split the initial proposal mentioned above into two documents covering twostandard methods. One of them describes the magnetometer method for hysteresis loss andlow frequency (or sweep rate) total AC loss measurement in a slowly varying magnetic field,and the other describes the pickup coil method for total AC loss measurement in higherfrequency (or sweep rate) magnetic fields. The frequency range is 0 Hz – 0,06 Hz for themagnetometer method and 0,005 Hz – 1 Hz for the pickup-coil method. The overlap between0,005 Hz and 0,06 Hz is a complementary frequency range for the two methods.This standard deals with the magnetometer method.

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 9 –SUPERCONDUCTIVITY –Part 13: AC loss measurements –Magnetometer methods for hysteresis lossin Cu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites1 ScopeThis part of IEC 61788 describes considerations for the measurement of hysteretic loss inCu/Nb-Ti multifilamentary composites using DC- or low-ramp-rate magnetometry. Thisstandard focuses on the measurement of hysteretic loss in multifilamentary Cu/Nb-Ticomposite conductors. Measurements are assumed to be on round wires with temperatures ator near 4,2 K. DC or low-ramp-rate magnetometry will be performed using either asuperconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometer) or a vibrating-samplemagnetometer (VSM). In case differences between the calibrated magnetometer results arenoted, the VSM results, extrapolated to zero ramp rate, will be taken as definitive.2 Normative referencesThe following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest editionof the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.IEC 60050-815:2000, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 815:SuperconductivityIEC 61788-5, Superconductivity – Part 5: Matrix to superconductor volume ratio measurement– Copper to superconductor volume ratio of Cu/Nb-Ti composite superconductors3 Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this part of IEC 61788, the definitions given in IEC 60050-815 apply,together with the following.3.1AC lossPpower dissipated in a composite superconductor due to application of a time-varying magneticfield or electric current[IEV 815-04-54]NOTE

The AC loss per magnetic field cycle is designated Q. Although all such loss is inevitably "hysteretic" in thegeneral sense, the AC loss in a superconducting composite is assumed to be separable into "hysteresis-", "eddy-current-", and "coupling-" loss components, as defined below (see Note 1 and Note 2 of IEV 815-04-54).

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 11 –3.2hysteresis lossPhloss of the type whose value per cycle is independent of frequency arising in a super-conductor under a varying magnetic fieldNOTE

This loss is caused by the irreversible magnetic properties of the superconducting material due to pinningof flux lines.[IEV 815-04-55]NOTE

Hysteresis loss is that which takes place only within the superconducting regions of the Cu/Nb-Ticomposite, and hence which would be present even in the absence of the matrix. The hysteresis loss per cycle,designated Qh, is associated with the area of the magnetization vs. field (M-H) hysteresis loop; the associated M isoccasionally referred to as the "persistent-current magnetization".3.3eddy current lossPeloss arising in the normal matrix of a superconductor or the structural material when exposedto a varying magnetic field, either from an applied field or from a self-field[IEV 815-04-56]NOTE

The eddy current loss per cycle is designated Qe.3.4coupling lossPcloss arising in multifilamentary superconducting wires with a normal matrix due to couplingcurrent[IEV 815-04-59]NOTE

The coupling loss per cycle is designated Qc.3.5proximity effect coupling lossPpeloss stemming from currents that circulate along the filaments of a superconducting compositeand across the intervening matrix rendered superconducting by proximity effect (PE)NOTE

By so doing, the PE currents compete for the same paths as the coupling currents. Since the PE entirecurrent path is superconductive, Ppe is a persistent-current effect and when it is present serves to augment Ph.Proximity effect can be expected in Cu/NbTi composites when the interfilamentary spacing drops below about1µm. The PE loss per cycle is designated Qpe.3.6demagnetizationphenomenon in which the specimen’s magnetization reduces the applied magnetic fieldsensed by the superconductorNOTE

It depends on the strength of that magnetization as well as sample geometry and applied field orientation.It is usually negligible for multifilamentary Cu/Nb-Ti composites at 4,2 K in large magnetic fields.3.7flux creepthermally activated flux motion in which fluxons move from one pinning centre to another[IEV 815-03-20]NOTE

Flux creep refers to the logarithmic time dependence of decay (at fixed applied field strength and sampletemperature) of a superconductor's persistent-current magnetization. A significant level of flux creep will contributea frequency dependence to the hysteretic loss. The effect is negligible for Cu/Nb-Ti composites, except whenproximity effect coupling is present.

61788-13 © IEC:2003– 13 –3.8flux jumpcooperative and transitional movements of pinned fluxons as a result of a magnetic instabilityinitiated by

mechanical, thermal, or electrical disturbancesNOTE

A flux jump manifests itself as a sudden drop in magnetization of the superconductor.3.9filamentary volumetotal volume of the filaments within a given sample3.10composite volumetotal specimen volume including both superconductor and matrix3.11sweep amplitudeHmaxmaximum value of the applied field3.12magnetization looptrace of specimen magnetization as function of applied magnetic field strength as the field isvaried around a complete cycle starting and ending at +HmaxNOTE

The area of the loop, Q, is the "energy loss per cycle". As indicated above, by analogy with thecomponents of power dissipation, Q can be regarded as having the components Qh, Qe, Qc, and Qpe.4 General specificationsThe target precision of this method is given by coefficient of variation (COV; standarddeviation divided by the average). The COV is less than 5 %.Important variables and elements affecting the accuracy of the results are specified asfollows.4.1 Accuracy and uniformity of the applied fieldAn applied magnetic field system shall provide the magnetic field with an accuracy of 1 % anda precision of 0,5 %. The applied field shall have a uniformity of 0,1 % over the volume of thespecimen.4.2 VSM calibrationThe goal of VSM calibration is to ensure that th

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.