High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 101: Synthetic testing

IEC 62271-101:2021 mainly applies to AC circuit-breakers within the scope of IEC 62271-100. It provides the general rules for testing AC circuit-breakers, for making and breaking capacities over the range of test duties described in 7.102 to 7.111 of IEC 62271-100:2021, by synthetic methods. It has been proven that synthetic testing is an economical and technically correct way to test high-voltage AC circuit-breakers according to the requirements of IEC 62271-100 and that it is equivalent to direct testing. The methods and techniques described are those in general use. The purpose of this document is to establish criteria for synthetic testing and for the proper evaluation of results. Such criteria will establish the validity of the test method without imposing restraints on innovation of test circuitry. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2012 and Amendment 1:2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the second edition: a) alignment with the third edition of IEC 62271-100:2021; b) update this document with the last methods and techniques used for synthetic tests.

Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte und -Schaltanlagen - Teil 101: Synthetische Prüfung

Appareillage à haute tension - Partie 101: Essais synthétiques

L’IEC 62271-101:2021 s’applique principalement aux disjoncteurs à courant alternatif définis dans le domaine d’application de l’IEC 62271-100. Elle donne les règles générales d’essais de ces disjoncteurs, pour les pouvoirs de fermeture et de coupure dans la plage des séquences d’essais décrites de 7.102 à 7.111 de l’IEC 62271-100:2021, à l'aide de méthodes d'essais synthétiques. Il a été démontré que l'essai synthétique est un moyen économique et techniquement valable pour soumettre à l’essai les disjoncteurs à courant alternatif à haute tension selon les exigences de l’IEC 62271-100, et qu’il est équivalent à un essai direct. Les méthodes et techniques décrites sont celles d’usage courant. L’objet du présent document est d'établir des critères pour les essais synthétiques et pour l'évaluation correcte des résultats. Ces critères établissent la validité de la méthode d'essai sans limiter l'invention de nouveaux circuits d'essais. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2012 et l’Amendement 1:2017. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à la deuxième édition: a) alignement sur la troisième édition de l’IEC 62271-100:2021; b) mise à jour du présent document avec les méthodes et techniques récentes utilisées pour les essais synthétiques.

Visokonapetostne stikalne in krmilne naprave - 101. del: Sintetično preskušanje (IEC 62271-101:2021)

Ta del standarda IEC 62271 se uporablja za trifazne izmenične odklopnike za notranjo in zunanjo namestitev, ki delujejo na frekvencah 50 Hz in/ali 60 Hz v sistemih z napetostjo nad 1000 V. Ta dokument vključuje samo neposredne preskusne metode za preskuse vklopne in izklopne zmogljivosti. Za sintetične preskusne metode glej standard IEC 62271-101.
OPOMBA: Pri neposredni preskusni metodi se za dovajanje napetosti in toka med preskusi vklopne ter izklopne zmogljivosti uporablja en vir.
Ta del standarda IEC 62271 se ne uporablja za:
– odklopnike z zapiralnim mehanizmom za odvisno ročno upravljanje;
– odklopnike, namenjene za uporabo na motornih garniturah opreme za električno vleko; ti so zajeti v standardu IEC 60077 (vsi deli) [1]1;
– generatorske odklopnike, nameščene med generatorjem in blokovnim transformatorjem; ti so zajeti v standardu IEC 62271-37-013 [2];
– samosprožilne odklopnike s sprožilnimi napravami, katerih delovanja med preskušanjem ni mogoče prekiniti. Preskusi naprav za avtomatski ponovni vklop so zajeti v standardu IEC 62271-111 [3];
– o preskusih za dokazovanje zmogljivosti pod določenimi pogoji v izrednih razmerah, ki niso opisani v tem dokumentu, se dogovorita proizvajalec in uporabnik. Take izredne razmere so na primer stanje, ko je napetost višja od nazivne napetosti odklopnika, do česar lahko pride zaradi nenadne izgube obremenitve dolgih vodov ali kablov.

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
04-Jul-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
01-november-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 62271-101:2013
SIST EN 62271-101:2013/A1:2018
Visokonapetostne stikalne in krmilne naprave - 101. del: Sintetično preskušanje
(IEC 62271-100:2021)

High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 101: Synthetic testing (IEC 62271-

100:2021)

Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte und -Schaltanlagen - Teil 101: Synthetische Prüfung (IEC

62271-100:2021)

Appareillage à haute tension - Partie 101: Essais synthétiques (IEC 62271-100:2021)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62271-101:2021
ICS:
29.130.10 Visokonapetostne stikalne in High voltage switchgear and
krmilne naprave controlgear
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62271-100
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2021
ICS 29.130.10 Supersedes EN 62271-100:2009 and all of its
amendments and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 100: Alternating
current circuit-breakers
(IEC 62271-100:2021)

Appareillage à haute tension - Partie 100: Disjoncteurs à Hochspannungs-Schaltgeräte und -Schaltanlagen - Teil

courant alternatif 100: Wechselstrom-Leistungsschalter
(IEC 62271-100:2021) (IEC 62271-100:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2021-08-11. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62271-100:2021 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
EN IEC 62271-100:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 17A/1299/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 62271-100, prepared by SC 17A

“Switching devices” of IEC/TC 17 “High-voltage switchgear and controlgear” was submitted to the IEC-

CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 62271-100:2021.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2022–05–11

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2024–08–11

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 62271-100:2009 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62271-100:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60137:2017 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60137:2017 (not modified)
IEC 62271-110 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62271-110
IEC 60296 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60296
IEC 60376 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60376
IEC 60480 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60480
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
EN IEC 62271-100:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-151 2001 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 151: Electrical and magnetic
devices
+A1 2013
+A2 2014
+A3 2019
+A4 2020
IEC 60050-441 1984 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 441: Switchgear, controlgear
and fuses
+A1 2000
IEC 60050-442 1998 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 442: Electrical accessories
+A1 2015
+A2 2015
+A3 2019
IEC 60050-461 2008 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 461: Electric cables
IEC 60050-601 1985 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 601: Generation, transmission
and distribution of electricity - General
+A1 1998
+A2 2020
IEC 60050-614 2016 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) - Part 614: Generation, transmission
and distribution of electricity - Operation
IEC 60059 - IEC standard current ratings EN 60059 -
IEC 60060-1 - High-voltage test techniques - Part 1: EN 60060-1 -
General definitions and test requirements
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
EN IEC 62271-100:2021 (E)
IEC 60255-151 2009 Measuring relays and protection equipment EN 60255-151 2009
- Part 151: Functional requirements for
over/under current protection
IEC 60270 - High-voltage test techniques - Partial EN 60270 -
discharge measurements
IEC 62271-1 2017 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN 62271-1 2017
Part 1: Common specifications for
alternating current switchgear and
controlgear
IEC 62271-101 - High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN 62271-101 -
Part 101: Synthetic testing

IEC 62271-102 2018 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN IEC 62271-102 2018

Part 102: Alternating current disconnectors
and earthing switches

IEC 62271-200 2021 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN IEC 62271-200 2021

Part 200: AC metal-enclosed switchgear
and controlgear for rated voltages above
1 kV and up to and including 52 kV
IEC 62271-203 - High-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN 62271-203 -
Part 203: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed
switchgear for rated voltages above 52 kV
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
IEC 62271-100
Edition 3.0 2021-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
High-voltage switchgear and controlgear –
Part 100: Alternating-current circuit-breakers
Appareillage à haute tension –
Partie 100: Disjoncteurs à courant alternatif
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.130.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-9885-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
– 2 – IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 14

3.1 General terms and definitions ............................................................................... 15

3.2 Assemblies ........................................................................................................... 19

3.3 Parts of assemblies .............................................................................................. 19

3.4 Switching devices ................................................................................................. 19

3.5 Parts of circuit-breakers ........................................................................................ 21

3.6 Operational characteristics ................................................................................... 25

3.7 Characteristic quantities ....................................................................................... 27

3.8 Index of definitions ................................................................................................ 43

4 Normal and special service conditions ........................................................................... 47

5 Ratings .......................................................................................................................... 47

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 47

5.2 Rated voltage (U ) ................................................................................................ 48

5.3 Rated insulation level (U , U , U ) ....................................................................... 48

d p s

5.4 Rated frequency (f ) .............................................................................................. 48

5.5 Rated continuous current (I ) ................................................................................ 48

5.6 Rated short-time withstand current (I ) ................................................................. 48

5.7 Rated peak withstand current (I ) ......................................................................... 48

5.8 Rated duration of short-circuit (t ) ......................................................................... 48

5.9 Rated supply voltage of auxiliary and control circuits (U ) .................................... 48

5.10 Rated supply frequency of auxiliary and control circuits ........................................ 48

5.11 Rated pressure of compressed gas supply for controlled pressure systems .......... 48

5.101 Rated short-circuit breaking current (I ) .............................................................. 49

5.102 Rated first-pole-to-clear factor (k ) for terminal fault ........................................... 52

5.103 Rated short-circuit making current ........................................................................ 52

5.104 Rated operating sequence .................................................................................... 52

5.105 Rated out-of-phase making and breaking current .................................................. 52

5.106 Rated capacitive currents...................................................................................... 53

6 Design and construction ................................................................................................ 55

6.1 Requirements for liquids ....................................................................................... 55

6.2 Requirements for gases ........................................................................................ 55

6.3 Earthing ................................................................................................................ 55

6.4 Auxiliary and control equipment and circuits ......................................................... 56

6.5 Dependent power operation .................................................................................. 56

6.6 Stored energy operation ........................................................................................ 56

6.7 Independent unlatched operation (independent manual or power operation) ......... 56

6.8 Manually operated actuators ................................................................................. 56

6.9 Operation of releases ............................................................................................ 56

6.10 Pressure/level indication ....................................................................................... 57

6.11 Nameplates........................................................................................................... 58

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SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.12 Locking devices .................................................................................................... 60

6.13 Position indication ................................................................................................. 60

6.14 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures ....................................................... 60

6.15 Creepage distances for outdoor insulators ............................................................ 60

6.16 Gas and vacuum tightness .................................................................................... 60

6.17 Tightness for liquid systems .................................................................................. 60

6.18 Fire hazard (flammability) ..................................................................................... 60

6.19 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ..................................................................... 60

6.20 X-ray emission ...................................................................................................... 60

6.21 Corrosion .............................................................................................................. 60

6.22 Filling levels for insulation, switching and/or operation .......................................... 61

6.101 Requirements for simultaneity of poles during single closing and single

opening operations ............................................................................................... 61

6.102 General requirement for operation ........................................................................ 61

6.103 Pressure limits of fluids for operation .................................................................... 61

6.104 Vent outlets .......................................................................................................... 62

6.105 Time quantities ..................................................................................................... 62

6.106 Mechanical loads .................................................................................................. 62

6.107 Circuit-breaker classification ................................................................................. 63

7 Type tests ..................................................................................................................... 65

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 65

7.2 Dielectric tests ...................................................................................................... 67

7.3 Radio interference voltage (RIV) test .................................................................... 72

7.4 Resistance measurement ...................................................................................... 72

7.5 Continuous current tests ....................................................................................... 73

7.6 Short-time withstand current and peak withstand current tests .............................. 74

7.7 Verification of the protection ................................................................................. 74

7.8 Tightness tests ..................................................................................................... 74

7.9 Electromagnetic compatibility tests (EMC) ............................................................ 74

7.10 Additional tests on auxiliary and control circuits .................................................... 75

7.11 X-radiation test procedure for vacuum interrupters ................................................ 75

7.101 Mechanical and environmental tests ..................................................................... 75

7.102 Miscellaneous provisions for making and breaking tests ....................................... 88

7.103 General considerations for making and breaking tests ........................................ 106

7.104 Demonstration of arcing times ............................................................................. 113

7.105 Short-circuit test quantities ................................................................................. 132

7.106 Short-circuit test procedure ................................................................................. 155

7.107 Terminal fault tests ............................................................................................. 157

7.108 Additional short-circuit tests ................................................................................ 161

7.109 Short-line fault tests ............................................................................................ 164

7.110 Out-of-phase making and breaking tests ............................................................. 175

7.111 Capacitive current tests ...................................................................................... 177

7.112 Requirements for making and breaking tests on class E2 circuit-breakers

having a rated voltage above 1 kV up to and including 52 kV .............................. 191

8 Routine tests ............................................................................................................... 192

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 192

8.2 Dielectric test on the main circuit ........................................................................ 193

8.3 Tests on auxiliary and control circuits ................................................................. 195

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SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
– 4 – IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021

8.4 Measurement of the resistance of the main circuit ............................................... 195

8.5 Tightness test ..................................................................................................... 195

8.6 Design and visual checks .................................................................................... 195

8.101 Mechanical operating tests ................................................................................. 195

9 Guide to the selection of switchgear and controlgear (informative) .............................. 197

9.101 General ............................................................................................................... 197

9.102 Selection of rated values for service conditions ................................................... 199

9.103 Selection of rated values for fault conditions ....................................................... 201

9.104 Selection for electrical endurance in networks of rated voltage above 1 kV

and up to and including 52 kV ............................................................................. 205

9.105 Selection for switching of capacitive loads .......................................................... 205

10 Information to be given with enquiries, tenders and orders (informative) ...................... 205

10.1 General ............................................................................................................... 205

10.2 Information with enquiries and orders ................................................................. 205

10.3 Information to be given with tenders.................................................................... 206

11 Transport, storage, installation, operation instructions and maintenance...................... 208

11.1 General ............................................................................................................... 208

11.2 Conditions during transport, storage and installation ........................................... 208

11.3 Installation .......................................................................................................... 208

11.4 Operating instructions ......................................................................................... 214

11.5 Maintenance ....................................................................................................... 214

11.101 Resistors and capacitors ..................................................................................... 215

12 Safety .......................................................................................................................... 215

13 Influence of the product on the environment ................................................................ 215

Annex A (normative) Calculation of TRVs for short-line faults from rated

characteristics .................................................................................................................... 216

A.1 Basic approach ................................................................................................... 216

A.2 Transient voltage on line side ............................................................................. 219

A.3 Transient voltage on source side ........................................................................ 219

A.4 Examples of calculations ..................................................................................... 223

Annex B (normative) Tolerances on test quantities during type tests .................................. 226

Annex C (normative) Records and reports of type tests...................................................... 235

C.1 Information and results to be recorded ................................................................ 235

C.2 Information to be included in type test reports ..................................................... 235

Annex D (normative) Method of determination of the prospective TRV ............................... 239

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 239

D.2 Drawing the envelope ......................................................................................... 239

D.3 Determination of parameters ............................................................................... 240

Annex E (normative) Methods of determining prospective TRV waves ............................... 243

E.1 General ............................................................................................................... 243

E.2 General summary of the recommended methods ................................................. 245

E.3 Detailed consideration of the recommended methods ......................................... 246

E.4 Comparison of methods ...................................................................................... 257

Annex F (informative) Requirements for breaking of transformer-limited faults by

circuit-breakers with rated voltage higher than 1 kV ............................................................ 261

F.1 General ............................................................................................................... 261

F.2 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage less than 100 kV ........................................... 262

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SIST EN IEC 62271-101:2021
IEC 62271-100:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –

F.3 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage from 100 kV to 800 kV .................................. 264

F.4 Circuit-breakers with rated voltage higher than 800 kV ........................................ 264

Annex G (normative) Use of mechanical characteristics and related requirements ............. 265

Annex H (normative) Requirements for making and breaking test procedures for

metal-enclosed and dead tank circuit-breakers ................................................................... 266

H.1 General ............................................................................................................... 266

H.2 Reduced number of making and breaking units for testing purposes ................... 266

H.3 Tests for single pole in one enclosure ................................................................. 267

H.4 Tests for three poles in one enclosure ................................................................ 270

Annex I (normative) Requirements for circuit-breakers with opening resistors .................... 272

I.1 General ............................................................................................................... 272

I.2 Switching performance to be verified .................................................................. 272

I.3 Insertion time of the resistor................................................................................ 285

I.4 Current carrying performance ............................................................................. 285

I.5 Dielectric performance ........................................................................................ 285

I.6 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 285

I.7 Requirements for the specification of opening resistors....................................... 285

I.8 Examples of recovery voltage waveshapes ......................................................... 285

Annex J (normative) Verification of capacitive current breaking in presence of single

or two-phase earth faults .................................................................................................... 292

J.1 General ............................................................................................................... 292

J.2 Test voltage ........................................................................................................ 292

J.3 Test current ........................................................................................................ 292

J.4 Test-duty ............................................................................................................ 293

J.5 Criteria to pass the tests ..................................................................................... 293

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 294

Figure 1 – Typical oscillogram of a three-phase short-circuit make-break cycle..................... 29

Figure 2 – Circuit-breaker without switching resistors – Opening and closing operations ....... 30

Figure 3 – Circuit breaker without switching resistors – Close-open cycle ............................. 31

Figure 4 – Circuit-breaker without switching resistors – Reclosing (auto-reclosing) ............... 32

Figure 5 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Opening and closing operations ........... 33

Figure 6 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Close-open cycle .................................. 34

Figure 7 – Circuit-breaker with switching resistors – Reclosing (auto-reclosing) .................... 35

Figure 8 – Determination of short-circuit making and breaking currents, and of

percentage DC component .................................................................................................... 50

Figure 9 – Percentage DC component in relation to the time interval from the initiation

of the short-circuit for the different time constants ................................................................. 51

Figure 10 – Example of wind velocity measurement .............................................................. 82

Figure 11 – Test sequence for low temperature test .............................................................. 84

Figure 12 – Test sequence for high temperature test ................................................

...

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