Maintainability of equipment - Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing

This guide has for purpose to provide guidance for the early consideration of testability aspects in design and development, and to assist in determining effective test procedures as an integral part of operation and maintenance. This second edition constitutes a technical revision. It expands and provides more detail on the techniques and systems broadly outlined in the first edition.

Instandhaltbarkeit von Geräten - Teil 5: Prüfbarkeit und diagnostisches Prüfen

Maintenabilité de matériel - Partie 5: Testabilité et tests pour diagnostic

Ce guide a pour but de fournir des indications pour la prise en considération, très tôt, des aspects de testabilités en conception et développement, d'aider dans la détermination de procédures de test efficaces en tant que partie intégrante de l'exploitation et de la maintenance. Elle élargit le champ de la première édition, et fournit plus de détails sur les techniques et les systèmes présentés de façon générale dans la première édition.

Vzdrževalnost opreme - 5. del: Preskusnost in diagnostično preskušanje (IEC 60706-5:2007)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Oct-2007
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
05-Oct-2007
Completion Date
05-Oct-2007

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60706-5:2008
01-januar-2008
9]GUåHYDOQRVWRSUHPHGHO3UHVNXVQRVWLQGLDJQRVWLþQRSUHVNXãDQMH ,(&

Maintainability of equipment -- Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing
Instandhaltbarkeit von Geräten -- Teil 5: Prüfbarkeit und diagnostisches Prüfen
Maintenabilité de matériel -- Partie 5: Testabilité et tests pour diagnostic
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60706-5:2007
ICS:
03.100.40 Raziskave in razvoj Research and development
21.020 =QDþLOQRVWLLQQDþUWRYDQMH Characteristics and design of
VWURMHYDSDUDWRYRSUHPH machines, apparatus,
equipment
SIST EN 60706-5:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 60706-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2007
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 03.120.01; 03.120.30; 21.020
English version
Maintainability of equipment -
Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing
(IEC 60706-5:2007)
Maintenabilité de matériel - Instandhaltbarkeit von Geräten -
Partie 5: Testabilité et tests Teil 5: Prüfbarkeit und
pour diagnostic diagnostisches Prüfen
(CEI 60706-5:2007) (IEC 60706-5:2007)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2007-10-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2007 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60706-5:2007 E
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
EN 60706-5:2007 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 56/1211/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60706-5, prepared by IEC TC 56,

Dependability, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 60706-5 on 2007-10-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2008-07-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2010-10-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60706-5:2007 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60300-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-1:2003 (not modified).
IEC 60300-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-2:2004 (not modified).
IEC 60300-3-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-3-2:2005 (not modified).
IEC 60300-3-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-3-3:2004 (not modified).
IEC 60300-3-12 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-3-12:2004 (not modified).
IEC 60300-3-14 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60300-3-14:2004 (not modified).
__________
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
- 3 - EN 60706-5:2007
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-191 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) -
Chapter 191: Dependability and quality of
service
IEC 60300-3-10 - Dependability management - - -
Part 3-10: Application guide - Maintainability
1) 2)
IEC 60706-2 - Maintainability of equipment - EN 60706-2 2006
Part 2: Maintainability requirements and
studies during the design and development
phase
1) 2)
IEC 60706-3 - Maintainability of equipment - EN 60706-3 2006
Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis
and presentation of data
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
IEC 60706-5
Edition 2.0 2007-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Maintainability of equipment –
Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing
Maintenabilité de matériel –
Partie 5: Testabilité et tests pour diagnostic
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 03.120.01; 03.120.30; 21.020 ISBN 2-8318-9295-3
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
– 2 – 60706-5 © IEC:2007
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................7

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................8

2 Normative references........................................................................................................8

3 Terms, definitions and acronyms.......................................................................................8

3.1 Terms and definitions ..............................................................................................8

3.2 Acronyms ..............................................................................................................13

4 Description of testability and diagnostic testing................................................................13

4.1 General .................................................................................................................13

4.2 Objectives of testability..........................................................................................15

4.3 Objectives of diagnostic testing..............................................................................16

4.4 Methods used for diagnostic testing .......................................................................17

4.5 Methods used for condition monitoring ...................................................................17

4.6 Concept of testability .............................................................................................17

5 Testability specification...................................................................................................18

5.1 General .................................................................................................................18

5.2 Statement of work..................................................................................................19

5.3 Specification..........................................................................................................19

5.4 Characteristics of testability ...................................................................................23

5.4.1 Testability features ....................................................................................23

5.4.2 Operational context....................................................................................23

5.4.3 Test tasks..................................................................................................23

5.5 Characteristic values for assessing testability ........................................................25

5.6 Criteria for evaluation of alternative diagnostic designs ..........................................25

6 Testability in the development process............................................................................26

6.1 General .................................................................................................................26

6.2 Functional assignment ...........................................................................................27

6.3 Testability engineering...........................................................................................27

6.3.1 Design criteria for testability.......................................................................27

6.3.2 Design for testability ..................................................................................28

6.3.3 Use of commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS).......................................28

6.4 Testability development process ............................................................................29

6.4.1 Logistic support .........................................................................................29

6.4.2 Availability and diagnostic testing ...............................................................30

7 Assessment of testability ................................................................................................30

7.1 General .................................................................................................................30

7.2 Verification by analysis ..........................................................................................30

7.3 Verification by tests ...............................................................................................30

8 Testability documentation ...............................................................................................31

Annex A (informative) Calculation of characteristics of fault recognition and fault

localization............................................................................................................................32

Annex B (informative) Development process for testable products ........................................38

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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
60706-5 © IEC:2007 – 3 –

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................63

Figure 1 – Testability and diagnostic testing during the life cycle............................................15

Figure 2 – Operational context ..............................................................................................23

Figure 3 – Development process in the V-model ....................................................................26

Figure 4 – Design levels and their logistic assignment, taking an aircraft as an example ........29

Figure B.1 – Example of how to determine the basic data ......................................................38

Figure B.2 – Modelling of sub-functions and terminals ...........................................................40

Figure B.3 – Functional model showing the functional terminals between the sub-

functions ...............................................................................................................................40

Figure B.4 – Functional model with inserted hardware units ...................................................42

Figure B.5 – Functional model showing stimulation and measuring points ..............................43

Figure B.6 – Functional model showing test paths .................................................................44

Figure B.7 – Portions of the test task.....................................................................................45

Figure B.8 – Functional model showing the test paths of portion A .........................................47

Figure B.9 – Functional model showing the test paths of portions A + B + C + D ....................49

Figure B.10 – Functional model of case study 1.....................................................................51

Figure B.11 – Functional model of case study 2.....................................................................52

Figure B.12 – Fault localization portions ................................................................................54

Figure B.13 – Functional model with additional stimulation and measuring points...................56

Figure B.14 – Selection criteria for verification.......................................................................59

Figure B.15 – Functional model shown in the form of an extended block diagram...................61

Table 1 – Elements of the operational concept ......................................................................21

Table 2 – Elements of the maintenance concept....................................................................22

Table 3 – Test task ...............................................................................................................24

Table 4 – Example of logistic assignment ..............................................................................30

Table B.1 – Data for the document “system specification"......................................................39

Table B.2 – Data for the document "test specification" (assignment of function to

parameter) ............................................................................................................................

Table B.3 – Database with hardware units and logistic assignment added..............................42

Table B.4 – Database expanded to include the test steps ......................................................43

Table B.5 – Database expanded to include the test paths ......................................................44

Table B.6 – Database expanded to include the test task portions ...........................................45

Table B.7 – Determination of how many terminals and hardware units there are.....................46

Table B.8 – Matrix showing coverage of terminals and paths .................................................46

Table B.9 – Determination of the characteristic value for the quality of the fault

recognition (FR) during operation (section A).........................................................................47

Table B.10 – Determination of the characteristic value for the quality of the fault

recognition (FR) under test conditions (Portions A+B+C+D) ...................................................49

Table B.11 – Coverage matrix ...............................................................................................50

Table B.12 – Coding of terminals...........................................................................................51

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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
– 4 – 60706-5 © IEC:2007

Table B.13 – Sum field ..........................................................................................................51

Table B.14 – Fault localization matrix of case study 1 ............................................................52

Table B.15 – Fault localization matrix of case study 2 ............................................................52

Table B.16 – Determining the characteristic value for the quality of fault localization (FL).......53

Table B.17 – Determination of the locatability of the hardware units .......................................55

Table B.18 – Data table expanded to include test path PP 5 ..................................................56

Table B.19 – Determination of the locatability of the hardware units, including additional

test path 5.............................................................................................................................57

Table B.20 – Verification record ............................................................................................59

Table B.21 – Example of the document "system specification" ...............................................60

Table B.22 – Example of the document "test specification" ....................................................61

Table B.23 – Verification record ............................................................................................62

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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
60706-5 © IEC:2007 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
MAINTAINABILITY OF EQUIPMENT –
Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60706-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 56:

Dependability.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1994. This second

edition constitutes a technical revision. It expands and provides more detail on the techniques and

systems broadly outlined in the first edition.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
56/1211/FDIS 56/1231/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
– 6 – 60706-5 © IEC:2007

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60706 series, under the general title Maintainability of

equipment, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
60706-5 © IEC:2007 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Testability is an important feature in the operation and maintenance of a system or equipment

and has a significant effect on its availability and maintainability. Diagnostic testing may be

carried out manually or with test equipment which may contain various levels of automation.

Optimum design for testability requires close cooperation between design, operation and

maintenance organizations. This standard is intended to highlight the various aspects of

testability and diagnostic testing and to assist in their timely coordination.

In this standard, items to be considered in respect of their testability design may be systems,

equipment or functional units which are the objects of a contract, and will be referred to as

"products". Each product has to perform its required functions which should be verified during

the development and production phases and should be retained over the whole life cycle. For a

product to retain its functionality, the functional status of each sub-function should be known at

any time while the product is in its operating condition. If a failure occurs, action should be

taken to ensure that the fault is recognized and the faulty item localized. This requirement

placed on the testability of a product might appear to be quite simple, but if it is not considered

at the start of product development, subsequent realization will result in increased work and

significantly increased cost. If all requirements are available at the start of development, the

development engineer can specify the functional characteristic "testability" without much

additional effort and therefore achieve considerable cost savings e.g. by minimizing the number

of test steps for verifying the development results. Experience has shown that the extra cost

and effort in the development phase can be recovered for example in the production phase

since available test equipment can be used. Reliable fault recognition and low in-service

maintenance costs increase the market value of a testable product considerably.

As the technologies which are applied in the products covered by this standard are wide-

ranging, this document has been written in a neutral manner with regard to technologies and

techniques. This standard therefore only provides an assessment basis for making calculations

and the basic approach for achieving the required testability of a product. The technical

realization of fault recognition and fault localization in the product is the task of the product

development engineer and has to be achieved according to the state of the art at the time when

the product is being developed. It is therefore not of great importance whether the required test

task is realized in hardware or software form, but it is essential that all functions are checked

via test paths and that the characteristic values established for testability correspond to the

specified target values. If there are deviations from the target values, action should be taken to

ensure that the target values are met. These actions should take place at an early stage of

development before freezing the design.
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
– 8 – 60706-5 © IEC:2007
MAINTAINABILITY OF EQUIPMENT –
Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing
1 Scope
The purpose of this part of IEC 60706 is to

– provide guidance for the early consideration of testability aspects in design and

development;

– assist in determining effective test procedures as an integral part of operation and

maintenance.

This International Standard can be applied to all types of products which may include

commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) items. In this respect, it does not matter whether the product

belongs to mechanical, hydraulic, electrical or some other technology. In addition, this

International Standard applies to the development of any products, with the aim of designing

the product characteristics so that they are verifiable (testable).

The objective of this International standard is to ensure that prerequisites relating to the

testability of products are defined in the preliminary phases of development, laid down by the

customer, implemented, documented and verified during development.

This International Standard also provides methods to implement and assess testability as an

integral part of the product design. It recommends that the product testability documentation

should be continually updated over the product's life cycle.
2 Normative references

The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-191, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 191: Dependability and

quality of service

IEC 60706-2, Maintainability of equipment – Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies

during the design and development phase

IEC 60706-3, Maintainability of equipment – Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis and

presentation of data

IEC 60300-3-10, Dependability management – Part 3-10: Application guide – Maintainability

3 Terms, definitions and acronyms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions of IEC 60050-191 apply together

with the following:
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
60706-5 © IEC:2007 – 9 –
3.1.1
built-in test
BIT

integrated capability of a test item enabling automatic fault recognition and fault localization

3.1.2
built-in test equipment
BITE
hardware and/or software assigned to the built-in test
3.1.3
commercial off-the-shelf
COTS
designates items readily available commercially
3.1.4
criticality
significance attached to a malfunction

NOTE Criticality is expressed in grades: the higher the grade, the more severe the consequences to be expected

from the malfunction.
3.1.5
depth of test
specification of the level to which the unit or sub-unit is to be identified
3.1.6
design level

level to which the design elements (functional and/or physical units), when they already exist,

are assigned within the product breakdown structure
NOTE In some cases “design level” is known as “indenture level”.
3.1.7
diagnosis correctness

proportion of faults of an item that can be correctly diagnosed under given conditions

3.1.8
diagnostic testing
test procedure carried out in order to make a diagnosis
3.1.9
false alarm

indication of failure which, after carrying out failure finding activities, is not found

3.1.10
false alarm rate
the percentage of false alarms in the total number of failure indications
3.1.11
fault recognition time
period of time between the instant of failure and fault recognition
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SIST EN 60706-5:2008
– 10 – 60706-5 © IEC:2007
3.1.12
fault simulation

inclusion of faults by non-destructive interventions in the hardware units and/or, where

necessary, simulation via software in order to verify the diagnostic capability
3.1.13
function
performance required of the item

NOTE A function is always associated if realised with an item of a given level in the product breakdown structure.

3.1.14
functional model

conceptual representation of an item describing the interrelationship and dependencies

between its stimuli and measurement (response) terminals

NOTE The functional model, which arises during the development of a product, is in principle a block diagram

showing the functions of the product and supplemented to include the test
...

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