Primary batteries - Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

This part of EN 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.

Primärbatterien - Teil 5: Sicherheit von Batterien mit wässrigem Elektrolyt

Piles électriques - Partie 5: Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux

La présente partie de la EN 60086 spécifie des essais et des exigences pour les piles à électrolyte aqueux pour assurer leur fonctionnement sûr dans des conditions d'utilisation prévue et d'utilisation impropre prévisible.

Primarne baterije – 5. del: Varnost baterij z vodnim elektrolitom (IEC 60086-5:2005)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
29-May-2005
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Parallel Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
30-May-2005
Completion Date
30-May-2005

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60086-5:2005
STANDARD
september 2005
Primarne baterije – 5. del: Varnost baterij z vodnim elektrolitom (IEC 60086-
5:2005)

Primary batteries – Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte (IEC 60086-

5:2005)
ICS 29.220.10 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 60086-5:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60086-5
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM May 2005
ICS 29.220.10 Supersedes EN 60086-5:2000
English version
Primary batteries
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
(IEC 60086-5:2005)
Piles électriques Primärbatterien
Partie 5: Sécurité des piles Teil 5: Sicherheit von Batterien
à électrolyte aqueux mit wässrigem Elektrolyt
(CEI 60086-5:2005) (IEC 60086-5:2005)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-04-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60086-5:2005 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60086-5:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 35/1225/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60086-5, prepared by IEC TC 35, Primary

cells and batteries, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC

as EN 60086-5 on 2005-04-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 60086-5:2000.

It is the result of a reformatting initiative aimed at making it more user-friendly, less ambiguous and,

from a cross-reference point of view, fully harmonized with other parts of EN 60086. In addition, and

from a safety perspective, the standard contains further guidance for appliance designers with respect

to battery compartment design together with information regarding packaging, handling, warehousing

and transportation.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2006-02-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2008-04-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60086-5:2005 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60086-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60086-3:2005 (not modified).
IEC 60086-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60086-4:2000 (not modified).
IEC 60068-2-6 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-6:1995 (not modified).
IEC 60068-2-27 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-27:1993 (not modified).
IEC 60068-2-32 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-32:1993 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 60086-5:2005
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-482 2004 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary- -
Part 482: Primary and secondary cells
and batteries
IEC 60086-1 2000 Primary batteries EN 60086-1 2001
Part 1: General
IEC 60086-2 2000 Part 2: Physical and electrical EN 60086-2 2001
specifications
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE IEC
60086-5
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
2005-04
Piles électriques –
Partie 5:
Sécurité des piles à électrolyte aqueux
Primary batteries –
Part 5:
Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
© IEC 2005 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

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Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................7

INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................11

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................13

2 Normative references .....................................................................................................13

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................13

4 Requirements for safety .................................................................................................17

4.1 Design...................................................................................................................17

4.1.1 General .....................................................................................................17

4.1.2 Venting......................................................................................................17

4.1.3 Insulation resistance ....................................................................................17

4.2 Quality plan...........................................................................................................17

5 Sampling ........................................................................................................................19

5.1 General .................................................................................................................19

5.2 Sampling for type approval....................................................................................19

6 Testing and requirements ...............................................................................................21

6.1 General .................................................................................................................21

6.1.1 Safety notice .............................................................................................23

6.1.2 Ambient temperature .................................................................................23

6.2 Intended use .........................................................................................................23

6.2.1 Intended use tests and requirements .........................................................23

6.2.2 Intended use test procedures ....................................................................23

6.3 Reasonably foreseeable misuse ............................................................................29

6.3.1 Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements............................29

6.3.2 Reasonably foreseeable misuse test procedures.............................................29

7 Information for safety......................................................................................................33

7.1 Safety precautions during handling of batteries .....................................................33

7.2 Packaging .............................................................................................................37

7.3 Handling of battery cartons....................................................................................39

7.4 Display and storage...............................................................................................39

7.5 Transportation.......................................................................................................39

7.6 Disposal ................................................................................................................39

8 Instructions for use.........................................................................................................41

9 Marking ..........................................................................................................................41

9.1 General .................................................................................................................41

9.2 Small batteries ......................................................................................................41

Annex A (informative) Additional information to Subclause 7.4.............................................43

Annex B (informative) Battery compartment design guidelines .............................................45

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................69

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 5 –

Figure 1 – Sampling for type approval tests and number of batteries required.......................19

Figure 2 – Temperature cycling procedure ............................................................................29

Figure 3 – Incorrect installation (four batteries in series).......................................................31

Figure 4 – External short circuit ............................................................................................31

Figure 5 – Overdischarge......................................................................................................33

Figure 6 – XYZ axes for free fall ...........................................................................................33

Figure 7 – Ingestion gauge ...................................................................................................37

Figure B.1 – Example of series connection with one battery reversed ...................................45

Figure B.2 – Positive contact recessed between ribs ............................................................49

Figure B.3 – Positive contact recessed within surrounding insulation ....................................49

Figure B.4 – Negative contact U-shaped to ensure no positive (+) battery contact ................51

Figure B.5 – Design with respect to battery orientation .........................................................53

Figure B.6 – Example of the design of a positive contact of an appliance..............................55

Figure B.7 – Example of a short circuit, a switch is piercing the battery insulating jacket ......57

Figure B.8 – Typical example of insulation to prevent short circuit ........................................57

Figure B.9 – Insertion against spring (to be avoided) ............................................................59

Figure B.10 – Examples showing distorted springs ...............................................................59

Figure B.11 – One example of protected insertion.................................................................59

Figure B.12 – Example of negative contacts .........................................................................63

Figure B.13 – Example of series connection of batteries with voltage tapping .......................65

Table 1 – Test matrix ............................................................................................................21

Table 2 – Intended use tests and requirements.....................................................................23

Table 3 – Shock pulse ..........................................................................................................25

Table 4 – Test sequence.......................................................................................................25

Table 5 – Test sequence.......................................................................................................27

Table 6 – Reasonably foreseeable misuse tests and requirements .......................................29

Table B.1 – Dimensions of battery terminals and recommended dimensions of the

positive contact of an appliance in Figure B.6 .......................................................................55

Table B.2 – Minimum wire diameters ....................................................................................61

Table B.3 – Dimensions of the negative battery terminal.......................................................63

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60086-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 35:

Primary cells and batteries.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2000, and constitutes a

technical revision. It is the result of a reformatting initiative aimed at making it more user-

friendly, less ambiguous and, from a cross-reference point of view, fully harmonized with

other parts of IEC 60086. In addition, and from a safety perspective, the standard contains

further guidance for appliance designers with respect to battery compartment design together

with information regarding packaging, handling, warehousing and transportation.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
35/1225/FDIS 35/1228/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 9 –

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IEC 60086 consists of the following parts, under the general title Primary batteries:

Part 1: General
Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications
Part 3: Watch batteries
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 11 –
INTRODUCTION

The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property.

This part of IEC 60086 specifies requirements and tests for primary batteries with aqueous

electrolyte and has been prepared in accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account

all relevant national and international standards which apply. Also included in this standard is

guidance for appliance designers with respect to battery compartments and information

regarding packaging, handling, warehousing and transportation.

Safety is a balance between freedom from risks of harm and other demands to be met by the

product. There can be no absolute safety. Even at the highest level of safety, the product can

only be relatively safe. In this respect, decision-making is based on risk evaluation and safety

judgement.

As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisions

and recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this standard, when followed on

a judicious "use when applicable" basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards for

safety.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 13 –
PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60086 specifies tests and requirements for primary batteries with aqueous

electrolyte to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable

misuse.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-482:2004, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries
IEC 60086-1:2000, Primary batteries – Part 1: General

IEC 60086-2:2000, Primary batteries – Part 2: Physical and electrical specifications

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in IEC 60050-482 and IEC 60086-1

(some of which are repeated below for convenience) apply, together with the following

definitions.
3.1
battery (primary)
one or more primary cells, including case, terminals and marking
3.2
button battery

small round battery, where the overall height is less than the diameter; batteries complying

with Figures 2, 3 and 4 of IEC 60086-2
3.3
cell (primary)

source of electrical energy obtained by the direct conversion of chemical energy that is not

designed to be charged by any other electrical source
3.4
cylindrical battery

primary battery with cylindrical geometry where the overall height is equal to or greater than

the diameter; batteries complying with Figures 1a and 1b of IEC 60086-2
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 15 –
3.5
explosion (battery explosion)

an instantaneous release wherein solid matter from any part of the battery is propelled to a

distance greater than 25 cm away from the battery
3.6
harm

physical injury or damage to health of people, or damage to property or the environment

3.7
hazard
potential source of harm

NOTE The term hazard can be qualified in order to define its origin or the nature of the expected harm (e.g.

electric shock hazard, crushing hazard, cutting hazard, toxic hazard, fire hazard, drowning hazard).

3.8
intended use

use of a product, process or service in accordance with information provided by the supplier

3.9
leakage
unplanned escape of electrolyte, gas or other material from a battery
3.10
nominal voltage

suitable approximate value of voltage used to identify the voltage of a primary battery

3.11
prismatic battery

primary battery with non-round geometry; batteries complying with IEC 60086-2, Subclause

6.7, category 6
3.12
reasonably foreseeable misuse

use of a product, process or service in a way not intended by the supplier, but which may

result from readily predictable human behaviour
3.13
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of a harm and the severity of that harm

3.14
safety
freedom from unacceptable risk
3.15
venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a battery in a manner intended by design to

preclude explosion
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 17 –
4 Requirements for safety
4.1 Design
4.1.1 General

Batteries shall be so designed that they do not present a safety hazard under conditions of

normal (intended) use and reasonable foreseeable misuse.
4.1.2 Venting

All batteries shall incorporate a pressure relief feature or shall be so constructed that they will

relieve excessive internal pressure at a value and rate which will preclude explosion. If

encapsulation is necessary to support cells within an outer case, the type of encapsulant and

the method of encapsulation shall not cause the battery to overheat during normal operation

nor inhibit the operation of the pressure relief feature.

The battery case material and/or its final assembly shall be so designed that, in the event of

one or more cells venting, the battery case does not present a hazard in its own right.

4.1.3 Insulation resistance

The insulation resistance between externally exposed metal surfaces of the battery excluding

electrical contact surfaces and either terminal shall be not less than 5 MΩ at (500 ± 20) V.

4.2 Quality plan

The manufacturer shall prepare a quality plan defining the procedures for the inspection of

materials, components, cells and batteries during the course of manufacture, to be applied to

the total process of producing a specific type of battery.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 19 –
5 Sampling
5.1 General

Samples should be drawn from production lots in accordance with accepted statistical

methods.
5.2 Sampling for type approval
The following number of samples are drawn for type approval.
Open circuit voltage (n = 70)
Dimensions (n = 70)
Intended uuse se
Reasonably
foreseeable
misuse
A B-1 B-2 C
Partial Transportation Transportation Climatic
use shock vibration (n = 5)
(n = 5) (n = 5) (n = 5)
D E F G
Incorrect External Over- Free
installation short discharge fall
see NOTE 1 circuit see NOTE 2
(n = 20) (n = 5) (n = 20) (n = 5)
IEC 929/2000

NOTE 1 Four batteries connected in series with one of the four batteries reversed (5 sets).

NOTE 2 Four batteries connected in series, one of which is discharged (5 sets).
Figure 1 – Sampling for type approval tests and number of batteries required
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 21 –
6 Testing and requirements
6.1 General
Test methods and requirements are shown in Table 1.

Tests described in Tables 2 and 6 are intended to simulate conditions which the battery is

likely to encounter during intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.
Table 1 – Test matrix
Nominal Applicable tests
System Negative Positive voltage
Electrolyte
A B-1 C D E F G
letter electrode electrode
per cell
B-2
- Zinc Ammonium Manganese 1,5
R x x x x x x x
chloride dioxide
Zinc B NR
chloride
M x x x NR x x x
A Zinc Ammonium Oxygen 1,4
R x x x NR x x x
chloride
Zinc B NR
chloride
M x x x NR x x x
L Zinc Alkali metal Manganese 1,5
R x x x x x x x
hydroxide dioxide
B x x x NR x NR x
M x x x NR x NR x
P Zinc Alkali metal Oxygen 1,4
R NR
hydroxide
B NR x x NR x NR x
M NR
S Zinc Alkali metal Silver oxide 1,55
R x x x NR x NR x
hydroxide (Ag O)
B x x x NR x NR x
M NR
Test description:
Key
A: storage after partial use x: required
B-1: transportation shock R: cylindrical (3.4) NR: not required
B-2: transportation vibration B: button (3.2)
C: climatic-temperature cycling M: multicell
D: incorrect installation
E: external short circuit
F: overdischarge
G: free fall

Systems L and S button cells or batteries under 250 mAh capacity and system P button cells or batteries under

700 mAh capacity are exempt from any testing.
Form
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 23 –
6.1.1 Safety notice
WARNING

These tests call for the use of procedures which may result in injury if adequate precautions

are not taken.

It has been assumed in the drafting of these tests that their execution is undertaken by

appropriately qualified and experienced technicians using adequate protection.
6.1.2 Ambient temperature
Unless otherwise specified, these tests shall be carried out at (20 ± 5) °C.
6.2 Intended use
6.2.1 Intended use tests and requirements
Table 2 – Intended use tests and requirements
Test Intended use simulation Requirements
Electrical test A Storage after partial use No leakage (NL)
No explosion (NE)
Environmental tests B-1 Transportation shock No leakage (NL)
No explosion (NE)
B-2 Transportation vibration No leakage (NL)
No explosion (NE)
Climatic-temperature C Climatic-temperature cycling No explosion (NE)
6.2.2 Intended use test procedures
6.2.2.1 Test A – storage after partial use
a) Purpose

This test simulates the situation when an appliance is switched off and the installed

batteries are partly discharged. These batteries may be left in the appliance for a long

time or they are removed from the appliance and stored for a long time.
b) Test procedure

An undischarged battery is discharged under an application/service output test condition,

with the lowest resistive load test as defined in IEC 60086-2 until the service life falls by

50 % of the minimum average duration (MAD) value, followed by storage at 45 °C ± 5 °C

for 30 days.
c) Requirements
There shall be no leakage and no explosion during this test.
6.2.2.2 Test B-1 – Transportation shock
a) Purpose

This test simulates the situation when an appliance is carelessly dropped with batteries

installed in it. This test condition is generally specified in IEC 60068-2-27.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
60086-5 © IEC:2005 – 25 –
b) Test procedure
An undischarged battery shall be tested as f
...

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