Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries

IEC 62485-3:2014 applies to secondary batteries and battery installations used for electric vehicles, e.g. in electric industrial trucks (including lift trucks, tow trucks, cleaning machines, automatic guided vehicles), in battery powered locomotives, in electric vehicles (e.g. goods vehicles, golf carts, bicycles, wheelchairs), and does not cover the design of such vehicles. It provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the installation, use, inspection, maintenance and disposal of batteries. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) a comprehensive revision of Clause 6, presenting a unified and changed formula for the calculation of the required ventilation air flow during battery charging; b) addition of requirements for properties of floor material and battery changing equipment in Clause 9.

Sicherheitsanforderungen an Batterien und Batterieanlagen - Teil 3: Antriebsbatterien für Elektrofahrzeuge

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries - Partie 3: Batteries de traction

L'IEC 62485-3:2014 s'applique aux installations d'éléments et de batteries d'accumulateurs utilisés pour les véhicules électriques, par exemple, dans les chariots électriques industriels (incluant les chariots élévateurs, les tracteurs électriques, les machines de nettoyage, les véhicules automatiques guidés),les locomotives alimentées par batteries, les véhicules électriques routiers (par exemple, les véhicules pour le transport de marchandises, les voiturettes de golf, les bicyclettes, les chaises roulantes), et ne couvre pas la conception de tels véhicules. Elle fournit les exigences concernant les aspects de sécurité liés à la mise en oeuvre, à l'utilisation, au contrôle, à la maintenance et à la mise au rebut des batteries. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) un remaniement global de l'Article 6, donnant une formule unifiée et changée du calcul du débit d'air de ventilation requis pendant la charge de batteries; b) l'addition dans l'Article 9 des exigences de qualité du revêtement de sol et du matériel pour changer des batteries.

Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave - 3. del: Vlečne baterije (IEC 62485-3:2014)

Ta del standarda IEC 62485 velja za sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave, ki se uporabljajo v električnih vozilih, npr. v električnih industrijskih kamionih (vključno z viličarji, vlečnimi vozili, stroji za čiščenje, avtomatsko vodenimi vozili), lokomotivah z baterijskim pogonom, električnih vozilih (npr. tovorna vozila, vozički za golf, kolesa, invalidski vozički), in ne zajema zasnove takšnih vozil.
Ta mednarodni standard zajema svinčev dioksid-svinčene (svinčeno-kislinske), nikelj-kadmijeve, nikelj-kovinske hidridne in druge sekundarne alkalne baterije. Varnostni vidiki sekundarnih litijevih baterij pri takšni uporabi bodo obravnavani v ustreznih standardih zanje. Nazivne napetosti so omejene na 1000 V izmenične in 1500 V enosmerne napetosti; opisani so glavni ukrepi za zaščito pred nevarnostmi, na splošno pred elektriko, izpusti plina in elektroliti. Standard določa zahteve glede varnostnih vidikov, povezanih z namestitvijo, uporabo, inšpekcijskimi pregledi, vzdrževanjem in odstranjevanjem baterij.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Oct-2014
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
10-Oct-2014
Completion Date
10-Oct-2014

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Sicherheitsanforderungen an Batterien und Batterieanlagen - Teil 3: Antriebsbatterien für Elektrofahrzeuge (IEC 62485-3:2014)Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries -- Partie 3: Batteries de traction (CEI 62485-3:2014)Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries (IEC 62485-3:2014)29.220.20EDWHULMHAcid secondary cells and batteriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 62485-3:2014SIST EN 62485-3:2015en01-maj-2015SIST EN 62485-3:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 62485-3:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 62485-3
October 2014 ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30; 43.040.10
Supersedes
EN 50272-3:2002
English Version

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 3: Traction batteries (IEC 62485-3:2014)

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries - Partie 3: Batteries de traction (CEI 62485-3:2014)

Sicherheitsanforderungen an Batterien und Batterieanlagen - Teil 3: Antriebsbatterien für Elektrofahrzeuge (IEC 62485-3:2014) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2014-08-14. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62485-3:2014 E SIST EN 62485-3:2015

EN 62485-3:2014 - 2 - Foreword The text of document 21/834/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 62485-3, prepared by IEC/TC 21 "Secondary cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 62485-3:2014. The following dates are fixed: – latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2015-05-14 – latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2017-08-14

This document supersedes EN 50272-3:2002. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 62485-3:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated : IEC 61429 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61429.

SIST EN 62485-3:2015
- 3 - EN 62485-3:2014 Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies. NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60204-1

Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 1: General requirements EN 60204-1 -

IEC 60364-4-41 (mod) - 2005

- Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 4-41: Protection for safety - Protection against electric shock HD 60364-4-41 + corrigendum Jul. 2007

2007
IEC 60900 -
Live working - Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c. EN 60900 -
IEC 61140 -

Protection against electric shock - Common aspects for installation and equipment EN 61140 -

ISO 3864 series
Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - -
SIST EN 62485-3:2015
SIST EN 62485-3:2015

IEC 62485-3 Edition 2.0 2014-07 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –

Part 3: Traction batteries
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs et les installations
de batteries –
Partie 3: Batteries de traction

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE S ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30; 43.040.10 PRICE CODE CODE PRIX ISBN 978-2-8322-1690-3

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 62485-3:2015

– 2 – IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6 2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................... 6 4 Protection against electric shock by the battery and charger ............................................. 8 4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8 4.2 Protection against both direct and indirect contact ................................................... 9 4.3 Protection against direct and indirect contact when discharging the traction battery on the vehicle (battery disconnected from charger/mains) ............................ 9 4.4 Protection against direct and indirect contact when charging the traction battery .................................................................................................................. 10 5 Prevention of short circuits and protection from other effects of electric current .............. 10 5.1 Cables and cell connectors .................................................................................... 10 5.2 Protective measures during maintenance .............................................................. 10 5.3 Battery insulation................................................................................................... 11 6 Provisions against explosion hazards by ventilation ........................................................ 11 6.1 Gas generation ..................................................................................................... 11 6.2 Ventilation requirements ........................................................................................ 12 6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12 6.2.2 Calculation of the minimum ventilation air flow ............................................... 12 6.2.3 Recommended charging practice ................................................................... 13 6.2.4 Special chargers ............................................................................................ 14 6.2.5 Multiple charging ............................................................................................ 14 6.3 Natural ventilation ................................................................................................. 14 6.4 Forced ventilation .................................................................................................. 15 6.5 Close vicinity to the battery .................................................................................... 15 6.6 Ventilation of battery compartment ........................................................................ 15 7 Provisions against electrolyte hazard .............................................................................. 15 7.1 Electrolyte and water ............................................................................................. 15 7.2 Protective clothing ................................................................................................. 15 7.3 Accidental contact, "first aid" ................................................................................. 16 7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16 7.3.2 Eye contact .................................................................................................... 16 7.3.3 Skin contact ................................................................................................... 16 7.4 Battery accessories and maintenance tools ........................................................... 16 8 Battery containers and enclosures .................................................................................. 16 9 Accommodation for charging/maintenance ..................................................................... 16 10 Battery peripheral equipment/accessories ...................................................................... 17 10.1 Battery monitoring system ..................................................................................... 17 10.2 Central water filling system .................................................................................... 18 10.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18 10.2.2 Safety aspects ............................................................................................... 18 10.3 Central degassing systems .................................................................................... 18 10.4 Thermal management systems .............................................................................. 19 10.5 Electrolyte agitation system ................................................................................... 19 10.6 Catalyst vent plugs ................................................................................................ 19 SIST EN 62485-3:2015

IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 – 10.7 Connectors (plugs/sockets) ................................................................................... 19 11 Identification labels, warning notices and instructions for use, installation and maintenance .................................................................................................................. 19 11.1 Warning labels ...................................................................................................... 19 11.2 Identification label ................................................................................................. 20 11.3 Instructions ........................................................................................................... 20 11.4 Other labels .......................................................................................................... 20 12 Transportation, storage, disposal and environmental aspects ......................................... 20 12.1 Packing and transport ........................................................................................... 20 12.2 Disassembly, disposal, and recycling of batteries ................................................... 21 13 Inspection and monitoring .............................................................................................. 21 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 22

Table 1 – Guideline: Maximum final charging current in A per 100 Ah during normal conditions of use ................................................................................................................... 14

SIST EN 62485-3:2015

– 4 – IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION _____________

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY BATTERIES
AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 3: Traction batteries

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 62485-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21: Secondary cells and batteries.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2010. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) a comprehensive revision of Clause 6, presenting a unified and changed formula for the calculation of the required ventilation air flow during battery charging; b) addition of requirements for properties of floor material and battery changing equipment in Clause 9. SIST EN 62485-3:2015

IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 – The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 21/834/FDIS 21/843/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. A list of all parts of the IEC 62485 series can be found, under the general title Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations, on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 62485-3:2015
– 6 – IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY BATTERIES
AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 3: Traction batteries

1 Scope This part of the IEC 62485 applies to secondary batteries and battery installations used for electric vehicles, e.g. in electric industrial trucks (including lift trucks, tow trucks, cleaning machines, automatic guided vehicles), in battery powered locomotives, in electric vehicles (e.g. goods vehicles, golf carts, bicycles, wheelchairs), and does not cover the design of such vehicles.

This International Standard covers lead dioxide-lead (lead-acid), nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel-oxide-metal hydride and other alkaline secondary batteries. Safety aspects of secondary lithium batteries in such applications will be covered in their own appropriate standards. The nominal voltages are limited to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c. respectively and the principal measures for protection against hazards generally from electricity, gas emission and electrolyte are described. It provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the installation, use, inspection, maintenance and disposal of batteries. 2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60204-1, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – Part 1: General requirements IEC 60364-4-41:2005, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety –Protection against electric shock IEC 60900, Live working – Hand tools for use up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V d.c. IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and equipment ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1

secondary cell cell which is designed to be electrically recharged Note 1 to entry: The recharge is accomplished by way of a reversible chemical reaction. SIST EN 62485-3:2015

IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 – 3.2

lead dioxide lead battery accumulators (deprecated) secondary battery with an aqueous electrolyte based on dilute sulphuric acid, a positive electrode of lead dioxide and a negative electrode of lead

3.3

nickel oxide cadmium battery secondary battery with an alkaline electrolyte, a positive electrode containing nickel oxide and a negative electrode of cadmium 3.4

vented cell a secondary cell having a cover provided with an opening through which products of electrolysis and evaporation are allowed to escape freely from the cell to the atmosphere

3.5
valve regulated lead-acid battery VRLA

secondary battery in which cells are closed but have a valve which allows the escape of gas if the internal

pressure exceeds a predetermined value Note 1 to entry: The cell cannot normally receive addition to the electrolyte.

3.6

gas-tight sealed cell gas-tight sealed secondary cell secondary cell which remains closed and does not release either gas or liquid when operated within the limits of charge and temperature specified by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: The cell may be equipped with a safety device to prevent dangerously high internal pressure.

Note 2 to entry: The cell does not require addition to the electrolyte and is designed to operate during its life in its original sealed state.

3.7

secondary battery two or more secondary cells connected together and used as a source of electrical energy 3.8

traction battery secondary battery which is designed to provide the propulsion energy for electric vehicles 3.9

monobloc battery battery with multiple separate but electrically connected cell compartments each of which is designed to house an assembly of electrodes, electrolyte, terminals and interconnections and possible separator Note 1 to entry: The cells in a monobloc battery can be connected in series or parallel. 3.10

electrolyte liquid or solid substance containing mobile ions which render it ionically conductive Note 1 to entry: The electrolyte may be a liquid, solid or a gel. 3.11

gassing of a cell evolution of gas resulting from the electrolysis of water in the electrolyte of the cell SIST EN 62485-3:2015

– 8 – IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 3.12

charging of a battery operation during which a secondary cell or battery is supplied with electrical energy from an external circuit which results in chemical changes within the cell and thus storage of energy as chemical energy 3.13

equalisation charge

extended charge to ensure an equal state of charge of all cells in a battery 3.14

opportunity charging

use of free time during a work period to top up the charge and thus extend the work period of a battery whilst avoiding excessive discharge 3.15

overcharge continued charging of a fully charged secondary cell or battery

Note 1 to entry: Overcharge is also the act of charging beyond a certain limit specified by the manufacturer. 3.16

discharge

discharge of a battery operation during which a battery delivers, to an external circuit and under specified conditions, electrical energy produced in the cells 3.17

peripheral equipment battery peripheral equipment equipment installed on the battery, which supports or monitors the operation of the battery Note 1 to entry: Examples are a central water filling system, an electrolyte agitation system, a battery monitoring system, a central de-gassing system, the battery connectors (plugs and sockets), a thermal management system, etc. 3.18

charging room room or closed area intended specifically for recharging batteries Note 1 to entry: The room may also be used for battery maintenance. 3.19

charging area open area designated and made suitable for recharging batteries Note 1 to entry: The area may also be used for maintenance of batteries and battery related equipment. 4 Protection against electric shock by the battery and charger

4.1 General Measures shall be taken on traction batteries and in traction battery charging installations for protection against either direct contact or indirect contact, or against both direct and indirect contact.

These measures are described in detail in IEC 60364-4-41 and IEC 61140. The following clauses and the resulting amendments describe the typical measures to be taken for traction battery installations.

SIST EN 62485-3:2015

IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 – 9 – The appropriate equipment standard IEC 61140 applies to batteries and direct current distribution circuits located inside equipment. 4.2 Protection against both direct and indirect contact

On batteries and in battery charging installations protection against direct contact with live parts shall be ensured in accordance with IEC 60364-4-41.

The following protective measures against direct contact apply: – protection by insulation of live parts; – protection by barriers or enclosures; – protection by obstacles; – protection by placing out of reach. The following protective measures against indirect contact apply: – protection by automatic disconnection or signalling; – protection by protective insulation; – protection by earth-free local equipotential bonding; – protection by electrical separation. 4.3 Protection against direct and indirect contact when discharging the traction battery on the vehicle (battery disconnected from charger/mains) 4.3.1 For batteries having a nominal voltage up to and including 60 V d.c., protection against electric shock caused by direct contact is not formally required, as long as the whole installation corresponds to the conditions for safety extra low voltage (SELV) and protective extra low voltage (PELV).

NOTE The nominal voltage of a lead dioxide - lead cell (lead acid) is 2,0 V, that of a nickel oxide – cadmium or nickel oxide - metal hydride cell is 1,2 V. When these cells are boost charged, their voltage can reach 2,7 V in lead acid or 1,6 V in nickel oxide based systems. However, for other reasons, e.g. short circuits, mechanical damage etc., all batteries in electrical vehicles shall be protected against direct contact of live parts, even if the battery nominal voltage is 60 V d.c. or less.

4.3.2 For batteries having a nominal voltage above 60 V d.c. and up to and including 120 V d.c., protection against electric shock caused by direct contact is required.

NOTE Batteries with nominal voltage up to and including 120 V d.c. are regarded as safe power sources for SELV-systems (safety extra low voltage) or PELV-systems (protective extra low voltage), see IEC 60364-4-41:2005,411.1. The following protective measures apply: – protection by insulation of live parts; – protection by barriers or enclosures – protection by obstacles; – protection by placing out of reach. If the protection against direct contact of live parts is ensured only by obstacles or placing out of reach, access to the battery accommodation shall be restricted to trained and authorized personnel only, and the battery accommodation shall be marked by appropriate warning labels (see Clause 11).

For batteries having a nominal voltage exceeding 120 V d.c., protective measures against both direct and indirect contact are required.

SIST EN 62485-3:2015

– 10 – IEC 62485-3:2014 © IEC 2014 Battery compartments with batteries having a nominal voltage exceeding 120 V d.c. shall be locked and have access restricted to trained and authorized personnel only and shall be marked by appropriate warning labels (see Clause 11). For batteries with a nominal voltage exceeding 120 V d.c., the following protective measures against indirect contact apply: – protection by electrical insulation of live parts; – protection by earth-free equipotential local bonding; – protection by automatic disconnection or signalling. 4.4 Protection against direct and indirect contact when charging the traction battery When battery chargers with safe galvanic separation from the feeding mains are used according to IEC 61140, the protective measures SELV or PELV shall be applied. If the nominal voltage of the battery does not exceed 60 V d.c. protection against direct contact is not formally required, as long as the total installation corresponds to conditions of SELV or PELV. When the battery charger does not comply with these requirements, then the protective measures against direct and indirect contact shall be applied according to IEC 60364-4-41. However, for other reasons, e.g. short circuits, mechanical damage etc., all batteries in electrical vehicles shall be protected against direct contact of live parts, even if the battery nominal voltage is 60 V d.c. or less.

5 Prevention of short circuits and protection from other effects of electric current 5.1 Cables and cell connectors Cables and cell connectors shall be insulated to prevent short circuits.

If protection against short circuits cannot be provided by over-current protection devices for battery-specific reasons, then the connecting cables between charger, respective battery fuse, and battery, and between battery and vehicle shall be protected against short circuits and earth fault. The cables shall meet the requirements of IEC 60204-1. When a trailing cable is used, the protection against short circuits shall be improved by the use of single core cable according to IEC 60204-1. However, where the battery nominal voltage is less than or equal to 120 V d.c., a trailing cable of grade H01N2D, for higher flexibility, can be used. The battery terminal cables shall be fixed in a manner that prevents tensile and torsional strain on the battery terminals. Insulation shall be resistant to the effects of ambient influences such as temperature, electrol

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