Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models - Model validation

IEC 61400-27-2:2020 specifies procedures for validation of electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power plants, intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The validation procedures are based on the tests specified in IEC 61400-21 (all parts). The validation procedures are applicable to the generic models specified in IEC 61400-27-1 and to other fundamental frequency wind power plant models and wind turbine models. The validation procedures for wind turbine models focus on fault ride through capability and control performance. The fault ride through capability includes response to balanced and unbalanced voltage dips as well as voltage swells. The control performance includes active power control, frequency control, synthetic inertia control and reactive power control. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the tests specified in IEC 61400-21-1. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the wind turbine terminals.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-2: Elektrische Simulationsmodelle - Validierung der Modelle

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 27-2: Modèles de simulation électrique - Validation des modèles

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 27-2. del: Električni simulacijski modeli - Validacija modela (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)

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Status
Published
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
25-Sep-2020
Completion Date
25-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
01-december-2020

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 27-2. del: Električni simulacijski modeli -

Validacija modela (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)
Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models - Model
validation (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)
Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-2: Elektrische Simulationsmodelle - Validierung der
Modelle (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 27-2: Modèles de simulation
électrique - Validation des modèles (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
ICS:
27.180 Vetrne elektrarne Wind turbine energy systems
SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61400-27-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 27.180
English Version
Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-2: Electrical
simulation models - Model validation
(IEC 61400-27-2:2020)

Systèmes de génération d'énergie éolienne - Partie 27-2: Windenergieanlagen - Teil 27-2: Elektrische

Modèles de simulation électrique - Validation des modèles Simulationsmodelle - Validierung der Modelle

(IEC 61400-27-2:2020) (IEC 61400-27-2:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2020-08-18. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020 E
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 88/763/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61400-27-2, prepared by IEC/TC 88 "Wind

energy generation systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-05-18

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2023-08-18

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-27-2:2020 was approved by CENELEC as a

European Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 61400-21-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61400-21-2
IEC 61400-25 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 61400-25 (series)
To be published. Stage at the time of publication: prEN IEC 61400-21-2:2020.
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications with their
corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod),

the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-415 1999 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - - -
Part 415: Wind turbine generator systems

IEC 61400-21-1 2019 Wind energy generation systems - Part 21-1: EN IEC 61400-21-1 2019

Measurement and assessment of electrical
characteristics - Wind turbines
IEC 61400-27-1 - Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-1: - -
Electrical simulation models - Generic
models
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
IEC 61400-27-2
Edition 1.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models – Model validation
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-8506-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 11

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 11

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 15

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 15

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 15

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 15

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 16

5 Functional specifications and requirements to validation procedures ............................. 18

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

5.2 General specifications ........................................................................................... 18

5.3 Wind turbine model validation ............................................................................... 20

5.4 Wind power plant model validation ........................................................................ 20

6 General methodologies for model validation .................................................................. 20

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

6.2 Test results ........................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Simulations ........................................................................................................... 21

6.4 Signal processing ................................................................................................. 21

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

6.4.2 Time series processing .................................................................................. 21

6.4.3 Windows error statistics ................................................................................. 23

6.4.4 FRT windows specification ............................................................................ 24

6.4.5 Step response characteristics ........................................................................ 25

7 Validation of wind turbine models .................................................................................. 27

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Fault ride through capability .................................................................................. 27

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 27

7.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 28

7.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 29

7.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 29

7.3 Active power control ............................................................................................. 29

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 29

7.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 30

7.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 30

7.4 Frequency control ................................................................................................. 30

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

7.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 30

7.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 31

7.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 31

7.5 Synthetic inertia control ........................................................................................ 31

7.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 3 –

7.5.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 31

7.5.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 32

7.5.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 32

7.6 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 32

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 32

7.6.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 32

7.6.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.6.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 33

7.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 33

7.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 33

7.7.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 33

7.7.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 33

7.7.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 34

7.8 Grid protection ...................................................................................................... 34

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 34

7.8.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 34

7.8.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 34

7.8.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 35

8 Validation of wind power plant models ........................................................................... 35

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 35

8.2 Active power control ............................................................................................. 35

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

8.2.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 36

8.2.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 36

8.2.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 36

8.3 Reactive power reference control .......................................................................... 36

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

8.3.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 37

8.3.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 37

8.3.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 37

8.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ........................................................... 37

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

8.4.2 Test requirements .......................................................................................... 38

8.4.3 Simulation requirements ................................................................................ 38

8.4.4 Validation results ........................................................................................... 38

Annex A (informative) Validation documentation for wind turbine model ............................... 39

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

A.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 39

A.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 39

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 39

A.3.2 Fault ride through capability ........................................................................... 40

A.3.3 Active power control ...................................................................................... 42

A.3.4 Frequency control .......................................................................................... 42

A.3.5 Synthetic inertia control ................................................................................. 43

A.3.6 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 43

A.3.7 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 44

A.3.8 Grid protection ............................................................................................... 45

Annex B (informative) Validation documentation for wind power plant model........................ 46

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 46

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
– 4 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020

B.2 Simulation model and validation setup information ................................................ 46

B.3 Template for validation results .............................................................................. 46

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46

B.3.2 Active power control ...................................................................................... 47

B.3.3 Reactive power reference control .................................................................. 47

B.3.4 Reactive power – voltage reference control ................................................... 48

Annex C (informative) Reference grid for model-to-model validation .................................... 49

Annex D (informative) Model validation uncertainty .............................................................. 50

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 50

D.2 Simulation uncertainties ........................................................................................ 50

D.3 Measurement uncertainties ................................................................................... 50

D.4 Impact of model validation uncertainties ............................................................... 51

Annex E (normative) Digital 2 order critically damped low pass filter ................................ 52

Annex F (informative) Additional performance based model validation methodology for

active power recovery in voltage dips.................................................................................... 53

F.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

F.2 Active power recovery criterion ............................................................................. 53

F.3 Active power oscillation criterion ........................................................................... 53

Annex G (informative) Generic software interface for use of models in different

software environments .......................................................................................................... 55

G.1 Description of the approach .................................................................................. 55

G.2 Description of the software interface ..................................................................... 56

G.2.1 Description of data structures ........................................................................ 56

G.2.2 Functions for communication through the ESE-interface ................................ 58

G.2.3 Inputs, outputs, parameters ........................................................................... 59

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 60

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [1] ............................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Signal processing structure with play-back simulation approach applied .............. 22

Figure 3 – Signal processing structure with full-system simulation approach applied ............. 22

Figure 4 – Voltage dip windows [12] ...................................................................................... 24

Figure 5 – Step response characteristics .............................................................................. 26

Figure 6 – Measured and simulated settling time with inexpedient choice of tolerance

band ..................................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence voltage ................... 40

Figure A.2 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence active current ......... 40

Figure A.3 – Time series of measured and simulated positive sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 40

Figure A.4 – Time series of calculated absolute error of positive sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 40

Figure A.5 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence voltage .................. 41

Figure A.6 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence active current ........ 41

Figure A.7 – Time series of measured and simulated negative sequence reactive

current .................................................................................................................................. 41

Figure A.8 – Time series of calculated absolute error of negative sequence active and

reactive current ..................................................................................................................... 41

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure A.9 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 42

Figure A.10 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.11 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.12 – Time series of frequency reference value and measured input to WT

controller .............................................................................................................................. 43

Figure A.13 – Time series of available active power, measured active power and

simulated active power ......................................................................................................... 43

Figure A.14 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 44

Figure A.15 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................. 44

Figure A.16 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................. 44

Figure B.1 – Time series of active power reference, available active power, measured

active power and simulated active power .............................................................................. 47

Figure B.2 – Time series of reactive power reference, measured reactive power and

simulated reactive power ...................................................................................................... 47

Figure B.3 – Time series of measured active power and simulated active power ................... 47

Figure B.4 – Time series of measured and simulated reactive power .................................... 48

Figure C.1 – Layout of reference grid .................................................................................... 49

Figure F.1 – Voltage dip active power performance validation parameters ............................ 54

Figure G.1 – Sequence of simulation on use of ESE-interface .............................................. 59

Table 1 – Windows applied for error calculations .................................................................. 25

Table A.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 39

Table A.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 39

Table A.3 – Positive sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 41

Table A.4 – Negative sequence validation summary for each voltage dip and voltage

swell validation case ............................................................................................................. 42

Table A.5 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 42

Table A.6 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 44

Table A.7 – Validation summary for grid protection ............................................................... 45

Table B.1 – Required information about simulation model and validation setup ..................... 46

Table B.2 – Additional information required if full-system method is applied .......................... 46

Table B.3 – Validation summary for active power control ...................................................... 47

Table B.4 – Validation summary for reactive power control ................................................... 47

Table C.1 – Line data for the WECC test system in per-unit .................................................. 49

Table C.2 – Transformer data for the WECC test system ...................................................... 49

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SIST EN IEC 61400-27-2:2020
– 6 – IEC 61400-27-2:2020  IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
_____________
WIND ENERGY GENERATION SYSTEMS –
Part 27-2: Electrical simulation models –
Model validation
FOREWORD

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