Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 6: Safe operation of lithium-ion batteries in traction applications

IEC 62485-6:2021 applies to battery installations used for electric off-road vehicles; it does not cover the design of such vehicles. Examples of the main applications are: - industrial • cleaning machines, • trucks for material handling, for example, lift trucks, tow trucks, automatic guided vehicles, • electrically propulsed lifting platforms; - other applications • electric powered boats and ships.

Sicherheitsanforderungen an sekundäre Batterien und Batterieanlagen - Teil 6: Sicherer Betrieb von Lithium-Ionen-Batterien in Traktionsanwendungen

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries - Partie 6: Fonctionnement en toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans les applications de traction

L’IEC 62485-6:2021 s’applique aux installations de batteries utilisées pour les véhicules non autorisés à circuler sur le réseau routier, mais ne traite pas de la conception de ce type de véhicule. Exemples des principales applications: - applications industrielles • machines de nettoyage, • chariots de manutention, par exemple, chariots élévateurs, tracteurs électriques, véhicules automatiques guidés, • plateformes de levage à propulsion électrique; - autres applications • bateaux et navires à propulsion électrique.

Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave - 5. del: Varno obratovanje litij-ionskih baterij, uporabljenih za vleko

General Information

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Published
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
12-Feb-2021
Completion Date
12-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
01-april-2021
Varnostne zahteve za sekundarne baterije in baterijske naprave - 5. del: Varno
obratovanje litij-ionskih baterij, uporabljenih za vleko

Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 5: Safe

operation of lithium-ion batteries in traction applications
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 62485-6:2021
ICS:
29.220.20 Kislinski sekundarni členi in Acid secondary cells and
baterije batteries
29.220.30 Alkalni sekundarni členi in Alkaline secondary cells and
baterije batteries
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 62485-6
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2021
ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30
English Version
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery
installations - Part 6: Safe operation of lithium-ion batteries in
traction applications
(IEC 62485-6:2021)

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et Sicherheitsanforderungen an sekundäre Batterien und

les installations de batteries - Partie 6: Fonctionnement en Batterieanlagen – Teil 6: Sicherer Betrieb von Lithium-

toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans les Ionen-Batterien in Traktionsanwendungen

applications de traction (IEC 62485-6:2021)
(IEC 62485-6:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2021-02-09. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 62485-6:2021 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
EN IEC 62485-6:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 21/1071/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62485-6:2021, prepared by IEC/TC 21

"Secondary cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 62485-6:2021.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2021-11-09

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2024-02-09

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62485-6:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60664 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60664 (series)
IEC 60730-1:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60730-1:2016 (modified)

IEC 60730-1:2013/A1:2015 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60730-1:2016/A1:2019 (not modified)

IEC 60730-1:2013/A2:2020 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60730-1:2016/A2:— (not modified)
IEC 60812 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60812
IEC 60900 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60900
IEC 61025 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61025
IEC 61429 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61429
IEC 61508-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61508-1
IEC 62281 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62281
IEC 62485-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62485-1
IEC 62485-3:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62485-3:2014 (not modified)
IEC 62902 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62902
IEC 62928 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62928
IEC 62660 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 62660 (series)
To be published. Stage at the time of publication: EN 60730-1:2016/FprA2:2020.
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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
EN IEC 62485-6:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod),

the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60204-1 - Safety of machinery - Electrical EN 60204-1 -
equipment of machines - Part 1: General
requirements

IEC 60364-4-41 2005 Low-voltage electrical installations - Part HD 60364-4-41 2017

4-41: Protection for safety - Protection
against electric shock
+A1 2017 + A11 2017
- - + A12 2019
IEC 60529 - Degrees of protection provided by - -
enclosures (IP Code)
IEC 61000-1-2 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-1-2 -
Part 1-2: General - Methodology for the
achievement of functional safety of
electrical and electronic systems
including equipment with regard to
electromagnetic phenomena
IEC 61000-6-1 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN IEC 61000-6-1 -
Part 6-1: Generic standards - Immunity
standard for residential, commercial and
light-industrial environments
IEC 61000-6-2 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN IEC 61000-6-2 -
Part 6-2: Generic standards - Immunity
standard for industrial environments
IEC 61000-6-3 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN IEC 61000-6-3 -
Part 6-3: Generic standards - Emission
standard for equipment in residential
environments
To be published. Stage at the time of publication: prEN IEC 61000-6-3:2019.
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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
EN IEC 62485-6:2021 (E)
IEC 61000-6-4 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN IEC 61000-6-4 -
Part 6-4: Generic standards - Emission
standard for industrial environments
IEC 61000-6-7 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - EN 61000-6-7 -
Part 6-7: Generic standards - Immunity
requirements for equipment intended to
perform functions in a safety-related
system (functional safety) in industrial
locations
IEC 61140 - Protection against electric shock - EN 61140 -
Common aspects for installation and
equipment
IEC 62619 2017 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 62619 2017
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Safety requirements for secondary
lithium cells and batteries, for use in
industrial applications
IEC 62620 2014 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 62620 2015
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Secondary lithium cells and batteries for
use in industrial applications
ISO 3864 series Graphical symbols - Safety colours and - -
safety signs
- - Safety of industrial trucks - Electrical EN 1175-1 1998
requirements - Part 1: General
requirements for battery powered trucks
+A1 2010
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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
IEC 62485-6
Edition 1.0 2021-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs et les installations
de batteries –
Partie 6: Fonctionnement en toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans
les applications de traction
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-9126-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
– 2 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Protection against electric shock by the battery and charger .......................................... 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Basic protection and fault protection ..................................................................... 10

4.3 Basic protection and fault protection when discharging the traction battery

on the vehicle (battery disconnected from charger/mains) ..................................... 11

4.3.1 Batteries up to and including 60 V DC ........................................................... 11

4.3.2 For batteries exceeding 60 V DC up to and including 120 V DC ..................... 11

4.3.3 Batteries exceeding 120 V DC but not exceeding 1 500 V DC ........................ 11

4.4 Basic protection and fault protection when charging the traction battery ................ 11

5 Prevention of short-circuits and protection from other effects of electric current ............. 12

5.1 Cables and connectors ......................................................................................... 12

5.2 Protective measures during maintenance .............................................................. 12

5.3 Battery insulation .................................................................................................. 13

5.3.1 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Insulation resistance measurement ................................................................ 13

6 Provisions against hazards ............................................................................................ 13

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Charging modes .................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Temperature influence on the charge voltage and limiting of charge current ......... 14

6.4 Overcharging or overdischarging under fault conditions ........................................ 14

6.5 Prevention of electrostatic discharges when working with batteries ....................... 14

7 Provision against hazards by chemical substances ........................................................ 14

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Initial actions in case of hazardous chemical release ............................................ 14

7.3 Eye or skin contact ............................................................................................... 14

7.4 Swallowing ............................................................................................................ 14

7.5 Respiratory tract ................................................................................................... 15

7.6 Burns .................................................................................................................... 15

8 Battery containers and enclosures ................................................................................. 15

9 Battery change .............................................................................................................. 15

10 Battery peripheral equipment/accessories ..................................................................... 15

10.1 Battery management system ................................................................................. 15

10.2 Thermal management systems and series installation ........................................... 16

10.3 Connectors (plugs/sockets) ................................................................................... 16

11 Charge current requirements ......................................................................................... 16

11.1 Peak voltage/current by charging .......................................................................... 16

11.2 Superimposed ripple current ................................................................................. 17

11.3 Maximum ripple current ......................................................................................... 17

12 Identification labels, warning notices and instructions for use, installation and

maintenance .................................................................................................................. 17

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

12.2 Warning labels ...................................................................................................... 17

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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

12.3 Identification label ................................................................................................. 18

12.4 Instructions ........................................................................................................... 18

12.5 Other labels .......................................................................................................... 18

13 Transportation, storage, disposal and environmental aspects ........................................ 18

13.1 Packing and transport ........................................................................................... 18

13.2 Disassembly, disposal, and recycling of batteries.................................................. 19

13.3 Storage ................................................................................................................. 19

14 Inspection and monitoring .............................................................................................. 19

15 EMC for traction application ........................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Cell behaviour inside and outside of operating region ........................ 20

Annex B (normative) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ................................................... 21

B.1 Case 1 – EMC requirements of battery systems depending of each end-

device application ................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Case 2 – EMC requirements for testing battery system as an end-device .............. 21

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 22

Figure A.1 – An example for operating region of lithium ion cell ............................................ 20

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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
– 4 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY
BATTERIES AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62485-6 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/1071/FDIS 21/1077/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62485 series, published under the general title Safety requirements

for secondary batteries and battery installations, can be found on the IEC website.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
– 6 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY
BATTERIES AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62485 applies to battery installations used for electric off-road vehicles; it does

not cover the design of such vehicles.
Examples of the main applications are:
– industrial
• cleaning machines,

• trucks for material handling, for example, lift trucks, tow trucks, automatic guided

vehicles,
• electrically propulsed lifting platforms;
– other applications
• electric powered boats and ships.

This document covers the safety aspects of battery installations in such applications. This

document does not cover railway vehicles, for traction railway application, see IEC 62928.

This document does not cover batteries and battery installations for the propulsion of electric

road vehicles. In the event of there being a variation of requirements between this document

and those of a relevant product standard (e.g. goods vehicles, bicycles, wheel chairs, golf

carts), then the product standard requirements take precedence.

Lithium ion cells and batteries used in traction industrial application are intended to fulfil safety

requirements in accordance with IEC 62619.

The maximum voltages are limited to AC 1 000 V and to DC 1 500 V, and the principal measures

for protection against hazards, generally from electricity, gas emission and electrolyte to

prevent fire and explosion are described.

This document provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the installation, use,

inspection, maintenance and disposal of lithium ion batteries. Batteries containing lithium metal

are not covered by this document.

In general, the safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations – General

safety information and definitions are specified for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal

hybrid batteries in accordance with IEC 62485-1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60204-1, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – Part 1: General

requirements
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

IEC 60364-4-41:2005, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety –

Protection against electric shock
IEC 60364-4-41:2005/AMD1:2017
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61000-1-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 1-2: General – Methodology for the

achievement of functional safety of electrical and electronic systems including equipment with

regard to electromagnetic phenomena

IEC 61000-6-1, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-1: Generic standards – Immunity

standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-2: Generic standards – Immunity

standard for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-3: Generic standards – Emission

standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-4: Generic standards – Emission

standard for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-7, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-7: Generic standards – Immunity

requirements for equipment intended to perform functions in a safety-related system (functional

safety) in industrial locations

IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 62619:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in industrial

applications

IEC 62620:2014, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes –Secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications

ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs

EN 1175-1:2011, Safety of industrial trucks – Electrical requirements – Part 1: General

requirements for battery powered trucks

UN Regulation No. 100 (UN R 100):2011, Uniform provisions concerning the approval of

vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the electric power train
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
– 8 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
secondary lithium cell
cell

secondary cell where electrical energy is derived from the insertion/extraction reactions of

lithium ions or oxidation/reduction reaction of lithium between the negative electrode and the

positive electrode

Note 1 to entry: The cell typically has an electrolyte that consists of a lithium salt and organic solvent compound in

liquid, gel or solid form and has a metal or a laminate film casing.

Note 2 to entry: A cell is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal

arrangement and electronic control device.
3.2
lithium ion battery

secondary battery with an organic solvent electrolyte and positive and negative electrodes

which utilize an intercalation compound in which lithium is stored
Note 1 to entry: A lithium ion battery does not contain lithium metal.
[SOURCE: IEC 60500-482:2004, 482-05-07]
3.3
electrolyte

liquid or solid substance containing mobile ions which render it ionically conductive

Note 1 to entry: The electrolyte may be liquid, solid or a gel.
[SOURCE: IEC 60500-482:2004, 482-02-29]
3.4
battery management system
BMS

electronic system associated with a battery which has functions to control current in case of

overcharge, overcurrent, overdischarge, and overheating, and which monitors and/or manages

the state of the battery, calculates secondary data, reports that data and/or controls its

environment to influence the battery's safety, performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: Overdischarge cut off is not mandatory if there is an agreement on this between the cell

manufacturer and the customer.

Note 2 to entry: The function of the battery management system (BMS) can be assigned to the battery pack or to

equipment that uses the battery.

Note 3 to entry: The BMS can be divided and it can be found partially in the battery pack and partially on the

equipment that uses the battery.

Note 4 to entry: The BMS is sometimes also referred to as a BMU (battery management unit).

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SIST EN IEC 62485-6:2021
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.5
nominal voltage

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell or a battery

Note 1 to entry: The cell or battery manufacturer may provide the nominal voltage.

Note 2 to entry: The nominal voltage of a battery of n series connected cells is equal to n times the nominal voltage

of a single cell.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified – Omission of "electrochemical system"

from the definition, and addition of Notes 1 and 2.]
3.6
overcharge
continued ch
...

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