Secondary batteries (except lithium) for the propulsion of electric road vehicles - Performance and endurance tests

IEC 61982:2012 is applicable to performance and endurance tests for secondary batteries used for vehicle propulsion applications. This standard is applicable to lead-acid batteries, Ni/Cd batteries, Ni/MH batteries and sodium based batteries used in electric road vehicles. This first edition cancels and replaces the IEC 61982-1:2006, the IEC 61982-2:2002 and the IEC 61982-3: 2001. It constitutes a technical revision.

Sekundärbatterien (ausgenommen Lithium-Batterien) für den Antrieb von Elektrostraßenfahrzeugen - Kapazitäts- und Lebensdauerprüfungen

Accumulateurs (excepté lithium) pour la propulsion des véhicules routiers électriques - Essais de performance et d'endurance

La CEI 61982:2012 s'applique aux essais de performance et d'endurance des accumulateurs utilisés dans les applications de propulsion des véhicules. La présente norme concerne les batteries au plomb, les batteries Ni/Cd, les batteries Ni/MH et les batteries sodium utilisées dans les véhicules électriques routiers. Cette première édition annule et remplace la CEI 61982-1:2006, la CEI 61982-2:2002 et la CEI 61982-3:2001. Elle constitue une révision technique.

Sekundarne baterije (z izjemo litijevih) za pogon električnih cestnih vozil - 1. del: Lastnosti in trajnostni preskusi

Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za lastnosti in trajnostne preskuse za sekundarne baterije, ki se uporabljajo za pogon vozil. Cilj tega standarda je določitev osnovnih značilnosti celic, baterij, blokov, modulov in baterijskih sistemov, ki se uporabljajo za pogon električnih cestnih vozil, vključno s hibridnimi električnimi vozili, skupaj z ustreznimi preskusnimi metodami za specifikacije. Preskusi se lahko uporabijo zlasti za preskušanje baterij, ki so razvite za uporabo v vozilih, kot so vozila za potnike, motorji, komercialna vozila idr. Ta standard se ne uporablja za baterijske sisteme za specializirana vozila, kot so vozila za javni prevoz, vozila za zbiranje odpadkov ali težka tovorna vozila, kjer se baterija uporablja na podoben način kot pri industrijskih vozilih. Preskusni postopki so opredeljeni kot funkcija zahtev za zmogljivost vozila. Ta standard se uporablja za svinčeve kislinske baterije, baterije Ni/Cd, Ni/MH in natrijske baterije, ki se uporabljajo v električnih cestnih vozilih. Dodatek A določa preskusne postopke zmogljivosti in življenjske dobe baterij Ni/MH, ki se uporabljajo za pogon hibridnih električnih vozil (HEV).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Oct-2012
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
19-Oct-2012
Completion Date
19-Oct-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
01-marec-2013
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 61982-1:2008
SIST EN 61982-2:2003
SIST EN 61982-3:2002

6HNXQGDUQHEDWHULMH ]L]MHPROLWLMHYLK ]DSRJRQHOHNWULþQLKFHVWQLKYR]LOGHO

/DVWQRVWLLQWUDMQRVWQLSUHVNXVL

Secondary batteries (except lithium) for the propulsion of electric road vehicles -

Performance and endurance tests

Accumulateurs (excepté lithium) pour la propulsion des véhicules routiers électriques -

Essais de performance et d'endurance
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61982:2012
ICS:
29.220.20 .LVOLQVNLVHNXQGDUQLþOHQLLQ Acid secondary cells and
EDWHULMH batteries
43.120 (OHNWULþQDFHVWQDYR]LOD Electric road vehicles
SIST EN 61982-1:2013 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 61982
NORME EUROPÉENNE
October 2012
EUROPÄISCHE NORM

ICS 29.220.20 Supersedes EN 61982-1:2006, EN 61982-2:2002 + corr. Dec.2002, EN 61982-3:2001

English version
Secondary batteries (except lithium) for the propulsion
of electric road vehicles -
Performance and endurance tests
(IEC 61982:2012)
Accumulateurs (excepté lithium) Sekundärbatterien (ausgenommen
pour la propulsion des véhicules Lithium-Batterien) für den Antrieb
routiers électriques - von Elektrostraßenfahrzeugen -
Essais de performance et d'endurance Kapazitäts- und Lebensdauerprüfungen
(CEI 61982:2012) (IEC 61982:2012)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2012-06-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2012 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 61982:2012 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
EN 61982:2012 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 21/775/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 61982, prepared by IEC/TC 21 "Secondary

cells and batteries" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN 61982:2012.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2013-04-19
• latest date by which the document has
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2015-06-01
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 61982-1:2006, EN 61982-2:2002 + corrigendum December 2002 and

EN 61982-3:2001.

EN 61982:2012 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to EN 61982-1:2006,

EN 61982-2:2002 and EN 61982-3:2001:
- clarification of the scope;
- update of some tests, and

- addition of the Annex A dealing with NiMh batteries for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61982:2012 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60051 series NOTE Harmonized as EN 60051 series (not modified).
IEC 60254-1:2005 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60254-1:2005 (not modified).
IEC 60359 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60359.
IEC 62660-1:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62660-1:2011 (not modified).
IEC 62660-2:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62660-2:2011 (not modified).
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
- 3 - EN 61982:2012
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050-482 2004 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - -
(IEV) -
Part 482: Primary and secondary cells
and batteries
IEC 61434 - Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 61434 -
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Guide to the designation of current in
alkaline secondary cell and battery
standards
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
IEC 61982
Edition 1.0 2012-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary batteries (except lithium) for the propulsion of electric road
vehicles –
Performance and endurance tests
Accumulateurs (excepté lithium) pour la propulsion des véhicules routiers
électriques –
Essais de performance et d’endurance
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX W
ICS 29.220.20 ISBN 978-2-88912-063-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
– 2 – 61982 © IEC:2012
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 8

4 General test requirements ................................................................................................ 9

4.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments ......................................................................... 9

4.1.1 Electrical measuring instruments ................................................................. 9

4.1.2 Temperature measurement ........................................................................ 10

4.1.3 Electrolyte density measurement of vented lead-acid batteries .................. 10

4.1.4 Tolerance .................................................................................................. 10

4.2 General provisions ................................................................................................ 10

4.2.1 Current slew rate ....................................................................................... 10

4.2.2 Temperature – electrolyte accessible......................................................... 10

4.2.3 Temperature – electrolyte not accessible ................................................... 11

4.2.4 Electrolyte density readings of vented lead-acid batteries .......................... 11

4.2.5 Mechanical support ................................................................................... 11

4.3 Test samples ......................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Test temperature ................................................................................................... 11

4.4.1 Test temperature for type testing ............................................................... 11

4.4.2 Operation of BMS ...................................................................................... 12

4.5 Charging and rest after charge .............................................................................. 12

4.6 Conditioning .......................................................................................................... 12

4.7 Test sequence ....................................................................................................... 12

4.8 Data recording....................................................................................................... 12

4.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 12

4.8.2 Sampling frequency ................................................................................... 12

5 Rated capacity ............................................................................................................... 12

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Additional test temperatures .................................................................................. 13

6 Dynamic discharge performance test .............................................................................. 13

6.1 Basic considerations ............................................................................................. 13

6.2 Test cycle definition without regenerative charging ................................................ 13

6.3 Test cycle definition with regenerative charging ..................................................... 13

6.4 Definition of dynamic discharge performance ........................................................ 14

6.4.1 Test cycle without regenerative charging ................................................... 14

6.4.2 Test cycle with regenerative charging ........................................................ 14

7 Dynamic endurance test ................................................................................................. 14

7.1 Basic considerations ............................................................................................. 14

7.2 Test conditions ...................................................................................................... 14

7.3 Test cycle without regenerative charging ............................................................... 14

7.4 Test cycle with regenerative charging .................................................................... 14

7.5 Endurance test ...................................................................................................... 14

7.5.1 Charge conditions...................................................................................... 14

7.5.2 Rest after charge ....................................................................................... 15

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
61982 © IEC:2012 – 3 –

7.5.3 Discharge .................................................................................................. 15

7.5.4 Cycling frequency ...................................................................................... 15

7.5.5 Capacity check .......................................................................................... 15

7.5.6 Reconditioning........................................................................................... 15

7.5.7 End-of-life criterion .................................................................................... 15

7.5.8 Recording .................................................................................................. 15

8 Performance testing for battery systems ......................................................................... 15

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

8.2 Initial assumptions................................................................................................. 15

8.3 Reference test cycle .............................................................................................. 16

8.3.1 Basic current discharge micro-cycle .......................................................... 16

8.3.2 Adjustment for vehicle performance, if required ......................................... 16

8.3.3 Battery selection and preparation for test .................................................. 16

8.4 General test conditions .......................................................................................... 17

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 17

8.4.2 Determination of battery energy content .................................................... 17

8.4.3 Benchmark energy content ........................................................................ 17

8.5 Life testing ............................................................................................................ 17

8.6 Determination of maximum power and battery resistance ...................................... 18

8.7 Charging tests ....................................................................................................... 19

8.7.1 Charge efficiency ....................................................................................... 19

8.7.2 Partial discharge testing ............................................................................ 19

8.7.3 Measurement of self discharge .................................................................. 20

8.8 Operational extremes of use .................................................................................. 20

8.8.1 Continuous discharge at maximum vehicle system power .......................... 20

8.8.2 Recharge at maximum regenerative power as a function of state of

charge ....................................................................................................... 20

Annex A (normative) Test procedures for Ni-MH batteries used for the propulsion of

hybrid electric vehicles ......................................................................................................... 24

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 39

Figure 1 – Test profile without regenerative charging ............................................................ 21

Figure 2 – Test profile with regenerative charging ................................................................. 21

Figure A.1 – Example of temperature measurement of cell ................................................... 25

Figure A.2 – Examples of maximum dimension of cell ........................................................... 26

Figure A.3 – Test order of the current-voltage characteristic test (test example with

batteries of rated capacity less than 20 Ah) .......................................................................... 30

Figure A.4 – The method to obtain discharge current I while calculating the power

density .................................................................................................................................. 31

Figure A.5 – Method to obtain charge current I while calculating regenerative power

density .................................................................................................................................. 32

Figure A.6 – Method to obtain the internal resistance on the output side ............................... 34

Figure A.7 – Method to obtain the internal resistance on the input side ................................. 34

Figure A.8 – Current profile for HEV cycle test ...................................................................... 36

Figure A.9 – Power profile for HEV cycle test ........................................................................ 36

Table 1 – List of parameters for test conditions ..................................................................... 22

Table 2 – List of charge/discharge parameters ...................................................................... 22

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SIST EN 61982-1:2013
– 4 – 61982 © IEC:2012

Table 3 – List of DST values for one micro-cycle, where the peak power is 24 kW .............. 22

Table 4 – List of DST values for one micro-cycle, adapted for a high performance

vehicle .................................................................................................................................. 23

Table A.1 – Battery temperature and rest period prior to the test .......................................... 24

Table A.2 – Discharge current at the battery temperature 25 °C ............................................ 27

Table A.3 – Discharge current at the battery temperatures –20 °C, 0 °C and 45 °C ............ 27

Table A.4 – End-of-discharge voltage ................................................................................... 27

Table A.5 – Charge and discharge current at the battery temperatures 0 °C, 25 °C, and

45 °C .................................................................................................................................... 30

Table A.6 – Charge and discharge current at the battery temperature – 20 °C .................... 30

Table A.7 – Current profile for HEV cycle test ....................................................................... 37

Table A.8 – Power profile for HEV cycle test ......................................................................... 38

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
61982 © IEC:2012 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY BATTERIES (EXCEPT LITHIUM) FOR
THE PROPULSION OF ELECTRIC ROAD VEHICLES –
Performance and endurance tests
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in

addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses

arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61982 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.

This first edition cancels and replaces the IEC 61982-1:2006, the IEC 61982-2:2002 and the

IEC 61982-3: 2001. It constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to IEC 61982-1,

IEC 61982-2 and IEC 61982-3:
– clarification of the scope;
– update of some tests, and

– addition of the Annex A dealing with NiMh batteries for the propulsion of hybrid electric

vehicules.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
– 6 – 61982 © IEC:2012
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/775/FDIS 21/782/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
61982 © IEC:2012 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION
The first edition of IEC 61982 series was composed of the following three parts:

IEC 61982-1:2006, Secondary batteries for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 1:Test

parameters

IEC 61982-2:2002, Secondary batteries for the propulsion of electric road vehicles –

Part 2:Dynamic discharge performance test and dynamic endurance test

IEC 61982-3:2001, Secondary batteries for the propulsion of electric road vehicles – Part 3:

Performance and life testing (traffic compatible, urban use vehicles)
The current standard IEC 61982:2012 replaces the former IEC 61982 series above.

In terms of lithium ion batteries for automobile application, the following standards are

applicable:

IEC 62660-1:2010, Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles –

Part 1: Performance testing

IEC 62660-2:2010, Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles –

Part 2: Reliability and abuse testing

ISO 12405-1:2011, Electrically propelled road vehicles – Test specification for lithium-ion

traction battery packs and systems – Part 1: High-power applications

ISO 12405-2:2011, Electrically propelled road vehicles – Test specification for lithium-Ion

traction battery systems – Part 2:High energy applications (to be published)
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
– 8 – 61982 © IEC:2012
SECONDARY BATTERIES (EXCEPT LITHIUM) FOR
THE PROPULSION OF ELECTRIC ROAD VEHICLES –
Performance and endurance tests
1 Scope

This International Standard is applicable to performance and endurance tests for secondary

batteries used for vehicle propulsion applications. Its objective is to specify certain essential

characteristics of cells, batteries, monoblocks, modules and battery systems used for propulsion

of electric road vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, together with the relevant test

methods for their specification.

The tests may be used specifically to test batteries developed for use in vehicles such as

passenger vehicles, motor cycles, commercial vehicles, etc. This standard is not applicable to

battery systems for specialist vehicles such as public transport vehicles, refuse collection

vehicles or heavy duty vehicles, where the battery is used in the similar way to the industrial

vehicles.

The test procedures are defined as a function of the vehicle requirements of performance.

This standard is applicable to lead-acid batteries, Ni/Cd batteries, Ni/MH batteries and sodium

based batteries used in electric road vehicles.

Annex A specifies performance and cycle life test procedures of Ni/MH batteries used for the

propulsion of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV).

NOTE This standard is not applicable to lithium-ion batteries for automobile application that are specified in

IEC 62660-1, IEC 62660-2, ISO 12405-1 and ISO 12405-2 (to be published).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

IEC 60050-482:2004, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries

IEC 61434, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes –

Guide to designation of current in alkaline secondary cell and battery standards
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions and those given in IEC 60050-482,

as well as the following apply.
3.1
battery system

energy storage device that includes cells or cell assemblies or battery pack(s) as well as

electrical circuits and electronics
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 61982-1:2013
61982 © IEC:2012 – 9 –
EXAMPLES Battery control unit, contactors.

Note 1 to entry Battery system components can also be distributed in different devices within the vehicle.

3.2
benchmark energy content

the battery energy content measured during the reference test cycle and used as the reference

value to assess the battery deterioration during its life
3.3
nominal voltage

numerical value of the voltage of a cell, dependent on the electrochemical system. The cell

voltage is the voltage of the test unit divided by the number of cells
Note 1 to entry The symbol used for the nominal voltage of a cell is “U (V)”.
Note 2 to entry Nominal voltages are given in Table 1.
3.4
type testing

test that measures the performance of the product under closely controlled conditions, largely

free from environmental and self-generated influences
3.5
rated capacity

quantity of electricity which a fully charged cell or battery can deliver, when discharged at a

constant current I to a final voltage U over a period of n hours and at a specified temperature

n f

Note 1 to entry The rated capacity C of a cell or battery is declared by the manufacturer.

3.6
ambient reference temperature
temperature of 25 °C ± 2 K
4 General test requirements
4.1 Accuracy of measuring instruments
4.1.1 Electrical measuring instruments
4.1.1.1 Range of measuring devices

The instruments used shall enable the values of voltage and current to be correctly measured.

The range of these instruments and measuring methods shall be chosen so as to ensure the

accuracy specified for each test. For analogue instruments, this implies that the re

...

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