Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones by comparison

Applies to working standard microphones with removable protection grids meeting the requirements of EN 61094-4 and to laboratory standard microphones meeting the requirements of EN 61094-1. Describes methods of determining the pressure sensitivity by comparison with either a laboratory standard microphone that has been calibrated according to EN 61094-2, or another working standard microphone that has been calibrated according to this part of EN 61094.

Messmikrofone - Teil 5: Verfahren zur Druckkammer-Kalibrierung von Gebrauchs-Normalmikrofonen nach der Vergleichsmethode

Électroacoustique - Microphones de mesure - Partie 5: Méthodes pour l'étalonnage en pression par comparaison des microphones étalons de travail

L'IEC 61094-5:2016 s'applique aux microphones étalons de travail dotés d'une grille de protection amovible satisfaisant aux exigences de l'IEC 61094-4 et aux microphones étalons de laboratoire satisfaisant aux exigences de l'IEC 61094-1. La présente norme décrit des méthodes de détermination de l'efficacité en pression par comparaison avec un microphone étalon de laboratoire ou un autre microphone étalon de travail dont l'efficacité dans la plage de fréquences concernée est connue. Cette édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2001. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.

Merilni mikrofoni - 5. del: Metode za primerjalno kalibriranje tlaka delujočega standardnega mikrofona (IEC 61094-5:2016)

Uporablja se za delujoče standardne mikrofone z odstranljivo zaščitno mrežico, ki izpolnjujejo zahteve standarda EN 61094-4, in laboratorijske standardne mikrofone, ki izpolnjujejo zahteve standarda EN 61094-1. Opisuje metodo določanja občutljivosti na zvočni tlak na podlagi primerjave z laboratorijskim standardnim mikrofonom, kalibriranim v skladu s standardom EN 61094-2, ali drugim delujočim standardnim mikrofonom, kalibriranim v skladu s tem delom standarda EN 61094.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Sep-2016
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
02-Sep-2016
Completion Date
02-Sep-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Microphones de mesure - Partie 5: Méthodes pour l'étalonnage en pression par comparaison des microphones étalons de travail (IEC 61094-5:2016)Measurement microphones - Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones by comparison (IEC 61094-5:2016)33.160.50PriborAccessories17.140.50ElektroakustikaElectroacousticsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 61094-5:2016SIST EN 61094-5:2016en01-november-2016SIST EN 61094-5:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 61094-5:20071DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 61094-5:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 61094-5
September 2016 ICS 17.140.50
Supersedes
EN 61094-5:2001
English Version

Electroacoustics - Measurement microphones - Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones by comparison (IEC 61094-5:2016)

Électroacoustique - Microphones de mesure - Partie 5: Méthodes pour l'étalonnage en pression par comparaison des microphones étalons de travail (IEC 61094-5:2016)

Messmikrofone - Teil 5: Verfahren zur Druckkammer-Kalibrierung von Gebrauchs-Normalmikrofonen nach der Vergleichsmethode (IEC 61094-5:2016) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2016-07-04. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2016 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 61094-5:2016 E SIST EN 61094-5:2016

EN 61094-5:2016 2 European foreword The text of document 29/870/CDV, future edition 2 of IEC 61094-5, prepared by IEC TC 29, Electroacoustics, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as EN 61094-5:2016. The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2017-04-04 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2019-07-04

This document supersedes EN 61095-5:2001.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 61094-5:2016 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated: IEC 61094-2:2009 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61094-2:2009.

SIST EN 61094-5:2016
EN 61094-5:2016 3
Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 61094-1 -

Measurement microphones -- Part 1: Specifications for laboratory standard microphones EN 61094-1 -

IEC 61094-4 -

Measurement microphones -- Part 4: Specifications for working standard microphones EN 61094-4 -

SIST EN 61094-5:2016
SIST EN 61094-5:2016

IEC 61094-5 Edition 2.0 2016-05 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Electroacoustics – Measurement microphones –

Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working standard microphones
by comparison
Électroacoustique – Microphones de mesure –

Partie 5: Méthodes pour l'étalonnage en pression par comparaison des microphones étalons de travail

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE

ICS 17.140.50
ISBN 978-2-8322-3434-1
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 61094-5:2016

– 2 – IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 CONTENTS FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 6 2 Normative references..................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 6 4 Reference environmental conditions ............................................................................... 7 5 Principles of pressure calibration by comparison ............................................................ 7 5.1 Principles .............................................................................................................. 7 5.1.1 General principle ............................................................................................ 7 5.1.2 General principles using simultaneous excitation ............................................ 7 5.1.3 General principles using sequential excitation ................................................. 8 5.2 Measuring the output voltages of the microphones ................................................. 8 6 Factors influencing the pressure sensitivity .................................................................... 8 6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 8 6.2 Microphone pressure equalization mechanism ....................................................... 8 6.3 Polarising voltage .................................................................................................. 9 6.4 Reference shield configuration .............................................................................. 9 6.5 Pressure distribution over the diaphragms ............................................................. 9 6.6 Dependence on environmental conditions ............................................................ 10 6.7 Validation ............................................................................................................ 10 7 Calibration uncertainty components .............................................................................. 10 7.1 General ............................................................................................................... 10 7.2 Sensitivity of the reference microphone ............................................................... 10 7.3 Measurements of microphone output ................................................................... 11 7.4 Differences between the sound pressure at the test microphone and that at the reference microphone .................................................................................... 11 7.5 Acoustic impedances of the microphones ............................................................. 11 7.6 Microphone separation distance .......................................................................... 11 7.7 Microphone capacitance ...................................................................................... 11 7.8 Microphone configuration during calibration ......................................................... 11 7.9 Uncertainty on pressure sensitivity level .............................................................. 12 Annex A (informative)

Examples of couplers and jigs for simultaneous excitation ............... 13 A.1 A coupler for use with WS2 microphones at frequencies up to 10 kHz .................. 13 A.2 A jig for use with WS2 or WS3 microphones at frequencies up to 20 kHz .............. 14 Annex B (informative)

Examples of couplers for sequential excitation .................................. 16 B.1 A coupler for use with LS1 microphones at frequencies up to 8 kHz ..................... 16 B.2 A coupler for use with WS2 microphones at frequencies up to 16 kHz .................. 16 Annex C (informative)

Determining the open-circuit sensitivity of a measurement

microphone without using the insert-voltage method ..................................................... 18 Annex D (informative)

Typical uncertainty analysis ............................................................. 19 D.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 19 D.2 Analysis .............................................................................................................. 19 D.3 Combined and expanded uncertainties ................................................................ 21 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 22

Figure A.1 – A coupler for use with WS2 microphones ......................................................... 13 SIST EN 61094-5:2016

IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 – Figure A.2 – A jig fitted with an LS2 and WS2 microphone ................................................... 14 Figure A.3 – Example arrangement of LS2 and WS2 microphones in a jig ............................ 14 Figure A.4 – Example arrangement of LS2 and WS3 microphones in a jig ............................ 14 Figure B.1 – A coupler for use with LS1 microphones .......................................................... 16 Figure B.2 – A coupler for use with WS2 microphones ......................................................... 17

Table A.1 – Calculated corrections to be added to the sensitivity level of the WS3 microphone when using the arrangement in Figure A.4 ........................................................ 15 Table D.1 – Example uncertainty budget ............................................................................. 20

SIST EN 61094-5:2016

– 4 – IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

ELECTROACOUSTICS – MEASUREMENT MICROPHONES –
Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working
standard microphones by comparison

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 61094-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 29: Electroacoustics. This edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2001. This edition constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) details of additional components of uncertainty; b) revised corrections for type WS3 microphones; c) provision for the calibration of microphones in driven shield configuration. SIST EN 61094-5:2016

IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 – The text of this standard is based on the following documents: CDV Report on voting 29/870/CDV 29/887A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. A list of all parts in the IEC 61904 series, published under the general title Measurement microphones, can be found on the IEC website. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
SIST EN 61094-5:2016
– 6 – IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 ELECTROACOUSTICS – MEASUREMENT MICROPHONES –
Part 5: Methods for pressure calibration of working
standard microphones by comparison

1 Scope This part of IEC 61094-5 is applicable to working standard microphones with removable protection grids meeting the requirements of IEC 61094-4 and to laboratory standard micro-phones meeting the requirements of IEC 61094-1. This part of IEC 61094 describes methods of determining the pressure sensitivity by comparison with either a laboratory standard microphone or another working standard microphone with known sensitivity in the respective frequency range.

Alternative comparison methods based on the principles described in IEC 61094-2 are possible but beyond the scope of this part of IEC 61094. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 61094-1, Measurement microphones – Part 1: Specifications for laboratory standard microphones IEC 61094-4, Measurement microphones – Part 4: Specifications for working standard microphones 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61094-1 and the following apply.

3.1

reference microphone laboratory standard microphone or working standard microphone with known pressure sensitivity 3.2

test microphone laboratory standard microphone or working standard microphone to be calibrated by comparison with a reference microphone 3.3

monitor microphone microphone used to measure changes in sound pressure SIST EN 61094-5:2016

IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 – 3.4

coupler device which, when fitted with microphones, forms a cavity of predetermined shape and dimensions and provides an acoustic coupling element between the microphones and between the microphones and the sound source 3.5

jig device which, when fitted with microphones, holds them with their diaphragms face to face separated by a small distance but does not enclose the space between them 4 Reference environmental conditions The reference environmental conditions are: • temperature

23,0 °C • static pressure 101,325 kPa • relative humidity 50 % 5 Principles of pressure calibration by comparison 5.1 Principles 5.1.1 General principle The pressure sensitivity of a measurement microphone is defined in terms of a sound pressure applied uniformly over the diaphragm. Consequently, the pressure sensitivity can only be realised in principle for microphones from which the protection grid can be removed and the diaphragm exposed to the sound pressure stimulus. The principle of these comparison methods is that when the reference microphone and the test microphone are exposed to the same sound pressure either simultaneously or sequentially, the ratio of their pressure sensitivities is given by the ratio of their open-circuit output voltages. The sensitivity (both modulus and phase) of the test microphone can then be calculated from the sensitivity of the reference microphone. The principle of the method allows the test microphone to be attached to a particular preamplifier and the sensitivity of the system may be referred to the output of that preamplifier. Multi-frequency measurements can be performed particularly rapidly if a wideband sound source is used and the output voltages of the microphones are analysed in narrow bands. NOTE If the reference and test microphones have significantly different frequency response characteristics, e.g. around resonance frequencies, or when a pressure response microphone is compared with a free-field response microphone, this approach can lead to errors when the intention is to determine the pressure sensitivity at the test frequency, rather than the test frequency band. Due consideration of the analysis bandwidth is advised to avoid such errors. Typically, a bandwidth of 1/6th-octave or narrower will be sufficient to constrain any error to less than 0,01 dB. However further caution is advised on reducing the bandwidth too severely, as can be possible with FFT (fast Fourier transform) analysers, as this can highlight deficiencies such as standing waves in the sound field, which can also lead to errors (see [1]1 for further details).

5.1.2 General principles using simultaneous excitation In order for the two microphones to be simultaneously exposed to essentially the same sound pressure it is usually necessary for the front surfaces of the two microphones to be separated ___________ 1 Numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography. SIST EN 61094-5:2016

– 8 – IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 by a small fraction of the wavelength at the highest frequency of interest. For frequencies up to 20 kHz, this can be achieved by mounting the two microphones face-to-face separated by approximately 1 mm in either a coupler or a jig. The optimum microphone separation is somewhat dependent on the acoustic environment and should be determined for a particular set-up. Details of likely levels of performance can be found in [1]1 Couplers usually contain an integral sound source; jig mounted microphones are usually exposed to an externally produced sound field. In order to reduce the effect of systematic differences in sound pressure between the two microphone positions, for example caused by some asymmetries, the following procedure shall be used: after the ratio of the microphone pressure sensitivities is first determined, the microphones shall be interchanged, and the measurement repeated. The sensitivity is then calculated from the mean of the two ratios. Examples of practical arrangements and precautions to be taken are given in Annex A. NOTE Avoiding asymmetry and standing waves in the sound field, especially in jig configurations, has a significant beneficial impact on the reliability of the results. 5.1.3 General principles using sequential excitation In order for the two microphones to be sequentially exposed to essentially the same sound pressure, either the exchange of microphones shall not change the sound pressure significantly or any significant change shall be detected and corrected. This can be achieved by incorporating a sound source, a monitor microphone, and the test/reference microphone in a coupler. In any design of coupler, the monitor microphone shall accurately sense changes in the sound pressure at the test/reference microphone position. Examples of practical arrangements are given in Annex B. 5.2 Measuring the output voltages of the microphones The output of a test or reference microphone may be determined as the open-circuit voltage by use of the insert voltage technique (see 5.3 of IEC 61094-2:2009) or by using a measuring system consisting of a high input impedance microphone preamplifier and a voltmeter (see Annex C). The method used to measure the output voltage of the test microphone shall be stated on any calibration certificate. 6 Factors influencing the pressure sensitivity 6.1 General The pressure sensitivity of a measurement microphone can depend on environmental conditions. Further, the definition of the pressure sensitivity implies that certain requirements be fulfilled by the measurements. It is essential during a calibration that these conditions are controlled sufficiently well if the resulting uncertainty components are to remain small. 6.2 Microphone pressure equalization mechanism

The normal construction of a measurement microphone has the cavity behind the diaphragm fitted with a narrow pressure-equalizing tube to permit the static pressure to be the same on both sides of the diaphragm. Consequently, at very low frequencies, this tube also partially equalizes the sound pressure. If, during the calibration, the sound which is coherent with that on the diaphragm is incident on the pressure-equalizing tube, then this could change the apparent sensitivity at low frequencies and the result would not be the true pressure sensitivity. SIST EN 61094-5:2016

IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 – In a jig, where sound is incident on the pressure equalizing tube, the size of this change shall be determined by comparing calibrations made in the jig with calibrations made in a coupler that does not expose the pressure equalizing tube to the sound field. In a coupler an "O" ring can be used to seal the gap between the coupler and the microphone. If this is done, care shall be taken to ensure that the "O" ring does not exert undue force on the microphone and cause a change in sensitivity. 6.3 Polarising voltage If the test microphone requires an external polarising voltage, then the polarising voltage used during the calibration shall be reported. If the reference microphone requires an external polarising voltage, then any difference between that applied when it was calibrated and that applied when it is used as the reference microphone shall be allowed for in the uncertainty calculations (see Annex D). 6.4 Reference shield configuration When the open-circuit voltage is measured, the shield configurations given in IEC 61094-1 or IEC 61094-4 shall be used. If a microphone is intended to be used with a preamplifier having a non-standard shield configuration, then it shall be calibrated as a system along with its preamplifier. When insert voltage calibrations are performed, it shall be stated whether output voltage from the microphone is applied to the shield (driven shield configuration), or whether the shield is grounded. If the instruction manual specifies a maximum mechanical force to be applied to the central electrical contact of the microphone, this limit shall not be exceeded. 6.5 Pressure distribution over the diaphragms The definition of the pressure sensitivity assumes that the sound pressure over the diaphragm is applied uniformly. The output voltage of a microphone presented with a non-uniform pressure distribution over the surface of the diaphragm will differ from the output voltage of the microphone when presented with a uniform pressure distribution having the same mean value, because the microphone is usually more sensitive to a sound pressure at the centre of the diaphragm. Uniformity of sound pressure over the diaphragm of the microphone can be optimised by maintaining the radial symmetry of the sound field around the circumferences of the microphones. This can be achieved using a radially symmetric sound source positioned coaxially with the microphones and, when the microphones are mounted in a jig, with the microphones positioned in the far field of the sound source. Although pressure non-uniformity over the surface of the diaphragm can be minimised by using a radially symmetric sound source, some non-uniformity at high frequencies can remain even with a perfect source.

It is difficult to control the uniformity of the sound field in an actual calibration set-up. However, the combined effect of asymmetries in the sound field and in the microphones becomes evident when the microphones are rotated relative to each other about their axis of symmetry. Thus, the related component of measurement uncertainty can be reduced by averaging results from a number of such measurement configurations. NOTE When comparing microphones of the same model, the requirement for uniformity of the sound field reduces to a requirement of rotational symmetry of the sound field. SIST EN 61094-5:2016

– 10 – IEC 61094-5:2016 © IEC 2016 Alternatively, issues with sound field non-uniformity can be overcome if excitation is made with a diffuse sound field, for example in a reverberation room. Care should be taken to avoid creating standing waves in the sound field surrounding the microphones as these can cause significant and unpredictable measurement errors. A broadband source, or repeated measurements at different positions within the field, is also necessary to achieve a sufficiently low measurement uncertainty.

The effect of a non-uniform pressure distribution over the surface of the diaphragm will be significantly greater if the test and reference microphones are of different diameters. A theoretical model which can be used to apply corrections and assess the uncertainties in this case is given in the literature (for example [1]). 6.6 Dependence on environmental conditions The sensitivity of a microphone can depend on static pressure, temperature or humidity. This dependence can be determined by comparison with a well characterised laboratory standard microphone over a range of conditions. If the reference microphone and the test microphone are different manufacturer models, then the sensitivity of the reference microphone shall be corrected to the actual environmental conditions during the test. Alternatively, if they are of the same model, there can be an advantage in assuming that they have the same dependence on environmental conditions so that the calibration of the test microphone can be referred to the conditions at which the calibration of the reference microphone is valid. Alternatively, when reporting the results of a calibration, the pressure sensitivity can be corrected to the reference environmental conditions if reliable correction data are available. The actual conditions during the calibration shall be reported. 6.7 Validation Calibrations performed in any particular jig or coupler shall be validated by comparison with calibrations performed in other jigs and couplers and alternative s

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