Semiconductor devices - Measurement and evaluation methods of kinetic energy harvesting devices under practical vibration environment - Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations

IEC 63150-1:2019 specifies terms and definitions, and test methods for kinetic energy harvesting devices for one-dimensional mechanical vibrations to determine the characteristic parameters under a practical vibration environment. Such vibration energy harvesting devices often have their own non-linear mechanisms to efficiently capture vibration energy in a broadband frequency range. This document is applicable to vibration energy harvesting devices with different power generation principles (such as electromagnetic, piezoelectric, electrostatic, etc.) and with different non-linear behaviour to the external mechanical excitation.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Méthodes de mesure et d’évaluation des dispositifs de captage d’énergie cinétique dans un environnement de vibrations concret - Partie 1: Vibrations mécaniques arbitraires et aléatoires

L’IEC 63150-1:2019 spécifie les termes et les définitions, ainsi que les méthodes d’essai pour les dispositifs de captage d’énergie cinétique pour des vibrations mécaniques unidimensionnelles, et ce afin de déterminer les paramètres caractéristiques dans un environnement de vibrations concret. Ces dispositifs de captage d’énergie cinétique possèdent souvent leurs propres mécanismes non linéaires qui permettent de capter efficacement l’énergie de vibration dans une plage de fréquences à bande large. Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs de captage d’énergie de vibration correspondant à différents principes de génération d’énergie (électromagnétique, piézoélectrique, électrostatique, etc.) et à différents comportements non linéaires en réponse à l’excitation mécanique extérieure.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-May-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
10-May-2019
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IEC 63150-1:2019 - Semiconductor devices - Measurement and evaluation methods of kinetic energy harvesting devices under practical vibration environment - Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations
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IEC 63150-1
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Measurement and evaluation methods of kinetic
energy harvesting devices under practical vibration environment –
Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Methodes de mesure et d’evaluation des
dispositifs de captage d’énergie cinétique dans un environnement de vibrations
concret –
Partie 1: Vibrations mécaniques arbitraires et aléatoires
IEC 63150-1:2019-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63150-1
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Measurement and evaluation methods of kinetic
energy harvesting devices under practical vibration environment –
Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Methodes de mesure et d’evaluation des
dispositifs de captage d’énergie cinétique dans un environnement de vibrations
concret –
Partie 1: Vibrations mécaniques arbitraires et aléatoires
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-6895-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Characteristics of kinetic energy harvesting devices ........................................................ 8

5 Vibration testing equipment ............................................................................................. 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Vibration exciter ...................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Mounting fixture ...................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Acceleration sensor ................................................................................................ 9

5.5 Read-out circuit ...................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Data recorder .......................................................................................................... 9

6 Preparation of test bed and device .................................................................................. 9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Evaluation of vibration conditions ............................................................................ 9

6.3 Evaluation of electronic noise ............................................................................... 10

7 Testing methods ............................................................................................................ 10

7.1 External load......................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Testing time .......................................................................................................... 10

7.3 Test environment .................................................................................................. 10

7.4 Measurement conditions ....................................................................................... 10

8 Measuring procedures ................................................................................................... 11

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

8.2 Single frequency response .................................................................................... 11

8.3 Frequency sweeping response .............................................................................. 11

8.4 Random vibration response .................................................................................. 11

9 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Example of measurement for kinetic energy harvesting device .......... 13

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

A.2 Electret energy harvester with linear spring........................................................... 13

A.2.1 Shape, weight and dimensions of tested energy harvesting device ................ 13

A.2.2 Characteristics of the read-out circuit ............................................................ 13

A.2.3 Characteristics of the vibration exciter ........................................................... 14

A.2.4 Type, frequency response and accuracy of acceleration sensor ..................... 14

A.2.5 Method for fixation of the energy harvesting device on the vibration

exciter ........................................................................................................... 15

A.2.6 Vibration direction with respect to the gravity direction .................................. 15

A.2.7 Measurement conditions and measurement results for sinusoidal

vibration ........................................................................................................ 15

A.2.8 Measurement conditions and measurement results for frequency sweep ....... 16

A.2.9 Measurement conditions and measurement results for random vibration ........ 19

A.3 Inverse-magnetostrictive energy harvester with nonlinear spring ........................... 21

A.3.1 Shape, weight and dimensions of tested energy harvesting device ................ 21

A.3.2 Characteristics of the read-out circuit ............................................................ 21

A.3.3 Characteristics of the vibration exciter ........................................................... 22

A.3.4 Type, frequency response and accuracy of acceleration sensor ..................... 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
A.3.5 Method for fixation of the energy harvesting device on the vibration

exciter ........................................................................................................... 22

A.3.6 Vibration direction with respect to the gravity direction .................................. 22

A.3.7 Measurement conditions and measurement results for sinusoidal

vibration ........................................................................................................ 22

A.3.8 Measurement conditions and measurement results for frequency sweep ....... 23

A.3.9 Measurement conditions and measurement results for random vibration ........ 24

A.4 Piezoelectric energy harvester with broadband response ...................................... 25

A.4.1 Shape, weight and dimensions of tested energy harvesting device ................ 25

A.4.2 Characteristics of the read-out circuit ............................................................ 25

A.4.3 Characteristics of the vibration exciter ........................................................... 26

A.4.4 Type, frequency response and accuracy of acceleration sensor ..................... 26

A.4.5 Method for fixation of the energy harvesting device on the vibration

exciter ........................................................................................................... 26

A.4.6 Vibration direction with respect to the gravity direction .................................. 27

A.4.7 Measurement conditions and measurement results for sinusoidal

vibration ........................................................................................................ 27

A.4.8 Measurement conditions and measurement results for frequency sweep ....... 28

A.4.9 Measurement conditions and measurement results for random vibration ........ 30

Annex B (informative) Definition of random vibration ............................................................ 33

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 36

Figure 1 – Testing equipment for kinetic energy harvesting device for mechanical

vibration .................................................................................................................................. 8

Figure A.1 – Photo of the electret energy harvester .............................................................. 13

Figure A.2 – Read-out circuit using voltage divider ............................................................... 14

Figure A.3 – Output power for sinusoidal excitation at 30,4 Hz versus the external load ....... 15

Figure A.4 – Voltage waveforms for 30,4 Hz sinusoidal excitation at different zero-peak

accelerations ........................................................................................................................ 16

Figure A.5 – Maximum, minimum, and RMS output voltages for frequency sweeping at

different zero-to-peak accelerations ...................................................................................... 18

Figure A.6 – Output power for frequency sweeping from 15 Hz to 45 Hz at different

zero-to-peak accelerations .................................................................................................... 19

Figure A.7 – Voltage waveforms for the random vibration with different acceleration

spectral densities .................................................................................................................. 20

Figure A.8 – Photo of the magnetostrictive energy harvester ................................................ 21

Figure A.9 – Measurement circuit.......................................................................................... 21

Figure A.10 – Output power for sinusoidal excitation at 98 Hz versus the external load

(zero-to-peak acceleration is 9,8 m/s ) ................................................................................. 23

Figure A.11 – Voltage waveforms for 116 Hz sinusoidal excitation at different zero-to-

peak accelerations ................................................................................................................ 23

Figure A.12 – Power spectra of the output voltage for frequency sweeping from 60 Hz

to 180 Hz at different zero-to-peak accelerations .................................................................. 24

2 2

Figure A.13 – Voltage waveforms for the random vibration 0,49 (m/s ) /Hz .......................... 24

Figure A.14 – Photo of the piezoelectric energy harvester .................................................... 25

Figure A.15 – Read-out circuit using a voltage divider ........................................................... 25

Figure A.16 – Output power for 40 Hz sinusoidal excitation versus the external load

(zero-to-peak acceleration is 0,98 m/s ) ............................................................................... 27

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– 4 – IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019

Figure A.17 – Voltage waveforms for 40 Hz sinusoidal excitation at different zero-to-

peak accelerations ................................................................................................................ 28

Figure A.18 – Voltage waveforms for frequency sweeping from 20 Hz to 60 Hz at

different zero-to-peak accelerations ...................................................................................... 29

Figure A.19 – Power spectra of the output power for frequency sweeping from 20 Hz to

60 Hz at different zero-to-peak accelerations ........................................................................ 30

Figure A.20 – Voltage waveforms for the random vibration at different acceleration

spectral densities .................................................................................................................. 31

Figure B.1 – Random vibration with uniform acceleration spectral density ............................. 34

Figure B.2 – Example data of random vibration ..................................................................... 35

Table A.1 – Vibration exciter used in sinusoidal vibration ...................................................... 14

Table A.2 – Vibration exciter used in random vibration .......................................................... 14

Table A.3 – Acceleration sensor used in sinusoidal vibration ................................................ 14

Table A.4 – Acceleration sensor used in random vibration .................................................... 15

Table A.5 – Output voltage and power for sinusoidal excitation at the rated frequency .......... 16

Table A.6 – Output voltage for sinusoidal excitation with frequency sweeping ....................... 18

Table A.7 – Maximum output power for frequency sweeping from 15 Hz to 45 Hz ................. 19

Table A.8 – Peak-to-peak voltage, RMS output voltage, and mean output power for

random vibration ................................................................................................................... 21

Table A.9 – Vibration exciter used in sinusoidal vibration ...................................................... 22

Table A.10 – Acceleration sensor used in sinusoidal and random vibrations ......................... 22

Table A.11 – Output voltage and power for sinusoidal excitation at the rated frequency ........ 23

Table A.12 – RMS output voltage and mean output power for random vibration .................... 24

Table A.13 – Vibration exciter used in sinusoidal vibration .................................................... 26

Table A.14 – Vibration exciter used in random vibration ........................................................ 26

Table A.15 – Acceleration sensor used in sinusoidal vibration .............................................. 26

Table A.16 – Acceleration sensor used in random vibration .................................................. 26

Table A.17 – Output voltage and power for sinusoidal excitation at the rated frequency ........ 28

Table A.18 – Output voltage for sinusoidal excitation with frequency sweeping ..................... 29

Table A.19 – Maximum output power for frequency sweeping from 20 Hz to 60 Hz ............... 30

Table A.20 – Peak-to-peak voltage, RMS output voltage, and mean output power for

random vibration ................................................................................................................... 32

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IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION METHODS OF KINETIC
ENERGY HARVESTING DEVICES UNDER PRACTICAL
VIBRATION ENVIRONMENT –
Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 63150-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2548/FDIS 47/2568/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019

A list of all parts in the IEC 63150 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Measurement and evaluation methods of kinetic energy harvesting devices under

practical vibration environment, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION METHODS OF KINETIC
ENERGY HARVESTING DEVICES UNDER PRACTICAL
VIBRATION ENVIRONMENT –
Part 1: Arbitrary and random mechanical vibrations
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63150 specifies terms and definitions, and test methods for kinetic energy

harvesting devices for one-dimensional mechanical vibrations to determine the characteristic

parameters under a practical vibration environment. Such vibration energy harvesting devices

often have their own non-linear mechanisms to efficiently capture vibration energy in a

broadband frequency range.

This document is applicable to vibration energy harvesting devices with different power

generation principles (such as electromagnetic, piezoelectric, electrostatic, etc.) and with

different non-linear behaviour to the external mechanical excitation.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
kinetic energy harvesting device
device to generate electrical energy from kinetic energy
3.2
rated frequency
frequency given in the specification
3.3
sinusoidal vibration
vibration with a sinusoidal acceleration waveform with a given frequency
3.4
random vibration
non-deterministic vibration with broadband frequency spectra with a constant

root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration spectral density of which frequency range is specified

Note 1 to entry: See Annex B.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019
3.5
background noise
vibration acceleration when no driving signal is applied
3.6
transverse sensitivity ratio
ratio of the transverse vibration acceleration to the primary acceleration
4 Characteristics of kinetic energy harvesting devices

The characteristics of kinetic energy harvesting devices depend on the transduction

mechanism (e.g., electromagnetic, piezoelectric, electrostatic), the device design, and the

method for broadband frequency response (e.g., nonlinear spring, bistable spring, frequency

up-conversion). The output voltage and power of those energy harvesting devices are

characterized by measurements under three different vibration conditions, i.e.,

single-frequency sinusoidal vibration, vibration with frequency sweep-up/-down, and random

vibration with broadband frequency spectra.

Examples of three different types of vibration energy harvesters are described in Annex A.

Definition of random vibration is given in Annex B.
5 Vibration testing equipment
5.1 General

Figure 1 provides fundamental configurations with functional blocks or components for

vibration testing equipment for kinetic energy harvesting devices. Details of the functional

blocks or components named in the key are provided in 5.2 to 5.6.
Key
1 DUT: device under test 2 Vibration exciter
3 Vibration controller 4 Mounting fixture
5 Acceleration sensor 6 External load/read-out circuit
7 Data recorder
Figure 1 – Testing equipment for kinetic energy harvesting device
for mechanical vibration
5.2 Vibration exciter

The vibration exciter shall generate vibration acceleration of the necessary frequency along

with the necessary direction. In addition, the amplitude of the DUT vibration motion

perpendicular to the driving direction should be small enough. The recommended value for its

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63150-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –

amplitude (transverse sensitivity ratio) is smaller than 10 % of the amplitude in the driving

direction.

The vibration acceleration control can be performed by either of the following methods:

a) constant amplitude control: To maintain the vibration acceleration, by detecting and

controlling the amplitude of the DUT vibration for given vibration frequency;

b) constant RMS acceleration control: To maintain the vibration acceleration, by detecting

and controlling vibration acceleration directly for a given vibration frequency.
In general,
...

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