Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in industrial applications

IEC 62619:2022 specifies requirements and tests for the safe operation of secondary lithium cells and batteries used in industrial applications, including stationary applications. When there exists an IEC International Standard specifying test conditions and requirements for cells used in special applications and which is in conflict with this document, the former takes precedence (e.g., IEC 62660 series on road vehicles). The following are some examples of applications that utilize cells and batteries under the scope of this document:
- Stationary applications: telecom, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), electrical energy storage system, utility switching, emergency power, and similar applications.
- Motive applications: forklift truck, golf cart, automated guided vehicle (AGV), railway vehicles, and marine vehicles, with the exception of road vehicles.

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Exigences de sécurité pour les accumulateurs au lithium pour utilisation dans des applications industrielles

IEC 62619:2022 spécifie les exigences et les essais pour le fonctionnement en toute sécurité des accumulateurs au lithium utilisés dans des applications industrielles, y compris les applications stationnaires. Lorsqu'il existe une Norme internationale IEC qui spécifie des conditions d'essai et des exigences pour des éléments destinés à des applications particulières, et qui est en contradiction avec le présent document, la publication particulière est appliquée en priorité (par exemple, la série IEC 62660 sur les véhicules routiers). Ci-après figurent des exemples d’applications qui emploient les éléments et les batteries inclus dans le domaine d’application du présent document :
- applications stationnaires: télécommunications, alimentation sans interruption (ASI), système de stockage d'énergie électrique, sélecteur de service, alimentation de secours et applications similaires;
- applications mobiles: chariot élévateur à fourche, voiturette de golf, véhicule à guidage automatique (AGV, automated guided vehicle), véhicules ferroviaires et marins, à l'exclusion des véhicules routiers.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-May-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
24-May-2022
Ref Project

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IEC 62619
Edition 2.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries,
for use in industrial applications
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Exigences de sécurité pour les accumulateurs au lithium pour utilisation dans
des applications industrielles
IEC 62619:2022-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62619
Edition 2.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries,
for use in industrial applications
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Exigences de sécurité pour les accumulateurs au lithium pour utilisation dans
des applications industrielles
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-2497-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Parameter measurement tolerances .............................................................................. 10

5 General safety considerations ....................................................................................... 10

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Insulation and wiring ............................................................................................. 11

5.3 Venting ................................................................................................................. 11

5.4 Temperature/voltage/current management ............................................................ 11

5.5 Terminal contacts of the battery pack and/or battery system ................................. 11

5.6 Assembly of cells, modules, or battery packs into battery systems ........................ 11

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

5.6.2 Battery system design ................................................................................... 12

5.7 Operating region of lithium cells and battery systems for safe use ........................ 12

5.8 System lock (or system lock function) ................................................................... 12

5.9 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 12

6 Type test conditions ...................................................................................................... 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Test items ............................................................................................................. 13

7 Specific requirements and tests ..................................................................................... 14

7.1 Charging procedures for test purposes ................................................................. 14

7.2 Reasonably foreseeable misuse ............................................................................ 15

7.2.1 External short-circuit test (cell or cell block) ................................................... 15

7.2.2 Impact test (cell or cell block) ........................................................................ 15

7.2.3 Drop test (cell or cell block, and battery system) ............................................ 16

7.2.4 Thermal abuse test (cell or cell block) ............................................................ 18

7.2.5 Overcharge test (cell or cell block) ................................................................. 19

7.2.6 Forced discharge test (cell or cell block) ........................................................ 19

7.3 Considerations for internal short-circuit – Design evaluation ................................. 20

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.3.2 Internal short-circuit test (cell) ....................................................................... 20

7.3.3 Propagation test (battery system) .................................................................. 22

8 Battery system safety (considering functional safety) ..................................................... 23

8.1 General requirements ........................................................................................... 23

8.2 Battery management system (or battery management unit) ................................... 23

8.2.1 Requirements for the BMS ............................................................................. 23

8.2.2 Overcharge control of voltage (battery system) .............................................. 24

8.2.3 Overcharge control of current (battery system) .............................................. 25

8.2.4 Overheating control (battery system) ............................................................. 26

9 EMC .............................................................................................................................. 26

10 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 26

11 Marking and designation ................................................................................................ 27

12 Packaging and transport ................................................................................................ 27

Annex A (normative) Operating region of cells for safe use .................................................. 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

A.2 Charging conditions for safe use ........................................................................... 28

A.3 Considerations on charging voltage ...................................................................... 28

A.4 Considerations on temperature ............................................................................. 29

A.5 High temperature range ........................................................................................ 29

A.6 Low temperature range ......................................................................................... 29

A.7 Discharging conditions for safe use ....................................................................... 30

A.8 Example of operating region ................................................................................. 30

Annex B (informative) Procedure of propagation test by laser irradiation (see 7.3.3) ............ 32

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32

B.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 32

B.2.1 Cell test (preliminary test) .............................................................................. 32

B.2.2 Battery system test (main test) ...................................................................... 33

Annex C (informative) Procedure of propagation test by methods other than laser (see

7.3.3) .................................................................................................................................... 35

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 35

C.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 35

C.3 Methods for initiating the thermal runaway ............................................................ 35

Annex D (informative) Packaging and transport ................................................................... 36

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 1 – Configuration of the impact test ............................................................................ 16

Figure 2 – Impact location ..................................................................................................... 18

Figure 3 – Configuration for the shortest edge drop test ........................................................ 18

Figure 4 – Configuration for the corner drop test ................................................................... 18

Figure 5 – Jig for pressing .................................................................................................... 21

Figure 6 – Examples of BMS locations and battery system configurations ............................. 24

Figure 7 – Example of the circuit configuration for overcharge control of voltage .................. 25

Figure A.1 – An example of operating region for charging of typical lithium ion cells ............. 30

Figure A.2 – An example of operating region for discharging of typical lithium ion cells ......... 31

Figure B.1 – Example of the test layout ................................................................................. 33

Figure B.2 – Example of typical temperature trend of the cell ................................................ 33

Table 1 – Sample size for type tests ..................................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Drop test method and condition ............................................................................. 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING
ALKALINE OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS
AND BATTERIES, FOR USE IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

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services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62619 has been prepared by subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells and batteries containing

alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee 21: Secondary cells and

batteries. It is an International Standard.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2017. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) new requirements for moving parts;
b) addition of requirements for hazardous live parts;
c) addition of requirements for battery system design;
d) new requirements for system lock;
e) new requirements for EMC;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
f) addition of procedure of propagation test by laser.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
21A/785/FDIS 21A/787/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING
ALKALINE OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM CELLS
AND BATTERIES, FOR USE IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and tests for the safe operation of secondary lithium cells

and batteries used in industrial applications, including stationary applications.

When there exists an IEC International Standard specifying test conditions and requirements

for cells used in special applications and which is in conflict with this document, the former

takes precedence (e.g., IEC 62660 series on road vehicles).

The following are some examples of applications that utilize cells and batteries under the scope

of this document:

• Stationary applications: telecom, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), electrical energy

storage system, utility switching, emergency power, and similar applications.

• Motive applications: forklift truck, golf cart, automated guided vehicle (AGV), railway

vehicles, and marine vehicles, with the exception of road vehicles.

Since this document covers batteries for various industrial applications, it includes those

requirements which are common and minimum to the various applications.

Electrical safety is included only as a part of the risk analysis of Clause 8. In regard to details

for addressing electrical safety, the end use application standard requirements need to be

considered.

This document applies to cells and batteries. If the battery is divided into smaller units, the

smaller unit can be tested as the representative of the battery. The manufacturer clearly

declares the tested unit. The manufacturer can add functions, which are present in the final

battery to the tested unit.

This document addresses first life cells and batteries. Reuse, repurpose, second life use or

similar are not taken into consideration by this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62133-2:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary lithium cells, and for batteries

made from them, for use in portable applications – Part 2: Lithium systems

IEC 62620:2014, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications

ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC Guide 51, and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
safety
freedom from unacceptable risk
3.2
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.9, modified – deletion of Note 1 to entry.]
3.3
harm

physical injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or to the environment

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.1]
3.4
hazard
potential source of harm
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.2]
3.5
intended use

use of a product, process or service in accordance with specifications, instructions and

information provided by the supplier
3.6
reasonably foreseeable misuse

use of a product, process or service in a way not intended by the supplier, but which can result

from readily predictable human behaviour

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.7, modified – "or system" has been replaced with

"process or service" and notes to entry deleted.]
3.7
secondary lithium cell
cell

secondary cell where electrical energy is derived from the insertion/extraction reactions of

lithium ions or oxidation/reduction reaction of lithium between the negative electrode and the

positive electrode

Note 1 to entry: The cell typically has an electrolyte that consists of a lithium salt and organic solvent compound in

liquid, gel or solid form and has a metal or a laminate film casing. It is not ready for use in an application because it

is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal arrangement and electronic control device.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022
3.8
cell block

group of cells connected together in parallel configuration with or without protective devices

(e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device (PTC)) and monitoring circuitry

Note 1 to entry: The cell block is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing,

terminal arrangement and electronic control device.
3.9
module

group of cells connected together either in a series and/or parallel configuration with or without

protective devices (e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device (PTC)) and monitoring

circuitry
3.10
battery pack

energy storage device, which comprises one or more cells or modules electrically connected

and has monitoring circuitry which provides information (e.g. cell voltage) to a battery system

to influence the battery's safety, performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: The battery pack may incorporate a protective housing and be provided with terminals or other

interconnection arrangements.
3.11
battery system
battery

system which comprises one or more cells, modules or battery packs and has a battery

management system capable of controlling current in case of overcharge, overcurrent,

overdischarge, and overheating

Note 1 to entry: Overdischarge cut-off is not mandatory if there is an agreement between the cell manufacturer and

the customer.

Note 2 to entry: The battery system may have cooling or heating units. More than one battery system may constitute

a larger battery system. The battery system is sometimes also referred to as a battery.

3.12
battery management system
BMS

electronic system associated with a battery which has functions to control current in case of

overcharge, overcurrent, overdischarge, and overheating and which monitors and/or manages

the battery's state, calculates secondary data, reports that data and/or controls its environment

to influence the battery's safety, performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: Overdischarge cut-off is not mandatory if there is an agreement between the cell manufacturer and

the customer.

Note 2 to entry: The function of the BMS can be assigned to the battery pack or to equipment that uses the battery.

(See Figure 6.)

Note 3 to entry: The BMS can be divided and it can be found partially in the battery pack and partially on the

equipment that uses the battery. (See Figure 6.)

Note 4 to entry: The BMS is sometimes also referred to as a BMU (battery management unit).

3.13
leakage
visible escape of liquid electrolyte
3.14
venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell, module, battery pack, or battery system in a

manner intended by design to preclude rupture or explosion
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62619:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
3.15
rupture

mechanical failure of a cell container or battery case induced by an internal or external cause,

resulting in exposure or spillage but not ejection of materials
3.16
explosion

failure that occurs when a cell container or battery case opens violently and solid components

are forcibly expelled
Note 1 to entry: Liquid, gas, and smoke are excepted.
3.17
fire

emission of flames from a cell, module, battery pack, or battery system for more than 1 s

Note 1 to entry: Sparks and arcing are not considered as flames.
3.18
rated capacity

capacity value of a cell or battery determined under specified conditions and declared by the

manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: The rated capacity is the quantity of electricity C Ah (ampere-hours) declared by the manufacturer

which a single cell or battery can deliver during an n-hour period when charging, storing and discharging under the

conditions specified in IEC 62620:2014
...

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