MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) specification 1.0 (Abridged Edition, 2015)

IEC 63035:2017 specifies a hardware and software specification which makes it possible to exchange symbolic music and control information between different musical instruments or other devices such as sequencers, computers, lighting controllers, mixers, etc. using MIDI technology (musical instrument digital interface):

Spécification MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) 1.0 (Edition abrégée, 2015)

L'IEC 63035:2017 donne une spécification matérielle et logicielle permettant d’échanger des informations musicales et des informations de contrôle entre différents instruments de musique ou d’autres dispositifs (séquenceurs, ordinateurs, contrôleurs d’éclairage, mélangeurs, etc.) à l’aide de la technologie MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface – interface numérique pour instruments de musique).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Jun-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
19-Jun-2017
Completion Date
19-Jun-2017
Ref Project

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IEC 63035
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) specification 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
IEC 63035:2017-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63035
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) specification 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.30; 35.040.01; 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-4355-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General ........................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Hardware ................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Data format ........................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Message types ...................................................................................................... 11

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.3.2 Channel messages ........................................................................................ 11

4.3.3 System messages.......................................................................................... 11

4.4 Data types ............................................................................................................ 12

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

4.4.2 Status bytes .................................................................................................. 12

4.4.3 Data bytes ..................................................................................................... 12

4.5 Channel modes ..................................................................................................... 13

4.6 Power-up default conditions .................................................................................. 14

5 MIDI implementation chart instructions .......................................................................... 14

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 14

5.2 General ................................................................................................................. 14

5.3 Function description .............................................................................................. 14

5.3.1 Basic Channel ............................................................................................... 14

5.3.2 Mode ............................................................................................................. 14

5.3.3 Note Number ................................................................................................. 15

5.3.4 Velocity ......................................................................................................... 15

5.3.5 Aftertouch ...................................................................................................... 15

5.3.6 Pitch Bend ..................................................................................................... 15

5.3.7 Control Change ............................................................................................. 15

5.3.8 Program Change ........................................................................................... 15

5.3.9 System Exclusive .......................................................................................... 15

5.3.10 System Common ........................................................................................... 15

5.3.11 System Real Time ......................................................................................... 15

5.3.12 Aux. messages .............................................................................................. 16

5.3.13 Notes ............................................................................................................. 16

Annex A (normative) Summary of MIDI messages ................................................................ 17

Annex B (normative) Control Change messages (Data bytes) .............................................. 20

B.1 Control Change messages and Channel Mode messages ..................................... 20

B.2 Registered Parameter numbers ............................................................................. 23

Annex C (normative) System Exclusive messages ............................................................... 25

C.1 System Exclusive messages ................................................................................. 25

C.2 Universal System Exclusive messages .................................................................. 25

Annex D (normative) MIDI Implementation Chart template ................................................... 30

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 1 – MIDI standard hardware ......................................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Types of MIDI bytes ............................................................................................. 10

Figure 3 – Types of MIDI messages ...................................................................................... 10

Figure 4 – Structure of a single message .............................................................................. 11

Figure 5 – Structure of System Exclusive message ............................................................... 11

Table 1 – Modes for receiver ................................................................................................ 13

Table 2 – Modes for transmitter ............................................................................................ 13

Table A.1 – MIDI Specification 1.0 message summary .......................................................... 17

Table B.1 – Control Changes and Mode Changes (Status bytes 176 to 191) ......................... 20

Table B.2 – Registered Parameter numbers .......................................................................... 24

Table C.1 – System Exclusive messages .............................................................................. 25

Table C.2 – Universal System Exclusive messages .............................................................. 26

Table D.1 – MIDI Implementation Chart template .................................................................. 30

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MIDI (MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE) SPECIFICATION 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63035 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
100/2597/CDV 100/2858/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

IEC 63035 contains the same first 8 pages as in the MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification (the

original core specification text) published by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA).

These are included within this standard as Clauses 1 to 4. This specification was submitted to

the IEC under the auspices of a special agreement between the IEC and the MMA.

The MMA is a non-profit corporation that serves as a support organization and forum for the

advancement and adoption of MIDI technology (along with the Association of Musical

Electronics Industry, or AMEI, in Japan).

The MIDI 1.0 technology dates back to 1983 when the protocol and electrical specification

comprised 8 pages and the majority of the message identifiers were not yet defined. Over the

subsequent years, the MMA and AMEI determined consensus of the worldwide MIDI industry,

and defined numerous additional messages (via Confirmation of Approval documents), as well

as many Recommended Practices for the use of MIDI technology, all the while maintaining

MIDI as "1.0" (meaning that no significant changes were made to the initial specification).

The MMA documentation for MIDI 1.0 now encompasses more than 50 different documents in

print or on the World Wide Web. This standard contains the same first 8 pages as in the

MMA’s MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification but does not contain all of the subsequent information

developed by MMA/AMEI. Rather, this document contains a complete listing (with basic

description) of all defined MIDI messages to date, with references to the appropriate MMA

documentation. Companies that want to implement MIDI technology are advised to also

consult the MMA documentation that is listed in the Biography.

Although the MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification includes an electrical connection specification

("MIDI-DIN"), other transports (USB, Firewire, etc.) have also been approved by MMA/AMEI

for use with MIDI Protocol. For details and documentation of approved physical transports,

please contact the MIDI Manufacturers Association.

The term "MIDI" is known all around the world as referring to the technology which is defined

in the MMA/AMEI documents, and so should not be used for any other purpose. Companies

that implement MIDI technology in their products in compliance with MMA specifications may

use the term MIDI to describe their products, but may not use the term to describe any

extensions or enhancements that are not defined by MMA/AMEI. Only MMA/AMEI can define

the messages, transport payloads, and Recommend Practices which are promoted as "MIDI"

so as to prevent any dilution and confusion of the meaning of "MIDI". Implementers of MIDI

technology should consult MMA and/or AMEI (depending on the relevant market) for specific

trademark usage policies.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –
MIDI (MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE) SPECIFICATION 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a hardware and software specification which makes it

possible to exchange symbolic music and control information between different musical

instruments or other devices such as sequencers, computers, lighting controllers, mixers, etc.

using MIDI technology (musical instrument digital interface).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60130-9, Connectors for frequencies below 3 MHz - Part 9: Circular connectors for radio

and associated sound equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
velocity

parameter which typically changes the intensity and resultant volume of the note that is being

played and varies according to the force applied
Note 1 to entry: Velocity is used as Key Velocity as in a piano key.
3.2
aftertouch

parameter that measures the level of intensity applied to a note after it has been played and

continues to be depressed

Note 1 to entry: Typically, Aftertouch is useful for adding vibrato or tremolo effects to a sound in much the same

way that a violin can add volume or pitch changes to a sustained note using finger vibrato or additional bowing

intensity.
3.3
modulation wheel

wheel controller found on synthesizers that players can use to progressively introduce

modulation depth to a sound
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
3.4
pitch wheel

wheel type device, normally found to the left of a synthesizer keyboard, used to manipulate

the pitch of a played note or notes
3.5
pitch bend

activity or message, generally initiated by a pitch wheel, that smoothly raises and/or lowers

the pitch of note or chord
3.6
oscillator
circuitry or software program that generates the kernel of a synthesizer sound

Note 1 to entry: In the early days, oscillators generated fairly basic sound types (sawtooth, square, pulse etc). In

modern synthesizer engines, oscillators can be driven by myriad waveforms and samples.

3.7
pan
parameter that specifies the location of a sound within the stereo field
4 General
4.1 Hardware

The hardware MIDI interface operates at 31,25 × (1 ± 1 %) kBd asynchronous, with a start bit,

8 data bits (D0 to D7), and a stop bit. This makes a total of 10 bits for a period of 320 µs per

serial byte. The start bit is a logical 0 (current on) and the stop bit is a logical 1 (current off).

Bytes are sent LSB first.

Circuit: (See Figure 1). 5 mA current loop type. Logical 0 is current ON. One output shall drive

one and only one input. To avoid ground loops, and subsequent data errors, the transmitter

circuitry and receiver circuitry are internally separated by an opto-isolator (a light emitting

diode and a photo sensor which share a single, sealed package). The receiver shall require

less than 5 mA to turn on. Rise and fall times should be less than 2 µs.
Connectors: DIN 5 pin (180°) female panel mount receptacle which is specified in

IEC 60130-9 as type designation IEC-04. The connectors shall be labelled "MIDI IN" and

"MIDI OUT". Note that pins 1 and 3 are not used, and should be left unconnected in the

receiver and transmitter. Pin 2 of the MIDI In connector should also be left unconnected.

The grounding shield connector on the MIDI jacks should not be connected to any circuit or

chassis ground.

When MIDI Thru information is obtained from a MIDI In signal, transmission may occasionally

be performed incorrectly due to signal degradation (caused by the response time of the opto-

isolator) between the rising and falling edges of the square wave. These timing errors will

tend to add up in the "wrong direction" as more devices are chained between MIDI Thru and

MIDI In jacks. The result is that, regardless of circuit quality, there is a limit to the number of

devices which can be chained (series-connected) in this fashion.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 9 –
Opto-isolator
2 4
UART
GND
IN 914
1 Optional
NC NC
MIDI IN
NC NC
MIDI THRU
From
UART
NC NC
MIDI OUT
IEC
Key
Components Supplies
Ra, Rb, Rc, Re, Rf
resistor R = 220 Ω L +5 V
resistor R = 280 Ω

NOTE 1 Opto-isolator shown is Sharp PC-900. (HP 6N138 or other opto-isolator can be used with appropriate

changes.)
NOTE 2 Gates "A" are IC or transistor.
NOTE 3 Resistors are 5 %.
Figure 1 – MIDI standard hardware

Cables shall have a maximum length of 15 m, and shall be terminated on each end by a

corresponding 5-pin DIN male plug which is specified in IEC 60130-9 as type designation

IEC-03. The cable shall be shielded twisted pair, with the shield connected to pin 2 at both

ends.

A MIDI Thru output may be provided if needed, which provides a direct copy of data coming in

MIDI In. For long chain lengths (more than three instruments), higher-speed opto-isolators

should help to avoid additive rise/fall time errors which affect pulse width duty cycle.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
4.2 Data format

MIDI communication is achieved through multi-byte "messages" consisting of one Status byte

followed by one or two Data bytes. Real-Time and Exclusive messages are an exception.

A MIDI-equipped instrument typically contains a receiver and a transmitter. Some instruments

may contain only a receiver or only a transmitter. A receiver accepts messages in MIDI format

and executes MIDI commands. It consists of an opto-isolator, Universal Asynchronous

Receiver/Transmitter (UART), and any other hardware needed to perform the intended

functions. A transmitter originates messages in MIDI format, and transmits them by way of a

UART and line driver.

MIDI makes it possible for a user of MIDI-compatible equipment to expand the number of

instruments in a music system and to change system configurations to meet changing

requirements.

MIDI messages are sent over any of 16 channels which are used for a variety of performance

information. There are five major types of MIDI messages: Channel Voice, Channel Mode,

System Common, System Real-Time and System Exclusive.

A MIDI event is transmitted as a "message" and consists of one or more bytes. Figure 2 to

Figure 5 show the structure and classification of MIDI data.
Byte
Status Byte Data Byte
(80H – FFH) (00H – 7FH)
IEC
Figure 2 – Types of MIDI bytes
Message
type
Channel System
Message Message
System System System
Channel Channel
Common Real Time
Exclusive
Voice Mode
Message Message Message
Message Message
IEC
Figure 3 – Types of MIDI messages
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 11 –
Status Byte
Status Byte Data Byte
Status Byte Data Byte Data Byte
IEC
Figure 4 – Structure of a single message
Status Byte Data Byte EOX Byte
IEC
Figure 5 – Structure of System Exclusive message
4.3 Message types
4.3.1 General
Messages are divided into two main categories: Channel and System.
4.3.2 Channel messages

A Channel message uses four bits in the Status byte to address the message to one of

sixteen MIDI channels and four bits to define the message (see Annex A). Channel messages

are thereby intended for the receivers in a system whose channel number matches the

channel number encoded into the Status byte.

An instrument can receive MIDI messages on more than one channel. The channel in which it

receives its main instructions, such as which program number to be on and what mode to be

in, is referred to as its "Basic Channel". An instrument may be set up to receive performance

data on multiple channels (including the Basic Channel). These are referred to as "Voice

Channels". These multiple-channel situations will be discussed in more detail later (see 4.5).

There are two types of Channel messages: Voice and Mode.

• VOICE: To control an instrument's voices, Voice messages are sent over the Voice

Channels.

• MODE: To define the instrument's response to Voice messages, Mode messages are sent

over an instrument's Basic Channel.
4.3.3 System messages

System messages are not encoded with channel numbers. There are three types of System

messages: Common, Real-Time, and Exclusive.

• COMMON: Common messages are intended for all receivers in a system regardless of

channel.

• REAL-TIME: Real-Time messages are used for synchronization and are intended for all

clock-based instruments in a system. They contain Status bytes only – no Data bytes.

Real-Time messages may be sent at any time – even between bytes of a message which

has a different status. In such cases the Real-Time message is either acted upon or

ignored, after which the receiving process resumes under the previous status.
• EXCLUSIVE: Exclusive messages can contain any number of Data bytes, and can be

terminated either by an End of Exclusive (EOX) or any other Status byte (except Real

Time messages). An EOX should always be sent at the end of a System Exclusive
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017

message. These messages include a Manufacturer's Identification (ID) code. If a receiver

does not recognize the ID code, it should ignore the following data.

So that other users and third party developers can fully access their instruments,

manufacturers shall publish the format of the System Exclusive data following their ID

code. Only the manufacturer can define or update the format following their ID.
4.4 Data types
4.4.1 General
There are two types of bytes sent over MIDI: Status Bytes and Data bytes.
4.4.2 Status bytes
4.4.2.1 General

Status bytes are eight-bit binary numbers in which the Most Significant Bit (MSB) is set

(binary 1). Status bytes serve to identify the message type, that is, the purpose of the Data

bytes which follow it. Except for Real-Time messages, new Status bytes will always command

a receiver to adopt a new status, even if the last message was not completed.
4.4.2.2 Running status

For Voice and Mode messages only. When a Status byte is received and processed, the

receiver will remain in that status until a different Status byte is received. Therefore, if the

same Status byte would be repeated, it can optionally be omitted so that only the Data bytes

need to be sent. Thus, with Running Status, a complete message can consist of only Data

bytes.

Running Status is especially helpful when sending long strings of Note On/Off messages,

where "Note On with Velocity of 0" is used for Note Off.

Running Status will be stopped when any other Status byte intervenes. Real-Time messages

should not affect Running Status.
4.4.2.3 Unimplemented status

Any status bytes, and subsequent data bytes, received for functions not implemented in a

receiver should be ignored.
4.4.2.4 Undefined status

All MIDI instruments should be careful to never send any undefined status bytes. If an

instrument receives any such code, it should be ignored without causing any problems to the

system. Care should also be taken during
...

IEC 63035
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) specification 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
Spécification MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) 1.0
(Edition abrégée, 2015)
IEC 63035:2017-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

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and withdrawn publications. Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary

(IEV) online.
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IEC 63035
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) specification 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
Spécification MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) 1.0
(Edition abrégée, 2015)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.160.30; 35.040.01; 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-8690-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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– 2 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General ........................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Hardware ................................................................................................................ 8

4.2 Data format ........................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Message types ...................................................................................................... 11

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

4.3.2 Channel messages ........................................................................................ 11

4.3.3 System messages.......................................................................................... 11

4.4 Data types ............................................................................................................ 12

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

4.4.2 Status bytes .................................................................................................. 12

4.4.3 Data bytes ..................................................................................................... 12

4.5 Channel modes ..................................................................................................... 13

4.6 Power-up default conditions .................................................................................. 14

5 MIDI implementation chart instructions .......................................................................... 14

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 14

5.2 General ................................................................................................................. 14

5.3 Function description .............................................................................................. 14

5.3.1 Basic Channel ............................................................................................... 14

5.3.2 Mode ............................................................................................................. 14

5.3.3 Note Number ................................................................................................. 15

5.3.4 Velocity ......................................................................................................... 15

5.3.5 Aftertouch ...................................................................................................... 15

5.3.6 Pitch Bend ..................................................................................................... 15

5.3.7 Control Change ............................................................................................. 15

5.3.8 Program Change ........................................................................................... 15

5.3.9 System Exclusive .......................................................................................... 15

5.3.10 System Common ........................................................................................... 15

5.3.11 System Real Time ......................................................................................... 16

5.3.12 Aux. messages .............................................................................................. 16

5.3.13 Notes ............................................................................................................. 16

Annex A (normative) Summary of MIDI messages ................................................................ 17

Annex B (normative) Control Change messages (Data bytes) .............................................. 20

B.1 Control Change messages and Channel Mode messages ..................................... 20

B.2 Registered Parameter numbers ............................................................................. 23

Annex C (normative) System Exclusive messages ............................................................... 25

C.1 System Exclusive messages ................................................................................. 25

C.2 Universal System Exclusive messages .................................................................. 25

Annex D (normative) MIDI Implementation Chart template ................................................... 30

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 31

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IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 1 – MIDI standard hardware ......................................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Types of MIDI bytes ............................................................................................. 10

Figure 3 – Types of MIDI messages ...................................................................................... 10

Figure 4 – Structure of a single message .............................................................................. 11

Figure 5 – Structure of System Exclusive message ............................................................... 11

Table 1 – Modes for receiver ................................................................................................ 13

Table 2 – Modes for transmitter ............................................................................................ 13

Table A.1 – MIDI Specification 1.0 message summary .......................................................... 17

Table B.1 – Control Changes and Mode Changes (Status bytes 176 to 191) ......................... 20

Table B.2 – Registered Parameter numbers .......................................................................... 24

Table C.1 – System Exclusive messages .............................................................................. 25

Table C.2 – Universal System Exclusive messages .............................................................. 26

Table D.1 – MIDI Implementation Chart template .................................................................. 30

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– 4 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MIDI (MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE) SPECIFICATION 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63035 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
100/2597/CDV 100/2858/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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– 6 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

IEC 63035 contains the same first 8 pages as in the MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification (the

original core specification text) published by the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA).

These are included within this standard as Clauses 1 to 4. This specification was submitted to

the IEC under the auspices of a special agreement between the IEC and the MMA.

The MMA is a non-profit corporation that serves as a support organization and forum for the

advancement and adoption of MIDI technology (along with the Association of Musical

Electronics Industry, or AMEI, in Japan).

The MIDI 1.0 technology dates back to 1983 when the protocol and electrical specification

comprised 8 pages and the majority of the message identifiers were not yet defined. Over the

subsequent years, the MMA and AMEI determined consensus of the worldwide MIDI industry,

and defined numerous additional messages (via Confirmation of Approval documents), as well

as many Recommended Practices for the use of MIDI technology, all the while maintaining

MIDI as "1.0" (meaning that no significant changes were made to the initial specification).

The MMA documentation for MIDI 1.0 now encompasses more than 50 different documents in

print or on the World Wide Web. This standard contains the same first 8 pages as in the

MMA’s MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification but does not contain all of the subsequent information

developed by MMA/AMEI. Rather, this document contains a complete listing (with basic

description) of all defined MIDI messages to date, with references to the appropriate MMA

documentation. Companies that want to implement MIDI technology are advised to also

consult the MMA documentation that is listed in the Biography.

Although the MIDI 1.0 Detailed Specification includes an electrical connection specification

("MIDI-DIN"), other transports (USB, Firewire, etc.) have also been approved by MMA/AMEI

for use with MIDI Protocol. For details and documentation of approved physical transports,

please contact the MIDI Manufacturers Association.

The term "MIDI" is known all around the world as referring to the technology which is defined

in the MMA/AMEI documents, and so should not be used for any other purpose. Companies

that implement MIDI technology in their products in compliance with MMA specifications may

use the term MIDI to describe their products, but may not use the term to describe any

extensions or enhancements that are not defined by MMA/AMEI. Only MMA/AMEI can define

the messages, transport payloads, and Recommend Practices which are promoted as "MIDI"

so as to prevent any dilution and confusion of the meaning of "MIDI". Implementers of MIDI

technology should consult MMA and/or AMEI (depending on the relevant market) for specific

trademark usage policies.
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IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –
MIDI (MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE) SPECIFICATION 1.0
(Abridged Edition, 2015)
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a hardware and software specification which makes it

possible to exchange symbolic music and control information between different musical

instruments or other devices such as sequencers, computers, lighting controllers, mixers, etc.

using MIDI technology (musical instrument digital interface).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60130-9, Connectors for frequencies below 3 MHz – Part 9: Circular connectors for radio

and associated sound equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
velocity

parameter which typically changes the intensity and resultant volume of the note that is being

played and varies according to the force applied
Note 1 to entry: Velocity is used as Key Velocity as in a piano key.
3.2
aftertouch

parameter that measures the level of intensity applied to a note after it has been played and

continues to be depressed

Note 1 to entry: Typically, Aftertouch is useful for adding vibrato or tremolo effects to a sound in much the same

way that a violin can add volume or pitch changes to a sustained note using finger vibrato or additional bowing

intensity.
3.3
modulation wheel

wheel controller found on synthesizers that players can use to progressively introduce

modulation depth to a sound
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– 8 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
3.4
pitch wheel

wheel type device, normally found to the left of a synthesizer keyboard, used to manipulate

the pitch of a played note or notes
3.5
pitch bend

activity or message, generally initiated by a pitch wheel, that smoothly raises and/or lowers

the pitch of note or chord
3.6
oscillator
circuitry or software program that generates the kernel of a synthesizer sound

Note 1 to entry: In the early days, oscillators generated fairly basic sound types (sawtooth, square, pulse etc). In

modern synthesizer engines, oscillators can be driven by myriad waveforms and samples.

3.7
pan
parameter that specifies the location of a sound within the stereo field
4 General
4.1 Hardware

The hardware MIDI interface operates at 31,25 × (1 ± 1 %) kBd asynchronous, with a start bit,

8 data bits (D0 to D7), and a stop bit. This makes a total of 10 bits for a period of 320 µs per

serial byte. The start bit is a logical 0 (current on) and the stop bit is a logical 1 (current off).

Bytes are sent LSB first.

Circuit: (See Figure 1). 5 mA current loop type. Logical 0 is current ON. One output shall drive

one and only one input. To avoid ground loops, and subsequent data errors, the transmitter

circuitry and receiver circuitry are internally separated by an opto-isolator (a light emitting

diode and a photo sensor which share a single, sealed package). The receiver shall require

less than 5 mA to turn on. Rise and fall times should be less than 2 µs.
Connectors: DIN 5 pin (180°) female panel mount receptacle which is specified in

IEC 60130-9 as type designation IEC-04. The connectors shall be labelled "MIDI IN" and

"MIDI OUT". Note that pins 1 and 3 are not used, and should be left unconnected in the

receiver and transmitter. Pin 2 of the MIDI In connector should also be left unconnected.

The grounding shield connector on the MIDI jacks should not be connected to any circuit or

chassis ground.

When MIDI Thru information is obtained from a MIDI In signal, transmission may occasionally

be performed incorrectly due to signal degradation (caused by the response time of the opto-

isolator) between the rising and falling edges of the square wave. These timing errors will

tend to add up in the "wrong direction" as more devices are chained between MIDI Thru and

MIDI In jacks. The result is that, regardless of circuit quality, there is a limit to the number of

devices which can be chained (series-connected) in this fashion.
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IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 9 –
Opto-isolator
2 4
UART
GND
IN 914
1 Optional
NC NC
MIDI IN
NC NC
MIDI THRU
From
UART
NC NC
MIDI OUT
IEC
Key
Components Supplies
Ra, Rb, Rc, Re, Rf resistor R = 220 Ω L +5 V
resistor R = 280 Ω

NOTE 1 Opto-isolator shown is Sharp PC-900. (HP 6N138 or other opto-isolator can be used with appropriate

changes.)
NOTE 2 Gates "A" are IC or transistor.
NOTE 3 Resistors are 5 %.
Figure 1 – MIDI standard hardware

Cables shall have a maximum length of 15 m, and shall be terminated on each end by a

corresponding 5-pin DIN male plug which is specified in IEC 60130-9 as type designation

IEC-03. The cable shall be shielded twisted pair, with the shield connected to pin 2 at both

ends.

A MIDI Thru output may be provided if needed, which provides a direct copy of data coming in

MIDI In. For long chain lengths (more than three instruments), higher-speed opto-isolators

should help to avoid additive rise/fall time errors which affect pulse width duty cycle.

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– 10 – IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017
4.2 Data format

MIDI communication is achieved through multi-byte "messages" consisting of one Status byte

followed by one or two Data bytes. Real-Time and Exclusive messages are an exception.

A MIDI-equipped instrument typically contains a receiver and a transmitter. Some instruments

may contain only a receiver or only a transmitter. A receiver accepts messages in MIDI format

and executes MIDI commands. It consists of an opto-isolator, Universal Asynchronous

Receiver/Transmitter (UART), and any other hardware needed to perform the intended

functions. A transmitter originates messages in MIDI format, and transmits them by way of a

UART and line driver.

MIDI makes it possible for a user of MIDI-compatible equipment to expand the number of

instruments in a music system and to change system configurations to meet changing

requirements.

MIDI messages are sent over any of 16 channels which are used for a variety of performance

information. There are five major types of MIDI messages: Channel Voice, Channel Mode,

System Common, System Real-Time and System Exclusive.

A MIDI event is transmitted as a "message" and consists of one or more bytes. Figure 2 to

Figure 5 show the structure and classification of MIDI data.
Byte
Status Byte Data Byte
(80H – FFH) (00H – 7FH)
IEC
Figure 2 – Types of MIDI bytes
Message
type
Channel System
Message Message
System System
System
Channel Channel
Common Real Time
Exclusive
Voice Mode
Message Message
Message
Message Message
IEC
Figure 3 – Types of MIDI messages
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IEC 63035:2017  IEC 2017 – 11 –
Status Byte
Status Byte Data Byte
Status Byte Data Byte Data Byte
IEC
Figure 4 – Structure of a single message
Status Byte Data Byte EOX Byte
IEC
Figure 5 – Structure of System Exclusive message
4.3 Message types
4.3.1 General
Messages are divided into two main categories: Channel and System.
4.3.2 Channel messages

A Channel message uses four bits in the Status byte to address the message to one of

sixteen MIDI channels and four bits to define the message (see Annex A). Channel messages

are thereby intended for the receivers in a system whose channel number matches the

channel number encoded into the Status byte.

An instrument can receive MIDI messages on more than one channel. The channel in which it

receives its main instructions, such as which program number to be on and what mode to be

in, is referred to as its "Basic Channel". An instrument may be set up to receive performance

data on multiple channels (including the Basic Channel). These are referred to as "Voice

Channels". These multiple-channel situations will be discussed in more detail later (see 4.5).

There are two types of Channel messages: Voice and Mode.

• VOICE: To control an instrument's voices, Voice messages are sent over the Voice

Channels.

• MODE: To define the instrument's response to Voice messages, Mode messages are sent

over an instrument's Basic Channel.
4.3.3 System messages

System messages are not encoded with channel numbers. There are three types of System

messages: Common, Real-Time, and Exclusive.

• COMMON: Common messages are intended for all receivers in a system regardless of

channel.

• REAL-TIME: Real-Time messages are used for synchronization and are intended for all

clock-based instruments in a system. They contain Status bytes only – no Data bytes.

Real-Time messages may be sent at any time – even between bytes of a message which

has a different status. In such cases the Real-Time me
...

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