Internet of Things (IoT) - Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) - Network management system overview and requirements

ISO/IEC 30142:2020 provides the overview and requirements of a network management system in underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) environment. It specifies the following:
– functions which support underwater network management system;
– entities required for underwater network management system;
– data about the communication between elements in underwater network management system;
– guidelines to model the underwater network management system;
– general and functional requirements of underwater network management system

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Jun-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
22-Jun-2020
Ref Project

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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 - Internet of Things (IoT) - Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) - Network management system overview and requirements
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ISO/IEC 30142
Edition 1.0 2020-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Network management system overview and requirements
ISO/IEC 30142:2020-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30142
Edition 1.0 2020-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) –
Network management system overview and requirements
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.110 ISBN 978-2-8322-8484-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 8

5 U-NMS overview .............................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Problem statements ................................................................................................ 9

5.3 Description of the U-NMS ..................................................................................... 10

5.4 Purpose and advantages of the U-NMS ................................................................ 10

6 Functions of the U-NMS................................................................................................. 11

6.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 11

6.2 U-NMS fault management ..................................................................................... 11

6.3 U-NMS configuration management ........................................................................ 12

6.4 U-NMS account management ................................................................................ 14

6.5 U-NMS performance management ........................................................................ 14

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

6.5.2 The challenges in performance management ................................................. 14

6.5.3 Functions of performance management ......................................................... 15

6.6 U-NMS security management ................................................................................ 16

6.7 U-NMS constrained management .......................................................................... 17

6.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.7.2 Constrained network management ................................................................. 17

6.7.3 Constrained device management ................................................................... 18

7 U-NMS components ....................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Management station .............................................................................................. 19

7.2 U-NMS agent ........................................................................................................ 20

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.2.2 Types of agents ............................................................................................. 21

7.2.3 Elements of agent .......................................................................................... 22

7.2.4 Underwater Management Information Base (u-MIB) ....................................... 22

7.3 Managed elements ................................................................................................ 23

7.4 Management protocol ........................................................................................... 24

8 Requirements of U-NMS ................................................................................................ 25

8.1 U-NMS general requirements ................................................................................ 25

8.2 U-NMS functional requirements ............................................................................ 25

8.3 U-NMS constrained requirements.......................................................................... 27

9 Model for underwater network management ................................................................... 28

9.1 FCAPSC modelling for the U-NMS ........................................................................ 28

9.2 U-NMS architectural model ................................................................................... 28

9.3 U-NMS specific architecture .................................................................................. 29

Annex A (informative) U-NMS use cases.............................................................................. 31

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

A.2 Environmental management use case ................................................................... 31

A.2.1 Description .................................................................................................... 31

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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 3 –

A.2.2 Actors ............................................................................................................ 32

A.2.3 Potential requirements ................................................................................... 32

A.2.4 Environmental monitoring and management use case diagram ...................... 32

A.3 Underwater pipeline management use case .......................................................... 35

A.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

A.3.2 Actors ............................................................................................................ 35

A.3.3 Potential requirements ................................................................................... 35

A.3.4 Pipeline leakage detection and management use case diagram ..................... 36

A.4 Underwater natural resource management use case ............................................. 37

A.5 Underwater fish farm management use case ......................................................... 37

A.6 Harbour security management use case ............................................................... 38

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 39

Figure 1 – Stack of layers in a U-NMS .................................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – Functions of the U-NMS ....................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Fault management in the U-NMS.......................................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Configuration management in the U-NMS............................................................. 13

Figure 5 – Account management in U-NMS ........................................................................... 14

Figure 6 – Performance management in U-NMS ................................................................... 15

Figure 7 – Security management in U-NMS ........................................................................... 16

Figure 8 – Constrained network management in U-NMS ....................................................... 18

Figure 9 – Constrained device management in U-NMS ......................................................... 19

Figure 10 – Management station ........................................................................................... 20

Figure 11 – U-NMS agent architecture .................................................................................. 21

Figure 12 – Components of Agent ......................................................................................... 22

Figure 13 – u-MIB in different devices ................................................................................... 23

Figure 14 – Managed elements ............................................................................................. 23

Figure 15 – Management protocol in U-NMS system ............................................................. 24

Figure 16 – FCAPSC modelling for the U-NMS ..................................................................... 28

Figure 17 – U-NMS architectural model................................................................................. 29

Figure 18 – U-NMS specific architecture ............................................................................... 30

Figure A.1 – Environmental management use case ............................................................... 31

Figure A.2 – Environmental management use case diagram ................................................. 33

Figure A.3 – Use case for network management station ........................................................ 34

Figure A.4 – Use case for agents in environmental management .......................................... 34

Figure A.5 – Underwater pipeline management use case ...................................................... 35

Figure A.6 – Underwater pipeline leakage management use case ......................................... 36

Figure A.7 – Underwater natural resource management use case ......................................... 37

Figure A.8 – Underwater fish farm management use case ..................................................... 37

Figure A.9 – Harbour security management use case ........................................................... 38

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

Table 1 – Types of agents in different devices of U-NMS ...................................................... 21

Table 2 – General requirements of U-NMS ............................................................................ 25

Table 3 – Functional requirements of U-NMS ........................................................................ 26

Table 4 – Constrained requirements of the U-NMS ............................................................... 27

Table A.1 – Potential U-NMS requirements of environmental monitoring application ............. 32

Table A.2 – Potential U-NMS requirements of pipeline monitoring application ....................... 36

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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND REQUIREMENTS
FOREWORD

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International Standard ISO/IEC 30142 was prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things

and related technologies, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/149/FDIS JTC1-SC41/160/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

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colour printer.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
INTRODUCTION

Water covers approximately 70 % of the surface of the Earth. Modern technologies introduce

new methods to monitor the body of water, such as pollution monitoring and detection.

Underwater data gathering techniques require exploring the water environment, which can be

most effectively performed by underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs). Applications

developed for the UWASNs can record underwater climate, detect and control water pollution,

monitor marine biology, discover natural resources, detect pipeline leakages, monitor and find

underwater intruders, perform strategic surveillance, and so on.

In order to build and apply the UWASN technology, most suitable methods for managing the

network have been developed based on the ISO/IEC 30140 series. This document describes

the network management outline and requirements appropriate to the UWASN under the

constraints of underwater physical environment.

The ISO/IEC 30140 series provides general requirements, reference architecture (RA)

including the entity models and high-level interface guidelines supporting interoperability

among UWASNs in order to provide the essential UWASN construction information to help

and guide architects, developers and implementers of UWASNs.

This document provides the information such as requirements of an underwater network

management system (U-NMS), functions supporting U-NMS and components required for

U-NMS in UWASN.

Various technical standards derived from the R&D results of the technical areas under the

UWASN and underwater communication fields not covered by the ISO/IEC 30140 series are

continuously proposed and developed.
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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC SENSOR NETWORK (UWASN) –
NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND REQUIREMENTS
1 Scope

This document provides the overview and requirements of a network management system in

underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) environment. It specifies the following:

– functions which support underwater network management system;
– entities required for underwater network management system;
– data about the communication between elements in underwater network management
system;
– guidelines to model the underwater network management system;
– general and functional requirements of underwater network management system.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
agent
software program that manages the devices installed in underwater
3.2
u-MIB

collection of managed objects, which acts as the database for the management of each

device in the underwater environment
3.3
manager

program installed in the management station, which is used for the management of devices in

underwater networks
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– 8 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020
4 Abbreviated terms
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
UWASN underwater acoustic sensor network
UWA-GW underwater acoustic gateway
UWA-SNode underwater acoustic sensor node
U-NMS underwater network management system
UWA-CH underwater acoustic cluster head
u-MIB underwater management information base
OID object identifier
FCAPS fault-management, configuration, accounting, performance and security
FCAPSC fault, configuration, accounting, performance, security and constrained
management
MO managed object
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
5 U-NMS overview
5.1 General

The UWASN operates in a constrained environment as compared to terrestrial network’s

operating environment. Hence, the UWASN needs an efficient network management system

to handle and compensate for phenomenological difficulties encountered in the underwater

environments. This system can be termed an "underwater network management system" or

"U-NMS".

Figure 1 shows the diagrammatic representation of a U-NMS module residing within the UWA-

Application Layer.
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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 9 –
Figure 1 – Stack of layers in a U-NMS
5.2 Problem statements

As the conditions of the underwater environment differ significantly from terrestrial networks,

it becomes mandatory to have an appropriate network management system designed uniquely

for the underwater environments.

The specific challenges or issues for the UWASNs to operate with the help of U-NMS are

given below.

– Low data rate: In UWASN, the total amount of data collected during the monitoring

process by each sensor is less, when compared to terrestrial networks. This is because of

the limitation in memory, battery power, etc. in underwater devices.

– Transmission range: In UWASN, the nodes can cover only less distance when considering

the network coverage and battery power planning. On the other hand, signals are usually

transmitted in low frequencies under water, in order to avoid being absorbed by water.

This in turn allows longer transmission ranges, but at the same time increases the

chances for interference and collision.

– Battery charge level: As battery backup is limited for all devices in the underwater

environment, energy efficiency turns out to be a major challenge when considering the

cost of battery recharging.

– Attenuation: In UWASN, the transmission loss can occur based on an absorption in the

underwater environments.

– Deployment depth: In UWASN, the node deployment and the node management encounter

difficulties due to the depth of sea.

– Size of the antenna: In UWASN, the size of the antenna is designed as small for short

range communication and bigger for long range communication. So, it faces difficulties

during deployment in underwater communication.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

– Data delivery rate: In UWASN, the total packets delivered to the receiver can be

influenced by various factors such as time, traffic, etc.
– Delay of data transmission: In UWASN, as the underwater environment is heavily

congested with acoustic signals, this situation can cause delays during data transmission.

– Bit errors: In UWASN, the increased bit errors at receivers are caused by various factors

such as noise, attenuation, interference, etc.
5.3 Description of the U-NMS

The U-NMS is a program or collection of programs that allows the administrators to

independently manage and control every component in an underwater network system.

Operations performed by the U-NMS are the following:
– configuring underwater networks;
– monitoring the performance of components;
– identifying and controlling traffic;
– dealing with problems like device failure, attacks, etc.
5.4 Purpose and advantages of the U-NMS
The main purposes of the U-NMS are to
– monitor the network systems and functions of UWASNs, and

– ensure that the generated data can be transmitted and received at the destination

efficiently through the network.

The advantages of using the U-NMS include, but are not limited to, the following.

– Cost reduction: In a constrained environment, it is difficult to manage the devices

physically at all times. For example, power, memory, deployment, fouling cleaning, etc.

require efficient management mechanisms. Also, the cost is very high for direct

management. If a proper management system is employed, then the operational cost,

installation cost, etc. can be reduced.

– Easy network monitoring: Each device and the network can be used for monitoring the

connection between the devices and network in the underwater environments.

– Error handling: In the underwater environment, the errors can occur in both the devices

and network sides and this can be easily handled using the U-NMS.

– Automatic software updates: In the U-NMS, the automatic updating of software over the

underwater network is essential.

– Network configuration flexibility: The U-NMS provides easy configuration support among

the hardware, software, devices, network, etc. In this way, flexible connections can be

made between devices and network.

– Service improvement: The U-NMS can provide the high-quality services such as data

collection, processing, predicting, communicating, etc.

– Data control over network: The U-NMS can control the status of devices such as memory,

power, network range, etc. Also, the U-NMS can control each underwater management

device by collecting and processing dynamic data.

– Security solutions: The U-NMS consists of a security module which can protect the

underwater devices from authorization and authentication related issues. Also, the U-NMS

can manage the security level of the system based on the security rules.

– Log data analysis: In the U-NMS, log data is the set of underwater activity observation

data captured by underwater devices, underwater networks, operating system, etc. Log

data can be used to analyse user behaviour, security risks, audit, etc.
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ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020 – 11 –
6 Functions of the U-NMS
6.1 Overview

In UWASN, the network management system utilizes different methods and tools to assist a

human operator in order to manage underwater devices, networks or systems. The functions

of U-NMS are modelled using Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security and

Constrained management (FCAPSC).
FCAPSC functions of U-NMS are described in Figure 2.
Figure 2 – Functions of the U-NMS
6.2 U-NMS fault management

The main goal of fault management in U-NMS is to notify the faults and abnormal operations

in the UWASN. U-NMS fault management functionality includes examining and maintaining

the error logs, responding to notifications, finding the faults, performing the diagnostic tests

and correcting the faults.

Network problems are detected, isolated and corrected at the fault management level in the

U-NMS. As a fault may occur in various components of the system, it is important to identify

the relationship between these components. The network always stays operational with the

help of the fault management mechanism. The fault management shows how to design and

install the services of faults in the U-NMS.
The U-NMS fault management steps are as follows.

– Detect the fault: In U-NMS, the fault detection is indicated by notification messages. The

u-MIB has the information related to types of fault that will correlate and find the reasons

for the occurrence of faults such as device faults, battery faults, etc.

– Isolate the problem: The source of fault occurring in the U-NMS such as device, battery,

network, etc. can be identified.
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– 12 – ISO/IEC 30142:2020 © ISO/IEC 2020

– Solve the problem: The faults identified are resolved, repaired or corrected depending on

the severity of faults.
Figure 3 – Fault manag
...

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