Wearable electronic devices and technologies - Part 201-2: Electronic textile - Measurement methods for basic properties of conductive fabrics and insulation materials

IEC 63203-201-2:2022 specifies the provisions for conductive fabrics and insulation materials used for electronic textiles and measurement methods for their properties.
Conductive fabrics covered by this document are basic materials in electronic textiles and are mainly used as conductive traces, electrodes and the like in clothes-type wearable devices. This document does not cover high-resistance conductive fabrics used for antistatic purposes and heater applications.
Insulating materials handled in this document are materials used for electrical insulation of conductive parts in electronic textiles. They include materials for covering the conductive parts, and general fabrics constituting the basic structure of clothes‑type wearable devices.
This document does not define the required characteristics of the conductive fabric and insulation materials; rather, it specifies measurement methods for general and electrical properties of the conductive fabric and insulation materials.

Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter - Partie 201-2: Textile électronique - Méthodes de mesure des propriétés fondamentales des étoffes conductrices et des matériaux isolants

L’IEC 63203-201-2:2022 spécifie les dispositions applicables aux étoffes conductrices et aux matériaux isolants utilisés pour les textiles électroniques, ainsi que les méthodes de mesure de leurs propriétés.
Les étoffes conductrices traitées dans le présent document constituent les matériaux de base des textiles électroniques et sont utilisées principalement comme traces conductrices, électrodes conductrices et analogues dans les dispositifs prêts-à-porter de type vêtements. Le présent document n’inclut pas les étoffes conductrices à haute résistance utilisées à des fins antistatiques et pour les applications de chauffage.
Les matériaux isolants visés dans le présent document sont des matériaux utilisés pour l’isolation électrique des parties conductrices dans les textiles électroniques. Ils incluent les matériaux de revêtement des parties conductrices, et les étoffes générales qui constituent la structure de base des dispositifs prêts-à-porter de type vêtements.
Le présent document ne définit pas les caractéristiques exigées de l’étoffe conductrice ni des matériaux isolants, mais spécifie les méthodes de mesurage liées aux propriétés générales et électriques de l’étoffe conductrice et des matériaux isolants.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
26-Apr-2022
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IEC 63203-201-2
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wearable electronic devices and technologies –
Part 201-2: Electronic textile – Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive fabrics and insulation materials
Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter –
Partie 201-2: Textile électronique – Méthodes de mesure des propriétés
fondamentales des étoffes conductrices et des matériaux isolants
IEC 63203-201-2:2022-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2
Edition 1.0 2022-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wearable electronic devices and technologies –
Part 201-2: Electronic textile – Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive fabrics and insulation materials
Technologies et dispositifs électroniques prêts-à-porter –
Partie 201-2: Textile électronique – Méthodes de mesure des propriétés
fondamentales des étoffes conductrices et des matériaux isolants
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 59.080.30; 59.080.80 ISBN 978-2-8322-1104-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Materials and structure .................................................................................................... 7

4.1 Classification of conductive fabric ........................................................................... 7

4.2 Classification of insulation materials ....................................................................... 8

5 Atmospheric conditions for measurement and conditioning .............................................. 8

6 Characteristics and measurement methods for conductive fabric ..................................... 8

6.1 Electrical properties ................................................................................................ 8

6.1.1 Sheet resistance .............................................................................................. 8

6.1.2 Fusing current ................................................................................................. 9

6.1.3 Electric insulation properties .......................................................................... 10

6.2 Chemical and biological resistance ....................................................................... 14

6.2.1 Perspiration resistance .................................................................................. 14

6.2.2 Detergent resistance ..................................................................................... 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 1 – Classification of electric insulation materials .......................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Test specimen for measurement of insulation properties ...................................... 11

Figure 3 – Test specimen setting .......................................................................................... 11

Figure 4 – Measurement circuit of cover insulation layer side................................................ 11

Figure 5 – Measurement circuit of substrate side .................................................................. 13

Table 1 – Pre-tensioning for fabrics without stretch characteristics ......................................... 9

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
WEARABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 201-2: Electronic textile –
Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive fabrics and insulation materials
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

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with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63203-201-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 124: Wearable electronic

devices and technologies. It is an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
124/176/FDIS 124/181/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63203 series, published under the general title Wearable electronic

devices and technologies, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

This document contains the provisions for conductive fabrics and insulation materials used for

electronic textiles and measurement methods for their properties. When a conductive fabric

becomes a wearable electronics product, it plays the role of conductive traces, electrodes and

the like in clothes-type wearable devices. Therefore, measurement methods are defined for the

characteristics of such conductive fabrics.

The IEC 63203-2 series relates mainly to measurement methods for electronic textile (e- textile)

of wearable electronics.

The IEC 63203-2 series is divided into parts according to each category of electronic textile.

Each part is prepared as a generic specification containing fundamental information for the area

of printed electronics.
The IEC 63203-2 series consists of the following parts:
IEC 63203-201: E‑textile materials
IEC 63203-201-1: E‑textile materials – Conductive yarn

IEC 63203-201-2: E‑textile materials – Conductive fabrics and insulation materials

IEC 63203-202: Passive electric parts for e‑textiles
IEC 63203-202-1: Passive e‑textile parts – Connectors for e‑textile applications
IEC 63203-203: E‑textile functional elements

IEC 63203-204: E‑textile systems (evaluation method for garment-type wearable systems)

IEC 63203-204-1: E‑textile systems – Test method for assessing washing durability of

leisurewear and sportswear e‑textile systems
(Subsequent parts will be prepared according to other categories.)

Furthermore, sectional specifications, blank detail specifications, and detail specifications of

each category will follow these parts.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022
WEARABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 201-2: Electronic textile –
Measurement methods for basic properties of
conductive fabrics and insulation materials
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63203-201 specifies the provisions for conductive fabrics and insulation

materials used for electronic textiles and measurement methods for their properties.

Conductive fabrics covered by this document are basic materials in electronic textiles and are

mainly used as conductive traces, electrodes and the like in clothes-type wearable devices.

This document does not cover high-resistance conductive fabrics used for antistatic purposes

and heater applications.

Insulating materials handled in this document are materials used for electrical insulation of

conductive parts in electronic textiles. They include materials for covering the conductive parts,

and general fabrics constituting the basic structure of clothes-type wearable devices.

This document does not define the required characteristics of the conductive fabric and

insulation materials; rather, it specifies measurement methods for general and electrical

properties of the conductive fabric and insulation materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60243-1:2013, Electric strength of insulating materials – Test methods – Part 1: Tests at

power frequencies
IEC 60468:1974, Method of measurement of resistivity of metallic materials

IEC 62631-3-1:2016, Dielectric and resistive properties of solid insulating materials – Part 3-1:

Determination of resistive properties (DC methods) – Volume resistance and volume resistivity

– General method

ISO 105-E04, Textiles − Tests for colour fastness − Part E04: Colour fastness to perspiration

ISO 139, Textiles − Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing
ISO 6330, Textiles – Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

EN 16812:2016, Textiles and textile products – Electrically conductive textiles – Determination

of the linear electrical resistance of conductive tracks
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
conductive fabric

fabric, such as woven fabric, knitted fabric, or nonwoven fabric, having electrical conductivity

Note 1 to entry: Conductive fabric can be used at the level of signal line, power transmission line, and

electromagnetic shield.
[SOURCE: IEC 63203-101-1:2021, 3.18]
3.2
insulation material

insulant material used to prevent electric conduction between conductive elements

Note 1 to entry: In the field of electromagnetism the term "insulant" is also used as a synonym for "insulating

medium".

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-151:2001, 151-15-35, modified – The terms "insulating material" and

"insulant" have been replaced with "insulation material" and the word "insulant" added to the

definition.]
3.3
sheet resistance

electrical resistance of a sheet of nominally uniform thickness, measured across the opposite

ends of a square area

Note 1 to entry: The unit of sheet resistance is Ohm (Ω). However, in order not to confuse sheet resistance with

bulk resistance, the use of Ohm per square (Ω/□) is recommended.

Note 2 to entry: If fabric thickness is known, the average bulk resistivity of the fabric material can be calculated as

the product of sheet resistance and fabric thickness.

Note 3 to entry: In a conductive fabric whose resistance value can be regarded as isotropic, the fabric can be

regarded as a sheet and the sheet resistance can be used as an expression of conductivity.

[SOURCE: IEC 62899-101:2019, 3.122, modified − In the definition, "thin film" has been

replaced with "sheet"; in Note 2, "film" has been replaced with "fabric", and Note 3 has been

added.]
4 Materials and structure
4.1 Classification of conductive fabric

"Fabric" is a generic term for fibre structures having planar shapes. Fabrics are classified as

follows: woven fabric, knitted fabric, and nonwoven fabric. Electric conductive fabrics are fabrics

that contain conductive yarns or fibres in their composition or fabrics that are coated by

electro-conductive materials.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022
4.2 Classification of insulation materials

The insulating materials in this document are used for e‑textile products with electric conductive

fabrics or conductive yarns. Layers of fabrics used for the purpose of insulation materials are

made of generic non-conductive yarns and are non-conductive fabrics, further, they may have

non-conductive coating on one side or both sides. Such fabrics are used as substrate for

arranging conductive thread materials consisting of conductive fabrics or yarns and the like.

The insulation materials include non-conductive polymer film and a non-conductive resin

coating in addition to the non-conductive fabrics. These materials form protective layers over

conductive threads and have the role of electric insulation. Electric insulation materials are

classified as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – Classification of electric insulation materials
5 Atmospheric conditions for measurement and conditioning

Preparation, and conditioning and measurement of the test specimens shall be compliant with

ISO 139 according to the standard atmosphere of ISO 139 (i.e., 20 °C, 65 % RH).
6 Characteristics and measurement methods for conductive fabric
6.1 Electrical properties
6.1.1 Sheet resistance
6.1.1.1 Specimens

Cut out five test specimens from the conductive fabric. Each test specimen should have a width

W: 10 mm and an effective length L: 100 mm or other size with similar or larger length-width

ratio. If the entire fabric specimen is not conductive, conductive elements should extend the

complete length of the specimen. Report alternate length-width ratio if used. Conductive fabrics

are not homogeneous materials and may have directionality in electrical properties. A test

specimen for which the direction is different from the original fabric may be cut out as necessary.

6.1.1.2 Pre-tensioning

Pre-tensioning is required to obtain flatness for good contact between the specimen fabric and

the electrodes.

Pre-tensioning condition for the fabric without stretch characteristics is indicated at Table 1 with

reference to EN 16812:2016.

Pre-tensioning condition for the fabric with stretch characteristics is 0,1 N per 10 mm of width

with reference to EN 16812:2016.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –
Table 1 – Pre-tensioning for fabrics without stretch characteristics
Applied tension (N)
Fabric mass per unit area (g/m )
per 10 mm width
≤ 200 0,4
> 200 and 500 ≤ 1
> 500 2
6.1.1.3 Procedure

The conductivity of conductive fabric is measured by determining the sheet resistance R . The

sheet resistance R is determined by the following the procedure.
a) Pre-tension is applied to the specimen according to 6.1.1.2.

b) Measure the resistance R in the longitudinal direction of the test specimen according to the

four electrode four-wire method as defined in IEC 60468:1974 and EN 16812:2016.
c) Calculate the sheet resistance R by applying the following formula.
Sheet resistance R = R (W / L)

d) When the conductivity is anisotropic, the direction in which the specimen is cut out is

determined by the user and supplier.
Calculate the linear resistance R by applying the following formula.
Linear resistance R = R/L

NOTE 1 The "user" can be any of the following: manufacturer of the yarn, manufacturer of the fabric, manufacturer

of the semi-finished or end product, or end-user.

NOTE 2 The "supplier" can be any of the following: manufacturer of the raw material, manufacturer of the yarn,

manufacturer of the fabric, manufacturer of the semi-finished or end product.
6.1.1.4 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
a) identification of measured conductive fabric;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity);
c) numbers of measured specimens;
d) average of sheet resistance and linear resistance;
e) standard deviation of sheet resistance and linear resistance.
6.1.2 Fusing current
6.1.2.1 General

This Subclause 6.1.2 describes how to determine at which value of current passing through the

conductive fabric, the fabric melts or ignites by Joule heat. The fusing current is a fundamental

value, to determine the permissible current that may be passed through the conductive fabric.

A safety margin should be determined on a case-by-case basis for the permissible current,

since the surrounding conditions of the conductive fabric depend on the application and its use.

The measuring environment should be equipped with a non-flammable underground, safety

measures to extinguish fires and appropriate ventilation to remove (toxic) fumes.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022
6.1.2.2 Procedure
a) Cut test specimen according to 6.1.1.1.

b) Clamp electrodes to both ends of the test specimen such that the effective length is 100 mm.

Make sure the test specimen does not slacken in the windless air. Make sure that the test

piece does not wiggle in windless air.
c) Apply a DC voltage such that the initial current becomes 1 mA.

d) Starting 10 s after applying the voltage, increase the voltage such that the current increase

rate becomes 1 mA/s.

e) Determine the fusing current, which is the moment the test specimen melts or ignites.

If the fusing current is below 10 mA, arrange multiple specimens of conductive fabric in

parallel at step b), and determine the fusing current. Divide the measured value by the

number of parallel specimens to get the fusing current. In this case, more than five test

specimens are necessary.

f) Repeat the test for five specimens and calculate the average value of fusing current.

6.1.2.3 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
a) identification of test specimen;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity);
c) number of test specimens;
d) average of all fusing current (A) measurements;
e) standard deviation of all fusing current measurements.
6.1.3 Electric insulation properties
6.1.3.1 General

The insulation performance is a basic property to understand the level of insulation between

the conductive fabric and the outside. The electric strength is a basic value for understanding

the resistance of the conductive fabric to external voltage.

This Subclause 6.1.3 describes how to measure the insulation performance of the insulation

material and how the electric strength can be determined.
6.1.3.2 Insulation resistance of cover and insulation cover side
6.1.3.2.1 Procedure

a) Test specimens should be prepared as shown in Figure 2. The test specimens consist of a

substrate, a rectangular stretchable conductor of 70 mm × 210 mm, and a cover insulation

layer of 70 mm × 70 mm.

The test specimen substrate shall have a margin of at least 5 mm on each side of the edges

of the conductor. Dimensional errors of ±1 mm are allowed for stretchable conductors and

cover insulation layer.

b) Use an electrode with a guard ring for volume resistivity measurement conforming to

IEC 62631-3-1:2016.

Insert the test specimen between the circular electrode E with the guard ring electrode E

C R

and the ground electrode E , as shown in Figure 3. Fold the specimen in half and sandwich

it between both electrodes.
Connect the measuring circuit as shown in Figure 4.
c) Apply a voltage of 500 V if not specified otherwise.

d) Measure the current 1 min after the voltage has been applied, the resistance is calculated

from the current measured.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
Key
1 stretchable substrate 70 mm × 210 mm
2 stretchable conductor 70 mm × 210 mm
3 stretchable insulator 70 mm × 70 mm
Figure 2 – Test specimen for measurement of insulation properties
Key
1 stretchable substrate E circular electrode
2 stretchable conductor E guard ring electrode
3 stretchable insulator E ground electrode
Figure 3 – Test specimen setting
Key
1 stretchable substrate
2 stretchable conductor
3 stretchable insulator
Figure 4 – Measurement circuit of cover insulation layer side
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 63203-201-2:2022 © IEC 2022
6.1.3.2.2 Report of the results
The report shall include the following items:
a) test specimen identification;
b) test conditions (room temperature and humidity);
c) applied voltage (V);
d) number of measured test specimens;
e) average of all measured current and calculated insulation resistance (Ω);

f) standard deviation of all fusing current measurements calculated insulation resistance (Ω).

6.1.3.3 Electric strength of insulation cover side
6.1.3.3.1 Procedure
The test specimen is prepared as specified in 6.1.3.2.1.

Hold the test specimen on a horizontal insulation table with the cover insulating layer facing

upward.
Place a 25 m
...

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