Marine energy - Wave, tidal and other water current converters - Part 202: Early stage development of tidal energy converters - Best practices and recommended procedures for the testing of pre-prototype scale devices

IEC TS 62600-202:2022 specifies the development stages of Tidal Energy Converters up to the pre-prototype scale (Stages 1 to 3). It includes the hydraulic laboratory test programs, where environmental conditions are controlled so they can be scheduled, and the first scaled system open-water trials, where combinations of tidal currents, wind and waves occur naturally and the programs are adjusted and flexible to accommodate these conditions. This document describes the minimum test programs that form the basis of a structured technology development schedule. For each testing campaign, the prerequisites, goals and minimum test plans are specified. This document addresses:
a: Planning an experimental program, including a design statement, technical drawings, selection of scale and facility based on physical laws, site data and other inputs; b: Device representation and characterization, including the physical device model, power-take-off components, foundation and mooring arrangements where appropriate; c: Energy resource and environment characterization, concerning either the tank testing facility or the open-water deployment site, depending on the stage of development; d: Specification of explicit test goals, including power conversion performance and device loads.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Apr-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Apr-2022
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IEC TS 62600-202:2022 - Marine energy - Wave, tidal and other water current converters - Part 202: Early stage development of tidal energy converters - Best practices and recommended procedures for the testing of pre-prototype scale devices
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IEC TS 62600-202
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Marine energy – Wave, tidal and other water current converters –
Part 202: Early stage development of tidal energy converters – Best practices
and recommended procedures for the testing of pre-prototype scale devices
IEC TS 62600-202:2022-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62600-202
Edition 1.0 2022-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Marine energy – Wave, tidal and other water current converters –
Part 202: Early stage development of tidal energy converters – Best practices
and recommended procedures for the testing of pre-prototype scale devices
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-1095-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62600-202:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 11

5 Staged development approach ...................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Stage 1 ................................................................................................................. 14

5.2.1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 14

5.2.2 Stage gate ..................................................................................................... 14

5.3 Stage 2 ................................................................................................................. 15

5.3.1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 15

5.3.2 Stage gate ..................................................................................................... 15

5.4 Stage 3 ................................................................................................................. 16

5.4.1 Scope ............................................................................................................ 16

5.4.2 Stage gate ..................................................................................................... 16

6 Test planning ................................................................................................................. 17

6.1 TEC similitudes ..................................................................................................... 17

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17

6.1.2 Reynolds scaling ........................................................................................... 18

6.1.3 Temperature and salinity effects on Reynolds number ................................... 21

6.2 Power take off (PTO) similitude ............................................................................. 21

6.3 Design statement .................................................................................................. 21

6.4 Facility selection and outline plan ......................................................................... 23

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

6.4.2 Stage 1 and Stage 2 ...................................................................................... 23

6.4.3 Stage 3 .......................................................................................................... 25

6.5 Physical model considerations .............................................................................. 26

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.5.2 Stage 1 .......................................................................................................... 26

6.5.3 Stage 2 .......................................................................................................... 27

6.5.4 Stage 3 .......................................................................................................... 27

6.5.5 Methods for applying torque .......................................................................... 27

6.5.6 Methods for controlling angular velocity ......................................................... 28

6.6 Additional test procedures..................................................................................... 28

6.6.1 Dry run .......................................................................................................... 28

6.6.2 Natural frequency .......................................................................................... 28

6.7 Uncertainties and repeat tests .............................................................................. 28

7 Reporting requirements ................................................................................................. 29

7.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 29

7.2 General ................................................................................................................. 29

7.3 Test conditions and goals ..................................................................................... 29

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 29

7.3.2 Facility selection report .................................................................................. 29

7.3.3 Physical model report .................................................................................... 30

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IEC TS 62600-202:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

7.3.4 Measurement procedure report ...................................................................... 30

7.4 Presentation of results .......................................................................................... 30

8 Data acquisition ............................................................................................................. 31

8.1 Signal conditioning ................................................................................................ 31

8.2 Sample rate .......................................................................................................... 32

8.3 Analogue to digital conversion and DAQ system ................................................... 32

8.4 Frequency response ............................................................................................. 32

8.5 Data synchronization ............................................................................................ 32

8.6 Data recording ...................................................................................................... 33

8.7 Recording of supplementary test data ................................................................... 33

8.8 Calibration factors/Physical units .......................................................................... 33

8.9 Instrument response functions .............................................................................. 33

8.10 Health monitoring and verification of signals ......................................................... 33

8.11 Special data acquisition requirements for Stage 3 open ocean trials ..................... 34

9 Testing environment characterization ............................................................................ 34

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

9.2 Environmental measurements ............................................................................... 34

9.3 Inflow/ Onset velocity ............................................................................................ 35

9.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

9.3.2 Inferred inflow velocity ................................................................................... 36

9.3.3 Point measurement ........................................................................................ 36

9.4 Velocity shear profile ............................................................................................ 36

9.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

9.4.2 Measuring a velocity shear profile.................................................................. 36

9.4.3 Presenting velocity shear profile .................................................................... 37

9.5 Wave climate ........................................................................................................ 37

9.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

9.5.2 Measuring waves ........................................................................................... 38

9.6 Turbulence ............................................................................................................ 38

9.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

9.6.2 Turbulence intensity ...................................................................................... 38

9.6.3 Integral length and time scales ...................................................................... 39

9.6.4 Other considerations ..................................................................................... 39

9.7 Temperature, salinity, density and viscosity .......................................................... 39

10 Turbine rotor performance characterization ................................................................... 39

10.1 Testing goals ........................................................................................................ 39

10.2 Performance indicators ......................................................................................... 40

10.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

10.2.2 Power, torque and angular velocity ................................................................ 40

10.2.3 Turbine rotor drag (thrust) ............................................................................. 40

10.3 Non-dimensional performance indicators .............................................................. 40

10.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

10.3.2 Torque performance characterization ............................................................. 40

10.3.3 Power performance characterization .............................................................. 40

10.3.4 Thrust performance characterization .............................................................. 41

10.3.5 Presentation of non-dimensional results ........................................................ 41

11 Motions and loads under operational conditions ............................................................ 41

11.1 Testing goals ........................................................................................................ 41

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– 4 – IEC TS 62600-202:2022 © IEC 2022

11.2 Testing similitude .................................................................................................. 41

11.3 Platform motions ................................................................................................... 42

11.4 Local loads, cross-sectional loads and mooring or global loads ............................. 43

11.5 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 44

11.5.1 Stage 1 andand 2 .......................................................................................... 44

11.5.2 Stage 3 .......................................................................................................... 45

11.5.3 Fatigue measures .......................................................................................... 45

12 Motions and loads under survival conditions .................................................................. 45

12.1 Testing goals ........................................................................................................ 45

12.2 Testing similitude .................................................................................................. 46

12.3 Signal measurements ........................................................................................... 47

12.4 Environmental Input parameters ........................................................................... 47

12.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 47

12.4.2 Stage 1 and 2 ................................................................................................ 47

12.4.3 Stage 3 .......................................................................................................... 48

12.5 Performance indicators ......................................................................................... 48

13 Testing of arrays............................................................................................................ 48

Annex A (informative) Stage gates ....................................................................................... 49

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 49

A.2 Design statements ................................................................................................ 49

A.3 Stage gate criteria ................................................................................................ 49

A.4 Uncertainty factors ................................................................................................ 50

A.5 Third party review ................................................................................................. 50

Annex B (informative) Device type ....................................................................................... 51

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 51

B.2 Axial flow turbines ................................................................................................. 51

B.3 Cross-flow turbines ............................................................................................... 51

B.4 Hydrofoil devices .................................................................................................. 52

B.5 Other .................................................................................................................... 52

B.5.1 Ducted devices .............................................................................................. 52

B.5.2 Oscillating devices ......................................................................................... 52

B.5.3 Underwater kites............................................................................................ 52

Annex C (informative) Facilities selection............................................................................. 53

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 53

C.2 Towing tank .......................................................................................................... 53

C.3 Re-circulating water channel/flume ....................................................................... 53

C.4 Open water push test ............................................................................................ 54

C.5 Tidal test site ........................................................................................................ 54

C.6 Cavitation tunnel ................................................................................................... 55

C.7 Other facilities ....................................................................................................... 55

C.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 55

C.7.2 Other specialized basins and tanks ................................................................ 55

C.7.3 Wind tunnel ................................................................................................... 55

C.7.4 Rotating arm facility ....................................................................................... 55

C.8 Facilities comparison ............................................................................................ 55

Annex D (informative) Instruments ....................................................................................... 57

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 57

D.2 Flow characteristics .............................................................................................. 57

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IEC TS 62600-202:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

D.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 57

D.2.2 Acoustic techniques ....................................................................................... 57

D.2.3 Optical techniques ......................................................................................... 57

D.2.4 Other techniques ........................................................................................... 58

D.3 Wave measurement .............................................................................................. 58

D.4 Structural characteristics ...................................................................................... 58

D.5 Measurement and control of turbine shaft angular velocity .................................... 58

D.6 Measuring torque .................................................................................................. 59

D.7 Measuring thrust ................................................................................................... 59

D.8 Mooring force measurement .................................................................................. 59

D.9 Model motion ........................................................................................................ 59

D.9.1 Optical multi camera six degree of freedom measurement system ................. 59

D.9.2 Gyroscope, accelerometer, compass, GPS .................................................... 60

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 61

Figure 1 – Power and drag (thrust) coefficients for the US Department of Energy’s

Reference Model vertical-axis cross-flow turbine (RM2) tested in a towing tank

(Bachant et al. 2016) ............................................................................................................ 20

Figure 2 – Effect of Reynolds number on performance – Power (left) and thrust (right)

coefficient for reference model RM2 at λ = 3,1 plotted versus turbine diameter and

approximate average turbine blade root chord Reynolds number (Bachant et al. 2016) ......... 20

Figure 3 – Effect of Reynolds number on performance – Power coefficient versus tip

speed ratio (left) and power coefficient at λ = 1,9 plotted versus turbine diameter and

approximate average turbine blade root chord Reynolds number (right), both for UNH-

RVAT turbine (Bachant and Wosnik 2016) ............................................................................ 20

Table 1 – Staged development approach .............................................................................. 13

Table 2 – Scaling considerations .......................................................................................... 18

Table 3 – Presentation of continuously measured indicators ................................................. 31

Table 4 – Presentation of discrete measured indicators ........................................................ 31

Table 5 – Environmental measurements ............................................................................... 35

Table 6 – Instruments suitability for velocity profiling ............................................................ 37

Table 7 – Environmental performance indicators ................................................................... 38

Table 8 – Geometric similitude requirements (operational environments) .............................. 42

Table 9 – Structural similitude requirements (operational environments) ............................... 42

Table 10 – Kinematic signal measurements (operational environments) ................................ 43

Table 11 – Dynamic signal measurements (operational environments) .................................. 44

Table 12 – Current parameters for kinematics and dynamics testing (operational

conditions) ............................................................................................................................ 45

Table 13 – Geometric similitude requirements (survival environments) ................................. 46

Table 14 – Structural similitude requirements (survival environments) .................................. 47

Table C.1 – Pros and cons of testing in towing tanks ............................................................ 53

Table C.2 – Pros and cons of testing in recirculating water channels/flumes ......................... 54

Table C.3 – Pros and cons of open water push tests ............................................................. 54

Table C.4 – Pros and cons of testing at tidal test sites .......................................................... 55

Table C.5 – Comparison of facilities ...................................................................................... 56

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– 6 – IEC TS 62600-202:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MARINE ENERGY – WAVE, TIDAL AND OTHER WATER
CURRENT CONVERTERS –
Part 202: Early stage development of tidal energy converters –
Best practices and recommended procedures for the
testing of pre-prototype scale devices
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IEC TS 62600-202 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 114: Marine energy – Wave,

tidal and other water current converters. It is a Technical Specification.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
...

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