Device embedding assembly technology - Part 1: Generic specification for device embedded substrates

IEC 62878-1:2019 specifies the generic requirements and test methods for device-embedded substrates. The basic test methods for printed board substrate materials and substrates themselves are specified in IEC 61189-3.
This part of IEC 62878 is applicable to device-embedded substrates fabricated by use of organic base material, which includes, for example, active or passive devices, discrete components formed in the fabrication process of electronic printed boards, and sheet-formed components.
The IEC 62878 series applies neither to the re-distribution layer (RDL) nor to electronic modules defined in IEC 62421.

Techniques d’assemblage avec appareils intégrés - Partie 1: Spécification générique pour substrats avec appareils intégrés

L'IEC 62878-1:2019 spécifie les exigences et méthodes d’essai génériques relatives aux substrats avec appareils intégrés. Les méthodes fondamentales d'essai pour les matériaux de substrats des cartes imprimées et pour les substrats eux-mêmes sont spécifiées dans l'IEC 61189-3.
La présente partie de l'IEC 62878 est applicable aux substrats avec appareils intégrés fabriqués à partir de matériaux organiques de base, y compris par exemple les appareils actifs ou passifs, les composants discrets formés lors du processus de fabrication des cartes imprimées électroniques, ainsi que les composants de feuilles minces.
La série IEC 62878 ne s'applique ni à la couche de redistribution (RDL – redistribution layer), ni aux modules électroniques définis dans l’IEC 62421.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Oct-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
14-Oct-2019
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IEC 62878-1
Edition 1.0 2019-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Device embedding assembly technology –
Part 1: Generic specification for device embedded substrates
Techniques d’assemblage avec appareils intégrés –
Partie 1: Spécification générique pour substrats avec appareils intégrés
IEC 662878-1:2019-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62878-1
Edition 1.0 2019-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Device embedding assembly technology –
Part 1: Generic specification for device embedded substrates
Techniques d’assemblage avec appareils intégrés –
Partie 1: Spécification générique pour substrats avec appareils intégrés
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.180; 31.190 ISBN 978-2-8322-7949-6

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Value chain ..................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 System description.................................................................................................. 8

4.1.1 Generic design variants ................................................................................... 8

4.1.2 Generic value chain ......................................................................................... 8

4.2 Elements of the value chain .................................................................................... 9

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 System manufacturer ....................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Components manufacturer ............................................................................... 9

4.2.4 Material manufacturer .................................................................................... 10

4.2.5 Submodule manufacturer ............................................................................... 10

4.2.6 Board manufacturer ....................................................................................... 10

4.2.7 Assembly manufacturer ................................................................................. 10

4.3 Traceability ........................................................................................................... 10

5 Safety aspects of base material and components .......................................................... 10

6 Design and structure of device embedded substrate ...................................................... 11

6.1 Basic rules for layer description ............................................................................ 11

6.2 Design for embedding and testability .................................................................... 11

6.3 Safety aspects of design ....................................................................................... 11

7 Embedding technology .................................................................................................. 11

7.1 Basic technologies for embedding ......................................................................... 11

7.2 Basic requirements to embedding technology ....................................................... 11

7.2.1 Cleanliness of components, submodules and process ................................... 11

7.2.2 ESD ............................................................................................................... 11

7.2.3 Moisture sensitivity ........................................................................................ 11

7.2.4 Defects .......................................................................................................... 12

8 Tests and measuring methods ....................................................................................... 12

8.1 Standard atmospheric conditions .......................................................................... 12

8.1.1 Standard atmospheric conditions for testing .................................................. 12

8.1.2 Referee conditions ......................................................................................... 12

8.1.3 Reference conditions ..................................................................................... 13

8.2 Electrical performance tests .................................................................................. 13

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

8.2.2 Electrical test levels ....................................................................................... 13

8.2.3 Protection of DES and test equipment ........................................................... 13

8.2.4 Accuracy of measurement ............................................................................. 14

8.2.5 Test structures............................................................................................... 15

8.2.6 Mechanical performance tests ....................................................................... 15

8.2.7 Resistance to soldering heat .......................................................................... 15

8.2.8 Solderability................................................................................................... 16

8.2.9 Shock ............................................................................................................ 16

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IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

8.2.10 Vibration (sinusoidal) ..................................................................................... 16

8.2.11 Resistance to solvents ................................................................................... 16

8.3 Climatic performance tests .................................................................................... 16

8.3.1 Dry heat ........................................................................................................ 16

8.3.2 Cold............................................................................................................... 17

8.3.3 Damp heat, steady state ................................................................................ 17

8.3.4 Change of temperature .................................................................................. 17

9 Transportation, handling and packing material ............................................................... 18

9.1 Humidity / Temperature / Environmental protection ............................................... 18

9.2 Mechanical protection ........................................................................................... 18

9.3 ESD ...................................................................................................................... 18

10 General requirements .................................................................................................... 18

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – Value chain and interfaces ..................................................................................... 9

Table 1 – Referee conditions ................................................................................................ 12

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– 4 – IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
DEVICE EMBEDDING ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGY –
Part 1: Generic specification for device embedded substrates
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62878-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 91:

Electronics assembly technology.

This bilingual version (2020-03) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2019-10.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
91/1597/FDIS 91/1616/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62878 series, published under the general title Device embedded

substrate, can be found on the IEC website.

Future standards in this series will carry the new general title as cited above. Titles of existing

standards in this series will be updated at the time of the next edition.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION

This document is a generic specification for device-embedded substrates fabricated by

embedding discrete active and/or passive electronic devices into one or multiple inner layers

of an organic substrate with electric connections by means of vias, conductor plating,

conductive paste, and printing. Other special technologies for the realization of conductive or

isolating structures and electronic components functions inside of substrates, like electronic

modules or redistribution layers of integrated circuit packages are not covered by this

document.

The device-embedded substrate can be used as a substrate to mount SMDs or THDs to form

electronic circuits, as conductor and insulator layers can be formed after embedding

electronic devices.

The purpose of this series of documents is to obtain common understanding in structures, test

methods, design and fabrication processes and use of device-embedded substrate in the

industry. These documents do not specify details of the manufacturing processes, design

criteria and requirements, as those normally constitute intellectual property of the

manufacturers and are very specific to the individual embedding technologies and
applications.
Generic specification

The generic specification covers all subjects mainly common to device-embedded substrates

for use in electronic equipment, such as terminology, methods of measurement and tests.

Where the individual subjects require the prescription of conditions or parameters specific to

the particular sub-family or type of embedded substrates, such prescriptions are required to

be given by one of the subordinate specifications.
The numeric reference of the generic specification is IEC 62878-1.
Sectional and detail specifications (requirements to technology and components)

Sectional specifications cover all subjects additional to those given in the generic

specification, which are specific to a defined sub-group of device-embedded substrate

technologies. These subjects normally are preferred values for characteristics, additional test

methods and relevant prescriptions for test methods given in the generic specification,

prescriptions for sampling and for the preparation of specimens, recommended test severities

and preferred acceptance criteria. The sectional specification also outlines the structure and

scope of the test schedules that are to be applied in all subordinate detail specifications.

The numeric reference of the sectional and related detail specifications is IEC 62878-3-x.

Guidelines and supporting documentation

Supporting documentation and guidelines provide information in addition to the provisions of

generic, sectional and detail specifications.

The numeric reference of supporting documentation and guidelines is IEC 62878-2-x.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –
DEVICE EMBEDDING ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGY –
Part 1: Generic specification for device embedded substrates
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62878 specifies the generic requirements and test methods for device-

embedded substrates. The basic test methods for printed board substrate materials and

substrates themselves are specified in IEC 61189-3.

This part of IEC 62878 is applicable to device-embedded substrates fabricated by use of

organic base material, which includes, for example, active or passive devices, discrete

components formed in the fabrication process of electronic printed boards, and sheet-formed

components.

The IEC 62878 series applies neither to the re-distribution layer (RDL) nor to electronic

modules defined in IEC 62421.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-2-1, Environmental testing – Part 2-1: Tests – Test A: Cold
IEC 60068-2-2, Environmental testing – Part 2-2: Tests – Test B: Dry heat

IEC 60068-2-6, Environmental testing – Part 2-6: Tests – Test Fc: Vibration (sinusoidal)

IEC 60068-2-14, Environmental testing – Part 2-14: Tests – Test N: Change of temperature

IEC 60068-2-21, Environmental testing – Part 2-21: Tests – Test U: Robustness of
terminations and integral mounting devices

IEC 60068-2-27, Environmental testing – Part 2-27: Tests – Test Ea and guidance: Shock

IEC 60068-2-69, Environmental testing – Part 2-69: Tests – Test Te/Tc: Solderability testing

of electronic components and printed boards by the wetting balance (force measurement)

method

IEC 60068-2-78, Environmental testing – Part 2-78: Tests – Test Cab: Damp heat, steady

state

IEC 60194-2, Printed board design, manufacture and assembly – Vocabulary – Part 2:

Common usage in electronic technologies as well as printed board and electronic assembly

technologies

IEC 61340-5-1, Electrostatics – Part 5-1: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic

phenomena – General requirements
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019

IEC 61340-5-3, Electrostatics – Part 5-3: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic

phenomena – Properties and requirements classification for packaging intended for

electrostatic discharge sensitive devices

IEC 61760-4, Surface mounting technology – Part 4: Classification, packaging, labelling and

handling of moisture sensitive devices

IEC 62137-1-4, Surface mounting technology – Environmental and endurance test methods

for surface mount solder joint – Part 1-4: Cyclic bending test

IEC 62878-1-1, Device embedded substrate – Part 1-1: Generic specification – Test methods

IEC TS 62878-2-1, Device embedded substrate – Part 2-1: Guidelines – General description

of technology

IEC TR 62878-2-2, Device embedded substrate – Part 2-2: Guidelines – Electrical testing

IEC TS 62878-2-3, Device Embedded Substrate – Part 2-3: Guidelines – Design Guide

IEC TS 62878-2-4, Device Embedded Substrate – Part 2-4: Guidelines – Test element groups

(TEG)

J-STD 033, Handling, Packing, Shipping, and Use of Moisture/Reflow and/or Process

Sensitive Components
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60194-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
device-embedded substrate
DES

substrate in which one or more active devices (semiconductor device) and/or passive devices

(e.g. resistor or capacitor) are formed using thick-film technology or by embedding them

within the substrate
4 Value chain
4.1 System description
4.1.1 Generic design variants
Generic design variants are described in IEC TS 62878-2-1.
4.1.2 Generic value chain

The business model shown in Figure 1 shows the supply routes and communication along the

value chain.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
Figure 1 – Value chain and interfaces
4.2 Elements of the value chain
4.2.1 General

All materials have to be aligned with the embedding technology and the components to be

embedded. Composition and processability of the materials and components for embedding

shall be compatible.

The detail specification for the base material shall be defined by the board or submodule

manufacturer. Generic specifications such as "FR4" are not specific enough.
4.2.2 System manufacturer

The requirements to the electronic system normally are determined by the system (equipment)

manufacturer and can contain requirements such as functionality, use conditions

(environmental and electrical), field performance, reliability, useful lifetime, restriction of

substances and further customer-specific requirements. These requirements shall be

deployed through the total value chain, e.g. by requirement sheets, so that assembly design

and processing, device-embedded substrate design and processing, as well as the

components and materials fit together, and can contribute to the fulfilment of those

requirements. The strategy for electrical tests shall be planned and confirmed by the involved

partners in accordance with IEC 62878-1-1 and IEC TR 62878-2-2, taking into consideration

component test specifications and tests at board and system level.

This deployment process can be supported in form of a failure mode and effect analysis

(FMEA) or by similar tools. A concept for the qualification of processes, components and

materials shall be agreed at a very early stage of development (see also IEC TS 62878-2-4).

4.2.3 Components manufacturer

The generic requirements of components are related to the embedding technology used, and

shall be specified in the supply specification, including specific requirements on dimensions

and tolerances.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62878-1:2019 © IEC 2019

Standard components can be used for embedding technologies using solder or conductive

adhesive to realize electrical contacts. Specific embedding technologies, such as contacting

the components by microvia, require components specially designed for that use.

The manufacturers of components for DES should provide information on the limiting

conditions, e.g. sensitivity to pressure and mechanical forces, temperature, incompatibility

with chemicals and ionic contaminations, as well as other stresses induced by embedding

processes. Also, the thermal characteristic of the component under electrical load should be

specified. The component supplier should also supply a material content data sheet in a

format required by the submodule/board manufacturer.
4.2.4 Material manufacturer

Manufacturers of materials should be mindful of the limiting conditions and the characteristics

of the components. In order to indicate that the material can’t be specified for use with the

components, either a purchase specification that reflects the limiting conditions and

characteristics of the components in the frame of the upper and lower specification limits

should be signed, or an early warning should be given.
4.2.5 Submodule manufacturer
The submodule manufacturer is responsible for selecting processes, materials and

components that meet the specifications of the system manufacturer, but also ensure that no

incompatibilities or reliability risks arise between the material, components and processes.

The careful selection of materials, processes and components should be documented by

purchase specifications signed by all suppliers that participate in the DES. Risks related to

shipping, transportation, handling and assembly into the substrate shall be considered.

4.2.6 Board manufacturer

The board manufacturer shall provide design guidelines and a description of process

capability. All processes needed for the selected embedding technology shall be qualified

accordingly (see also Clause 7).
4.2.7 Assembly manufacturer

When processing the device embedded substrate (printed circuit board with devices

embedded), the assembly manufacturer shall consider the allowable mechanical and thermal

stresse
...

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