Surge arresters - Part 5: Selection and application recommendations

IEC 60099-5:2018 is available as IEC 60099-5:2018 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60099-5:2018 provides information, guidance, and recommendations for the selection and application of surge arresters to be used in three-phase systems with nominal voltages above 1 kV. It applies to gapless metal-oxide surge arresters as defined in IEC 60099-4, to surge arresters containing both series and parallel gapped structure – rated 52 kV and less as defined in IEC 60099-6 and metal-oxide surge arresters with external series gap for overhead transmission and distribution lines (EGLA) as defined in IEC 60099-8. In Annex J, some aspects regarding the old type of SiC gapped arresters are discussed. Surge arrester residual voltage is a major parameter to which most users have paid a lot of attention to when selecting the type and rating. Typical maximum residual voltages are given in Annex F. It is likely, however, that for some systems, or in some countries, the requirements on system reliability and design are sufficiently uniform, so that the recommendations of the present standard may lead to the definition of narrow ranges of arresters. The user of surge arresters will, in that case, not be required to apply the whole process introduced here to any new installation and the selection of characteristics resulting from prior practice may be continued. Annexes H and I present comparisons and calculations between old line discharge classification and new charge classification. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2013. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition regarding the new surge arrester classification introduced in IEC 60099-4:2014:
a) Expanded discussion of comparison between the old and new classification and how to calculate or estimate the corresponding charge for different stresses.
b) New annexes dealing with:
- Comparison between line discharge classes and charge classification
- Estimation of arrester cumulative charges and energies during line switching
Keywords: selection and application of surge arrestors, nominal voltages above 1 kV

Parafoudres - Partie 5: Recommandations pour le choix et l'utilisation

IEC 60099-5:2018 comporte des informations et des recommandations pour le choix et l'utilisation des parafoudres à utiliser sur des réseaux triphasés de tensions nominales supérieures à 1 kV. Elle concerne les parafoudres à oxyde métallique sans éclateur définis dans l'IEC 60099-4, les parafoudres qui contiennent des structures avec éclateur en série et en parallèle, de tension assignée inférieure ou égale à 52 kV, tels que définis dans l'IEC 60099-6, et les parafoudres à oxyde métallique à éclateur extérieur en série pour les lignes aériennes de transmission ou de distribution (EGLA) tels que définis dans l'IEC 60099-8. L'Annexe J traite de quelques aspects concernant les anciens parafoudres au carbure de silicium (SiC) avec éclateur. La tension résiduelle des parafoudres représente un paramètre essentiel dont la plupart des utilisateurs tiennent dûment compte lors du choix du type et des caractéristiques assignées d'un parafoudre. Les tensions résiduelles maximales types sont données à l'Annexe F. Il est probable, cependant, que pour certains réseaux, ou pour certains pays, les exigences de fiabilité et de conception des réseaux soient assez uniformes pour que les recommandations de la présente norme puissent se traduire par la définition de plages limitées de parafoudres. L'utilisateur de parafoudres n'est alors pas tenu de reprendre pour chaque nouvelle installation toute la démarche exposée dans le présent document et le choix des caractéristiques relevant de la pratique antérieure peut perdurer. Les Annexes H et I comparent l'ancienne classification de décharge de ligne et la nouvelle classification des charges, et présentent les méthodes de calculs. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2013. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente, qui concernent la nouvelle classification des parafoudres introduite dans l'IEC 60099-4:2014:
a) comparaison détaillée entre l'ancienne et la nouvelle classification, et présentation détaillée de la méthode de calcul ou d'estimation de la charge correspondante pour les différentes contraintes;
b) nouvelles annexes portant sur:
- la comparaison entre les classes de décharge de ligne et la classification des charges;
- l'estimation des charges et des énergies cumulées des parafoudres lors d'une manœuvre de ligne.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Jan-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
19-Jan-2018
Ref Project

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IEC 60099-5
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Surge arresters –
Part 5: Selection and application recommendations
IEC 60099-5:2018-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 60099-5
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Surge arresters –
Part 5: Selection and application recommendations
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.120.50; 29.240.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-5075-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 12

4 General principles for the application of surge arresters ................................................ 21

5 Surge arrester fundamentals and applications issues .................................................... 22

5.1 Evolution of surge protection equipment ............................................................... 22

5.2 Different types and designs and their electrical and mechanical

characteristics ...................................................................................................... 23

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

5.2.2 Metal-oxide arresters without gaps according to IEC 60099-4 ........................ 24

5.2.3 Metal-oxide surge arresters with internal series gaps according to

IEC 60099-6 .................................................................................................. 34

5.2.4 Externally gapped line arresters (EGLA) according to IEC 60099-8................ 36

5.2.5 Application considerations ............................................................................. 39

6 Insulation coordination and surge arrester applications.................................................. 52

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 52

6.2 Insulation coordination overview ........................................................................... 52

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

6.2.2 IEC insulation coordination procedure ........................................................... 53

6.2.3 Overvoltages ................................................................................................. 53

6.2.4 Line insulation coordination: Arrester Application Practices ........................... 59

6.2.5 Substation insulation coordination: Arrester application practices .................. 64

6.2.6 Insulation coordination studies....................................................................... 68

6.3 Selection of arresters ............................................................................................ 70

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 70

6.3.2 General procedure for the selection of surge arresters .................................. 70

6.3.3 Selection of line surge arresters, LSA ............................................................ 84

6.3.4 Selection of arresters for cable protection ...................................................... 93

6.3.5 Selection of arresters for distribution systems – special attention .................. 95

6.3.6 Application and coordination of disconnectors ............................................... 96

6.3.7 Selection of UHV arresters ............................................................................ 98

6.4 Standard and special service conditions ............................................................... 99

6.4.1 Standard service conditions ........................................................................... 99

6.4.2 Special service conditions ............................................................................. 99

7 Surge arresters for special applications ....................................................................... 103

7.1 Surge arresters for transformer neutrals ............................................................. 103

7.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 103

7.1.2 Surge arresters for fully insulated transformer neutrals ................................ 103

7.1.3 Surge arresters for neutrals of transformers with non-uniform insulation ...... 103

7.2 Surge arresters between phases ......................................................................... 104

7.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 104

7.2.2 6-arrester arrangement ................................................................................ 104

7.2.3 4-arrester (Neptune) arrangement ............................................................... 104

7.3 Surge arresters for rotating machines ................................................................. 105

7.4 Surge arresters in parallel ................................................................................... 106

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IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

7.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 106

7.4.2 Combining different designs of arresters ...................................................... 107

7.5 Surge arresters for capacitor switching ............................................................... 107

7.6 Surge arresters for series capacitor banks .......................................................... 109

8 Asset management of surge arresters ......................................................................... 110

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 110

8.2 Managing surge arresters in a power grid ........................................................... 110

8.2.1 Asset database ............................................................................................ 110

8.2.2 Technical specifications ............................................................................... 110

8.2.3 Strategic spares .......................................................................................... 110

8.2.4 Transportation and storage .......................................................................... 111

8.2.5 Commissioning ............................................................................................ 111

8.3 Maintenance ....................................................................................................... 111

8.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 111

8.3.2 Polluted arrester housing ............................................................................. 112

8.3.3 Coating of arrester housings ........................................................................ 112

8.3.4 Inspection of disconnectors on surge arresters ............................................ 112

8.3.5 Line surge arresters ..................................................................................... 112

8.4 Performance and diagnostic tools ....................................................................... 112

8.5 End of life ........................................................................................................... 113

8.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 113

8.5.2 GIS arresters ............................................................................................... 113

8.6 Disposal and recycling ........................................................................................ 113

Annex A (informative) Determination of temporary overvoltages due to earth faults ........... 114

Annex B (informative) Current practice .............................................................................. 118

Annex C (informative) Arrester modelling techniques for studies involving insulation

coordination and energy requirements ................................................................................ 119

C.1 Arrester models for impulse simulations .............................................................. 119

C.2 Application to insulation coordination studies ...................................................... 120

C.3 Summary of proposed arrester models to be used for impulse applications ......... 120

Annex D (informative) Diagnostic indicators of metal-oxide surge arresters in service ........ 122

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 122

D.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 122

D.1.2 Fault indicators ............................................................................................ 122

D.1.3 Disconnectors .............................................................................................. 122

D.1.4 Surge counters ............................................................................................ 122

D.1.5 Monitoring spark gaps ................................................................................. 123

D.1.6 Temperature measurements ........................................................................ 123

D.1.7 Leakage current measurements of gapless metal-oxide arresters ................ 123

D.2 Measurement of the total leakage current ........................................................... 128

D.3 Measurement of the resistive leakage current or the power loss.......................... 129

D.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 129

D.3.2 Method A1 – Using the applied voltage signal as a reference ...................... 129

D.3.3 Method A2 – Compensating the capacitive component using a voltage

signal .......................................................................................................... 130

D.3.4 Method A3 – Compensating the capacitive component without using a

voltage signal .............................................................................................. 131

D.3.5 Method A4 – Capacitive compensation by combining the leakage

current of the three phases .......................................................................... 131

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– 4 – IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018

D.3.6 Method B1 – Third order harmonic analysis ................................................. 132

D.3.7 Method B2 – Third order harmonic analysis with compensation for

harmonics in the voltage .............................................................................. 133

D.3.8 Method B3 – First order harmonic analysis .................................................. 133

D.3.9 Method C – Direct determination of the power losses .................................. 133

D.4 Leakage current information from the arrester manufacturer ............................... 133

D.5 Summary of diagnostic methods ......................................................................... 135

Annex E (informative) Typical data needed from arrester manufacturers for proper

selection of surge arresters ................................................................................................. 136

Annex F (informative) Typical maximum residual voltages for metal-oxide arresters

without gaps according to IEC 60099-4 ............................................................................... 137

Annex G (informative) Steepness reduction of incoming surge with additional line

terminal surge capacitance ................................................................................................. 138

G.1 General ............................................................................................................... 138

G.2 Steepness reduction factor ................................................................................. 138

G.3 Equivalent capacitance associated with incoming surge fronts ............................ 140

G.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 140

G.3.2 Examples of incoming surge steepness change, f , using typical 550 kV

& 245 kV circuit parameters ......................................................................... 141

G.3.3 Change in coordination withstand voltage, U , with steepness

reduction, f : ............................................................................................... 142

G.4 EMTP & capacitor charging models for steepness change comparisons at

line open terminal ............................................................................................... 142

G.5 Typical steepness (S = 1000 kV/µs), change comparisons with C & C ............. 143

0 0 s

G.6 Faster steepness (2000 kV/µs), change comparisons with C & C ..................... 145

o s

Annex H (informative) Comparison of the former energy classification system based

on line discharge classes and the present classification system based on thermal

energy ratings for operating duty tests and repetitive charge transfer ratings for

repetitive single event energies........................................................................................... 147

H.1 General ............................................................................................................... 147

H.2 Examples ............................................................................................................ 150

Annex I (informative) Estimation of arrester cumulative charges and energies during

line switching ...................................................................................................................... 155

I.1 Simplified method of estimating arrester line switching energies ........................ 155

I.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 155

I.1.2 Simplified method calculation steps ............................................................. 156

I.1.3 Typical line surge impedances with bundled conductors .............................. 158

I.1.4 Prospective switching surge overvoltages .................................................... 158

I.1.5 Use of IEC 60099-4:2009 to obtain values for surge impedance and

prospective surge voltages .......................................................................... 159

I.2 Example of charge and energy calculated using line discharge parameters......... 160

I.3 Arrester line switching energy examples ............................................................. 164

I.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 164

I.3.2 Case 1 – 145 kV .......................................................................................... 167

I.3.3 Case 2 – 242 kV .......................................................................................... 167

I.3.4 Case 3 – 362 kV .......................................................................................... 167

I.3.5 Case 4 – 420 kV .......................................................................................... 168

I.3.6 Case 5 – 550 kV .......................................................................................... 168

Annex J (informative) End of life and replacement of old gapped SiC-arresters .................. 180

J.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 180

J.2 Design and operation of SiC-arresters ................................................................ 180

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

J.3 Failure causes and aging phenomena ................................................................. 180

J.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 180

J.3.2 Sealing problems ......................................................................................... 180

J.3.3 Equalization of internal and external pressure and atmosphere ................... 181

J.3.4 Gap electrode erosion ................................................................................. 181

J.3.5 Ageing of grading components ..................................................................... 182

J.3.6 Changed system conditions ......................................................................... 182

J.3.7 Increased pollution levels ............................................................................ 182

J.4 Possibility to check the status of the arresters .................................................... 182

J.5 Advantages of planning replacements ahead ...................................................... 182

J.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 182

J.5.2 Improved reliability ...................................................................................... 183

J.5.3 Cost advantages .......................................................................................... 183

J.5.4 Increased safety requirements ..................................................................... 183

J.6 Replacement issues ............................................................................................ 183

J.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 183

J.6.2 Establishing replacement priority ................................................................. 183

J.6.3 Selection of MO arresters for replacement installations ............................... 184

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 185

Figure 1 – Example of GIS arresters of three mechanical/one electrical column

(middle) and one column (left) design and current path of the three mechanical/one

electrical column design (right) ............................................................................................. 29

Figure 2 – Typical deadfront arrester .................................................................................... 30

Figure 3 – Internally gapped metal-oxide surge arrester designs ........................................... 35

Figure 4 – Components of an EGLA acc. to IEC 60099-8 ...................................................... 36

Figure 5 – Typical arrangement of a 420 kV arrester ............................................................. 41

Figure 6 – Examples of UHV and HV arresters with grading and corona rings ....................... 42

Figure 7 – Same type of arrester mounted on a pedestal (left), suspended from an

earthed steel structure (middle) or suspended from a line conductor (right ........................... 43

Figure 8 – Installations without earth-mat (distribution systems) ........................................... 44

Figure 9 – Installations with earth-mat (high-voltage substations) ......................................... 45

Figure 10 – Definition of mechanical loads according to IEC 60099-4:2014 ........................... 47

Figure 11 – Distribution arrester with disconnector and insulating bracket............................. 48

Figure 12 – Examples of good and poor connection principles for distribution arresters ........ 50

Figure 13 – Typical voltages and duration example for differently earthed systems ............... 54

Figure 14 – Typical phase-to-earth overvoltages encountered in power systems ................... 55

Figure 15 – Arrester voltage-current characteristics .............................................................. 56

Figure 16 – Direct strike to a phase conductor with LSA ....................................................... 61

Figure 17 – Strike to a shield wire or tower with LSA ............................................................ 62

Figure 18 – Typical procedure for a surge arrester insulation coordination study .................. 69

Figure 19 – Flow diagrams for standard selection of surge arrester ...................................... 73

Figure 20 – Examples of arrester TOV capability .................................................................. 74

Figure 21 – Flow diagram for the selection of NGLA ............................................................. 87

Figure 22 – Flow diagram for the selection of EGLA .............................................................. 91

Figure 23 – Common neutral configurations .......................................................................... 96

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018

Figure 24 – Typical configurations for arresters connected phase-to-phase and phase-

to-ground ............................................................................................................................ 105

Figure A.1 – Earth fault factor k on a base of X /X , for R /X = R = 0 .............................. 114

0 1 1 1 1

Figure A.2 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = 0 .......................................................................................................... 115

Figure A.3 – Relationship between R0/X1 and X0/X1 for constant values of earth fault

factor k where R = 0,5 X .................................................................................................. 115

1 1

Figure A.4 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = X ........................................................................................................ 116

1 1

Figure A.5 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = 2X ...................................................................................................... 116

1 1

Figure C.1 – Schematic sketch of a typical arrester installation ........................................... 119

Figure C.2 – Increase in residual voltage as function of virtual current front time ................ 120

Figure C.3 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – fast- front

overvoltages and preliminary calculation (Option 1) ............................................................ 121

Figure C.4 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – fast- front

overvoltages and preliminary calculation (Option 2) ............................................................ 121

Figure C.5 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – slow-front

overvoltages ....................................................................................................................... 121

Figure D.1 – Typical leakage current of a non-linear metal-oxide resistor in laboratory

conditions ........................................................................................................................... 124

Figure D.2 – Typical leakage currents of arresters in service conditions ............................. 125

Figure D.3 – Typical voltage-current characteristics for non-linear metal-oxide resistors ..... 126

Figure D.4 – Typical normalized voltage dependence at +20 °C .......................................... 126

Figure D.5 – Typical normalized temperature dependence at U ......................................... 127

Figure D.6 – Influence on total leakage current by increase in resistive leakage current ..... 128

Figure D.7 – Measured voltage and leakage current and calculated resistive and

capacitive currents (V = 6,3 kV r.m.s) ................................................................................. 130

Figure D.8 – Remaining current after compensation by capacitive current at U ................. 131

Figure D.9 – Error in the evaluation of the leakage current third harmonic for different

phase angles of system voltage third harmonic, considering various capacitances and

voltage-current characteristics of non-linear metal-oxide resistors ...................................... 132

Figure D.10 – Typical information for conversion to "standard" operating voltage

conditions ........................................................................................................................... 134

Figure D.11 – Typical information for conversion to "standard" ambient temperature

conditions ........................................................................................................................... 134

Figure G.1 – Surge voltage waveforms at various distances from strike location

(0,0 km) due to corona ........................................................................................................ 139

Figure G.2 – Case 1: EMTP Model: Thevenin equivalent source, line (Z,c) & substation

bus (Z,c) & Cap(C )............................................................................................................. 142

Figure G.3 – Case 2: Capacitor Voltage charge via line Z: u(t) = 2×U × (1 – exp[-

surge

t/(Z×C]) ............................................................................................................................... 143

Figure G.4 – EMTP model ................................................................................................... 143

Figure G.5 – Simulated surge voltages at the line-substation bus interface ......................... 144

Figure G.6 – Simulated Surge Voltages at the Transformer ................................................. 145

Figure G.7 – EMTP model .........................................
...

IEC 60099-5
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Surge arresters –
Part 5: Selection and application recommendations
Parafoudres –
Partie 5: Recommandations pour le choix et l'utilisation
IEC 60099-5:2018-01(en-fr)
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IEC 60099-5
Edition 3.0 2018-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Surge arresters –
Part 5: Selection and application recommendations
Parafoudres –
Partie 5: Recommandations pour le choix et l'utilisation
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.120.50; 29.240.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-9360-7

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– 2 – IEC 60099-5:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 11

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 12

4 General principles for the application of surge arresters ................................................ 21

5 Surge arrester fundamentals and applications issues .................................................... 22

5.1 Evolution of surge protection equipment ............................................................... 22

5.2 Different types and designs and their electrical and mechanical

characteristics ...................................................................................................... 23

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

5.2.2 Metal-oxide arresters without gaps according to IEC 60099-4 ........................ 24

5.2.3 Metal-oxide surge arresters with internal series gaps according to

IEC 60099-6 .................................................................................................. 34

5.2.4 Externally gapped line arresters (EGLA) according to IEC 60099-8................ 36

5.2.5 Application considerations ............................................................................. 39

6 Insulation coordination and surge arrester applications.................................................. 52

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 52

6.2 Insulation coordination overview ........................................................................... 52

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

6.2.2 IEC insulation coordination procedure ........................................................... 52

6.2.3 Overvoltages ................................................................................................. 53

6.2.4 Line insulation coordination: Arrester Application Practices ........................... 59

6.2.5 Substation insulation coordination: Arrester application practices .................. 64

6.2.6 Insulation coordination studies....................................................................... 68

6.3 Selection of arresters ............................................................................................ 69

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 69

6.3.2 General procedure for the selection of surge arresters .................................. 70

6.3.3 Selection of line surge arresters, LSA ............................................................ 84

6.3.4 Selection of arresters for cable protection ...................................................... 93

6.3.5 Selection of arresters for distribution systems – special attention .................. 95

6.3.6 Application and coordination of disconnectors ............................................... 96

6.3.7 Selection of UHV arresters ............................................................................ 98

6.4 Standard and special service conditions ............................................................... 99

6.4.1 Standard service conditions ........................................................................... 99

6.4.2 Special service conditions ............................................................................. 99

7 Surge arresters for special applications ....................................................................... 103

7.1 Surge arresters for transformer neutrals ............................................................. 103

7.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 103

7.1.2 Surge arresters for fully insulated transformer neutrals ................................ 103

7.1.3 Surge arresters for neutrals of transformers with non-uniform insulation ...... 104

7.2 Surge arresters between phases ......................................................................... 104

7.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 104

7.2.2 6-arrester arrangement ................................................................................ 104

7.2.3 4-arrester (Neptune) arrangement ............................................................... 104

7.3 Surge arresters for rotating machines ................................................................. 105

7.4 Surge arresters in parallel ................................................................................... 106

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7.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 106

7.4.2 Combining different designs of arresters ...................................................... 107

7.5 Surge arresters for capacitor switching ............................................................... 107

7.6 Surge arresters for series capacitor banks .......................................................... 109

8 Asset management of surge arresters ......................................................................... 110

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 110

8.2 Managing surge arresters in a power grid ........................................................... 110

8.2.1 Asset database ............................................................................................ 110

8.2.2 Technical specifications ............................................................................... 110

8.2.3 Strategic spares .......................................................................................... 110

8.2.4 Transportation and storage .......................................................................... 111

8.2.5 Commissioning ............................................................................................ 111

8.3 Maintenance ....................................................................................................... 111

8.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 111

8.3.2 Polluted arrester housing ............................................................................. 112

8.3.3 Coating of arrester housings ........................................................................ 112

8.3.4 Inspection of disconnectors on surge arresters ............................................ 112

8.3.5 Line surge arresters ..................................................................................... 112

8.4 Performance and diagnostic tools ....................................................................... 112

8.5 End of life ........................................................................................................... 113

8.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 113

8.5.2 GIS arresters ............................................................................................... 113

8.6 Disposal and recycling ........................................................................................ 113

Annex A (informative) Determination of temporary overvoltages due to earth faults ........... 114

Annex B (informative) Current practice .............................................................................. 118

Annex C (informative) Arrester modelling techniques for studies involving insulation

coordination and energy requirements ................................................................................ 119

C.1 Arrester models for impulse simulations .............................................................. 119

C.2 Application to insulation coordination studies ...................................................... 120

C.3 Summary of proposed arrester models to be used for impulse applications ......... 120

Annex D (informative) Diagnostic indicators of metal-oxide surge arresters in service ........ 122

D.1 General ............................................................................................................... 122

D.1.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 122

D.1.2 Fault indicators ............................................................................................ 122

D.1.3 Disconnectors .............................................................................................. 122

D.1.4 Surge counters ............................................................................................ 122

D.1.5 Monitoring spark gaps ................................................................................. 123

D.1.6 Temperature measurements ........................................................................ 123

D.1.7 Leakage current measurements of gapless metal-oxide arresters ................ 123

D.2 Measurement of the total leakage current ........................................................... 128

D.3 Measurement of the resistive leakage current or the power loss.......................... 129

D.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 129

D.3.2 Method A1 – Using the applied voltage signal as a reference ...................... 129

D.3.3 Method A2 – Compensating the capacitive component using a voltage

signal .......................................................................................................... 130

D.3.4 Method A3 – Compensating the capacitive component without using a

voltage signal .............................................................................................. 131

D.3.5 Method A4 – Capacitive compensation by combining the leakage

current of the three phases .......................................................................... 131

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D.3.6 Method B1 – Third order harmonic analysis ................................................. 132

D.3.7 Method B2 – Third order harmonic analysis with compensation for

harmonics in the voltage .............................................................................. 132

D.3.8 Method B3 – First order harmonic analysis .................................................. 133

D.3.9 Method C – Direct determination of the power losses .................................. 133

D.4 Leakage current information from the arrester manufacturer ............................... 133

D.5 Summary of diagnostic methods ......................................................................... 135

Annex E (informative) Typical data needed from arrester manufacturers for proper

selection of surge arresters ................................................................................................. 136

Annex F (informative) Typical maximum residual voltages for metal-oxide arresters

without gaps according to IEC 60099-4 ............................................................................... 137

Annex G (informative) Steepness reduction of incoming surge with additional line

terminal surge capacitance ................................................................................................. 138

G.1 General ............................................................................................................... 138

G.2 Steepness reduction factor ................................................................................. 138

G.3 Equivalent capacitance associated with incoming surge fronts ............................ 140

G.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 140

G.3.2 Examples of incoming surge steepness change, f , using typical 550 kV

& 245 kV circuit parameters ......................................................................... 142

G.3.3 Change in coordination withstand voltage, U , with steepness

reduction, f : ............................................................................................... 142

G.4 EMTP & capacitor charging models for steepness change comparisons at

line open terminal ............................................................................................... 142

G.5 Typical steepness (S = 1000 kV/µs), change comparisons with C & C ............. 144

0 0 s

G.6 Faster steepness (2000 kV/µs), change comparisons with C & C ..................... 146

o s

Annex H (informative) Comparison of the former energy classification system based

on line discharge classes and the present classification system based on thermal

energy ratings for operating duty tests and repetitive charge transfer ratings for

repetitive single event energies........................................................................................... 149

H.1 General ............................................................................................................... 149

H.2 Examples ............................................................................................................ 152

Annex I (informative) Estimation of arrester cumulative charges and energies during

line switching ...................................................................................................................... 157

I.1 Simplified method of estimating arrester line switching energies ........................ 157

I.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 157

I.1.2 Simplified method calculation steps ............................................................. 158

I.1.3 Typical line surge impedances with bundled conductors .............................. 160

I.1.4 Prospective switching surge overvoltages .................................................... 160

I.1.5 Use of IEC 60099-4:2009 to obtain values for surge impedance and

prospective surge voltages .......................................................................... 161

I.2 Example of charge and energy calculated using line discharge parameters......... 162

I.3 Arrester line switching energy examples ............................................................. 166

I.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 166

I.3.2 Case 1 – 145 kV .......................................................................................... 169

I.3.3 Case 2 – 242 kV .......................................................................................... 169

I.3.4 Case 3 – 362 kV .......................................................................................... 169

I.3.5 Case 4 – 420 kV .......................................................................................... 170

I.3.6 Case 5 – 550 kV .......................................................................................... 170

Annex J (informative) End of life and replacement of old gapped SiC-arresters .................. 182

J.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 182

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J.2 Design and operation of SiC-arresters ................................................................ 182

J.3 Failure causes and aging phenomena ................................................................. 182

J.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 182

J.3.2 Sealing problems ......................................................................................... 182

J.3.3 Equalization of internal and external pressure and atmosphere ................... 183

J.3.4 Gap electrode erosion ................................................................................. 183

J.3.5 Ageing of grading components ..................................................................... 184

J.3.6 Changed system conditions ......................................................................... 184

J.3.7 Increased pollution levels ............................................................................ 184

J.4 Possibility to check the status of the arresters .................................................... 184

J.5 Advantages of planning replacements ahead ...................................................... 184

J.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 184

J.5.2 Improved reliability ...................................................................................... 185

J.5.3 Cost advantages .......................................................................................... 185

J.5.4 Increased safety requirements ..................................................................... 185

J.6 Replacement issues ............................................................................................ 185

J.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 185

J.6.2 Establishing replacement priority ................................................................. 185

J.6.3 Selection of MO arresters for replacement installations ............................... 186

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 187

Figure 1 – Example of GIS arresters of three mechanical/one electrical column

(middle) and one column (left) design and current path of the three mechanical/one

electrical column design (right) ............................................................................................. 29

Figure 2 – Typical deadfront arrester .................................................................................... 30

Figure 3 – Internally gapped metal-oxide surge arrester designs ........................................... 35

Figure 4 – Components of an EGLA acc. to IEC 60099-8 ...................................................... 36

Figure 5 – Typical arrangement of a 420 kV arrester ............................................................. 41

Figure 6 – Examples of UHV and HV arresters with grading and corona rings ....................... 42

Figure 7 – Same type of arrester mounted on a pedestal (left), suspended from an

earthed steel structure (middle) or suspended from a line conductor (right ........................... 43

Figure 8 – Installations without earth-mat (distribution systems) ........................................... 44

Figure 9 – Installations with earth-mat (high-voltage substations) ......................................... 45

Figure 10 – Definition of mechanical loads according to IEC 60099-4:2014 ........................... 47

Figure 11 – Distribution arrester with disconnector and insulating bracket............................. 48

Figure 12 – Examples of good and poor connection principles for distribution arresters ........ 50

Figure 13 – Typical voltages and duration example for differently earthed systems ............... 54

Figure 14 – Typical phase-to-earth overvoltages encountered in power systems ................... 56

Figure 15 – Arrester voltage-current characteristics .............................................................. 56

Figure 16 – Direct strike to a phase conductor with LSA ....................................................... 61

Figure 17 – Strike to a shield wire or tower with LSA ............................................................ 62

Figure 18 – Typical procedure for a surge arrester insulation coordination study .................. 69

Figure 19 – Flow diagrams for standard selection of surge arrester ...................................... 73

Figure 20 – Examples of arrester TOV capability .................................................................. 74

Figure 21 – Flow diagram for the selection of NGLA ............................................................. 87

Figure 22 – Flow diagram for the selection of EGLA .............................................................. 91

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Figure 23 – Common neutral configurations .......................................................................... 96

Figure 24 – Typical configurations for arresters connected phase-to-phase and phase-

to-ground ............................................................................................................................ 105

Figure A.1 – Earth fault factor k on a base of X /X , for R /X = R = 0 .............................. 114

0 1 1 1 1

Figure A.2 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = 0 .......................................................................................................... 115

Figure A.3 – Relationship between R0/X1 and X0/X1 for constant values of earth fault

factor k where R = 0,5 X .................................................................................................. 115

1 1

Figure A.4 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = X ........................................................................................................ 116

1 1

Figure A.5 – Relationship between R /X and X /X for constant values of earth fault

0 1 0 1

factor k where R = 2X ...................................................................................................... 116

1 1

Figure C.1 – Schematic sketch of a typical arrester installation ........................................... 119

Figure C.2 – Increase in residual voltage as function of virtual current front time ................ 120

Figure C.3 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – fast- front

overvoltages and preliminary calculation (Option 1) ............................................................ 121

Figure C.4 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – fast- front

overvoltages and preliminary calculation (Option 2) ............................................................ 121

Figure C.5 – Arrester model for insulation coordination studies – slow-front

overvoltages ....................................................................................................................... 121

Figure D.1 – Typical leakage current of a non-linear metal-oxide resistor in laboratory

conditions ........................................................................................................................... 124

Figure D.2 – Typical leakage currents of arresters in service conditions ............................. 125

Figure D.3 – Typical voltage-current characteristics for non-linear metal-oxide resistors ..... 126

Figure D.4 – Typical normalized voltage dependence at +20 °C ..................
...

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