Magnetic materials - Part 16: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous strip by means of a single sheet tester

IEC 60404-16:2018 is applicable to Fe-based amorphous strips specified in IEC 60404-8-11 for the measurement of AC magnetic properties at frequencies up to 400 Hz.
The object of this part is to define the general principles and technical details of the measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous strips by means of a single sheet tester.
The contents of the corrigendum of November 2018 have been included in this copy.

Matériaux magnétiques - Partie 16: Méthodes de mesure des propriétés magnétiques des bandes en alliage amorphe à base de fer à l'aide de l'essai sur tôle unique

L'IEC 60404-16:2018 s'applique aux bandes en alliage amorphe à base de fer spécifiées dans l'IEC 60404-8-11 pour la mesure des propriétés magnétiques en courant alternatif, avec des fréquences allant jusqu'à 400 Hz.
L'objet de la présente partie est de définir les principes généraux et les détails techniques sur la mesure des propriétés magnétiques des bandes en alliage amorphe à base de fer à l'aide de l'essai sur tôle unique.
Le contenu du corrigendum de novembre 2018 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Mar-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
08-Mar-2018
Completion Date
08-Mar-2018
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IEC 60404-16
Edition 1.0 2018-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 16: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based
amorphous strip by means of a single sheet tester
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 16: Méthodes de mesure des propriétés magnétiques des bandes en
alliage amorphe à base de fer à l'aide de l'essai sur tôle unique
IEC 60404-16:2018-03(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16
Edition 1.0 2018-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 16: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based
amorphous strip by means of a single sheet tester
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 16: Méthodes de mesure des propriétés magnétiques des bandes en
alliage amorphe à base de fer à l'aide de l'essai sur tôle unique
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20; 29.030 ISBN 978-2-8322-5426-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 General principles ........................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Principle of the method ........................................................................................... 8

4.2 Test specimen ........................................................................................................ 9

4.3 Test apparatus ........................................................................................................ 9

4.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

4.3.2 Yoke .............................................................................................................. 10

4.3.3 Windings ....................................................................................................... 10

4.3.4 Air flux compensation .................................................................................... 11

4.3.5 Magnetic shielding ......................................................................................... 11

4.4 Power supply ........................................................................................................ 11

4.5 Measuring instruments .......................................................................................... 12

4.6 Digital sampling technique .................................................................................... 12

5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................................ 13

5.1 Principle of measurement...................................................................................... 13

5.2 Preparation of measurement ................................................................................. 13

5.3 Adjustment of power supply .................................................................................. 14

6 Determination of characteristics ..................................................................................... 14

6.1 Determination of the magnetic polarization ........................................................... 14

6.2 Determination of the magnetic field strength ......................................................... 15

6.3 Determination of the specific total loss .................................................................. 15

6.4 Determination of the specific apparent power ........................................................ 16

7 Reproducibility ............................................................................................................... 16

Annex A (informative) Requirements of the single sheet tester for Fe-based

amorphous strip .................................................................................................................... 17

A.1 Shape of test specimen ......................................................................................... 17

A.2 H coil method ........................................................................................................ 17

A.3 Yoke ..................................................................................................................... 17

A.4 Wirings ................................................................................................................. 17

A.5 Non-inductive precision resistor ............................................................................ 18

A.6 Magnetic shielding ................................................................................................ 18

A.7 Method for checking the stability of the installed H coil from time to time .............. 18

Annex B (informative) Digital sampling technique for the determination of the

magnetic properties and numerical air flux compensation ..................................................... 19

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

B.2 Technical details and requirements ....................................................................... 19

B.3 Calibration aspects ............................................................................................... 22

B.4 Numerical air flux compensation ........................................................................... 22

Annex C (informative) Sinusoidal waveform control of the magnetic polarization by

digital means ........................................................................................................................ 24

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 26

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of the test apparatus................................................................ 8

Figure 2 – Circuit of the wattmeter method with H coil mode ................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Yoke dimensions .................................................................................................. 10

Figure 4 – Circuit of the wattmeter method with H coil mode adopting the digital

sampling technique ............................................................................................................... 12

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 16: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of
Fe-based amorphous strip by means of a single sheet tester
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60404-16 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 68:

Magnetic alloys and steels.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
68/570/CDV 68/583A/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60404 series, published under the general title Magnetic materials,

can be found on the IEC website.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
 reconfirmed,
 withdrawn,
 replaced by a revised edition, or
 amended.

The contents of the corrigendum of Novembre 2018 have been included in this copy.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018
INTRODUCTION

A method of measuring the magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous strip is required to

grade what is regarded as a promising material to reduce energy loss in transformer cores

and, consequently, to reduce global warming.

Fe-based amorphous strip is produced by a rapidly-solidifying, direct-casting process. The

strip is intended primarily for the construction of wound cores of distribution transformers for

commercial power frequency (50 Hz and 60 Hz) applications.

After appropriate heat treatment, the strip exhibits a significantly lower value of specific total

loss compared to grain-oriented electrical steel strip. It is associated with low hysteresis loss

due to low magnetic anisotropy and low eddy current loss due to high resistivity and reduced

thickness. However, significant deterioration can occur by applying stress on the strip due to

the large magnetostriction and low magnetic anisotropy characteristics of the material.

Therefore, a method of measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous strip

by means of a single sheet tester (SST) is required, independent of IEC 60404-3 [1] , which is

specified for electrical steel sheets.

The almost exclusively applied wattmeter method is used also in this standard. However, the

widely used version with the determination of the magnetic field strength from the magnetizing

current (“MC method”) is not applicable to this kind of material, because the influence of the

yokes on the loss measurement is significantly greater for the thinner and magnetically softer

test specimen of this material. Thus, the wattmeter method with H coil mode (“H coil method”)

has been included for the magnetic field determination. International round robin tests of SST

and Fe-based amorphous test specimens have been carried out, resulting in a suitable

configuration of the SST for amorphous material. The single-yoke concept was adopted in

order to avoid the effect of the impact of the upper yoke caused by the high magneto-elastic

sensitivity of the material.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 16: Methods of measurement of the magnetic properties of
Fe-based amorphous strip by means of a single sheet tester
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60404 is applicable to Fe-based amorphous strips specified in IEC 60404-8-

11 for the measurement of AC magnetic properties at frequencies up to 400 Hz.

The object of this part is to define the general principles and technical details of the

measurement of the magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous strips by means of a single

sheet tester.

The single sheet tester is applicable to test specimens obtained from Fe-based amorphous

strips of any quality. The AC magnetic characteristics are determined for a sinusoidal induced

voltage, for specified peak values of magnetic polarization and for a specified frequency.

The measurements are made at an ambient temperature of (23 ± 5) °C on test specimens

which have first been demagnetized.

NOTE 1 The single sheet tester specified in this document is appropriate for other materials which have magnetic

properties and physical characteristics similar to those of Fe-based amorphous strip, such as nano-crystalline soft

magnetic strip. The single sheet tester for electrical steel sheets is specified in IEC 60404-3.

NOTE 2 Throughout this document the term “magnetic polarization” is used as described in IEC 60050-121. In

some standards of the IEC 60404 series, the term “magnetic flux density” is used.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-121, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 121: Electromagnetism

IEC 60050-221, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 221: Magnetic materials

and components

IEC 60404-8-11, Magnetic materials – Part 8-11: Specifications for individual materials –

Fe-based amorphous strip delivered in the semi-processed state
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-121 and

IEC 60050-221 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018
4 General principles
4.1 Principle of the method

This document applies the wattmeter method with H coil mode for the determination of the

magnetic field strength (“H coil method”). The flux closure is made by a single “U”-shaped

yoke.

The test specimen comprises a Fe-based amorphous strip, which is placed inside the

following two windings:
– an exterior primary winding (magnetizing winding);
– an interior secondary winding (induced voltage winding).

A H coil that detects the magnetic field strength at the surface of the test specimen is placed

under the test specimen.

The flux closure is made by a single vertical “U” shaped yoke, the cross-section of which is

very large compared with that of the test specimen (see Figure 1).
Windings
Test specimen
Yoke
IEC
Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of the test apparatus

NOTE 1 Double yokes are unsuitable because the influence of the loading of an upper yoke on the test specimen

is significant due to the large magnetostriction of the material. However, the upper yoke can be placed on the lower

yoke in the absence of the test specimen to demagnetize yokes and to measure the power loss in the yokes.

The circuit diagram of Figure 2 illustrates the principle of the wattmeter method with H coil

mode. The single sheet tester and the measuring instruments shall be connected as shown in

Figure 2.

NOTE 2 Figure 2 also sets out the fundamentals of the widely used digital sampling technique, where the

instrument functions are realised partly, or fully, through evaluating software. For the application of the digital

sampling technique, see 4.6 and Annex B. Figure 2 does not show the feed-back circuit for the waveform control of

the induced secondary voltage (see 4.4 and Annex C).
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –
N N
1 2
dt ⇒ H
IEC
Key
~ power supply
Hz frequency meter
N primary winding
N secondary winding
H H coil
V voltmeter
integrator
W wattmeter
Figure 2 – Circuit of the wattmeter method with H coil mode

NOTE 3 The voltage induced in the H coil, U (t), can be used for the air flux compensation in different ways (see

4.3.4 and Clause B.4) and for the digital sinusoidal waveform control of the induced secondary voltage, U (t) (see

5.3 and Annex C) .
4.2 Test specimen
The test specimen shall be sampled in accordance with IEC 60404-8-11.

NOTE Nominal widths of Fe-based amorphous strip are 142,2 mm, 170,2 mm and 213,4 mm (see IEC 60404-8-

11).

The length of the test specimen shall be no less than 280 mm, which is the outside dimension

of the distance across the pole faces of the yoke. Although the part of the specimen situated

outside the pole faces has no great influence on the measurement, this part shall not be

longer than is necessary to facilitate insertion and removal of the test specimen.

The test specimen shall be cut to length from Fe-based amorphous strip without the formation

of excessive burrs or mechanical distortion. The test specimen shall be plane and rectangular.

The test specimen shall be prepared by a magnetic anneal in a DC magnetic field directed

parallel to the casting direction according to the instructions of the manufacturer. The test

specimen shall be flat during the treatment.

Care shall be taken in handling the test specimen after the treatment in order to avoid raising

fragments of the strip or creating mechanical stresses in the test specimen because the

material is usually brittle after heat treatment.
4.3 Test apparatus
4.3.1 General
The test apparatus comprises the windings and the yoke (see Figure 1).
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018

Care shall be taken to ensure that temperature changes are kept below a level likely to

produce stress in the test specimen due to the distribution of thermal expansion or contraction.

4.3.2 Yoke

The yoke is in the form of a letter U built by using soft ferrite (see Figure 3). It should have a

low magnetic remanence, a low reluctance and a specific total loss as low as possible.

NOTE 1 Lower quality of yoke materials can lead to poor measurement quality and to misleading results of the

magnetic properties of the test specimen accordingly (see Annex A).
Dimensions in millimetres
220
240
IEC
Figure 3 – Yoke dimensions
The yoke shall have pole faces having a width of 20 mm ± 1 mm.

The two pole faces of the yoke shall be as flat as possible and coplanar to within 0,1 mm.

Also, the yoke shall be rigid in order to avoid creating mechanical stresses in the test

specimen.

The height of the yoke shall be between 80 mm and 120 mm. The yoke shall have a width of

220 mm ± 1 mm and an inside length of 240 mm ± 1 mm (see Figure 3).

Other yoke dimensions may be used provided that comparability of the results can be

demonstrated.

NOTE 2 The power loss dissipated in the yoke can be measured by making a magnetic closure circuit consisting

of the yoke and a matching upper yoke that are wound with primary and secondary windings; 25 turns are sufficient

for each winding.

There shall be a specimen support, which is made of non-conductive and non-magnetic

materials, between the vertical limbs of the yokes. The surface of the support, on which the

test specimen is supported, shall be in the same plane with the pole faces so that the test

specimen can contact the pole faces with minimum air gaps.

NOTE 3 If there are steps between the surface of the test support plane and the pole faces, deteriorated magnetic

properties are measured.
4.3.3 Windings

The primary winding shall be at least 230 mm in length. The secondary winding shall be

120 mm ± 1 mm in length and centred in the primary winding. The primary and secondary

windings shall be wound on a non-conducting, non-magnetic and rectangular former. The

dimensions of the former shall be as follows:
– length for winding: 235 mm ± 5 mm;
– internal height: 3 mm ± 1 mm;
– external height: ≤ 15 mm; the value of 12 mm is recommended.
120
<0,1
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60404-16:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –

The primary winding can be made up of a single continuous and uniform winding taking up the

whole length. One example of the winding is made up of 220 turns of copper wire 1 mm in

diameter taking up the whole length, wound in one or more layers.

The secondary winding shall be made up of a single continuous and uniform winding taking up

the length of 120 mm ± 1 mm, wound in one layer. The number of turns on the secondary

winding depends on the characteristics of the measuring instruments.

The H coil shall have the same length as the secondary winding and be centred in the primary

winding. The H coil shall be wound on a non-conducting, non-magnetic and rectangular plate.

The width of the plate shall be 120 mm ± 1 mm and the height of the plate shall be

3 mm ± 0,2 mm.

The H coil shall be embedded in the specimen support plate and the distance between the

upper surface of the support plate and the upper surface of the H coil shall be 1 mm ± 0,2 mm.

The area-turns of the H coil shall be calibrated in a uniform field using a solenoid coil of a

...

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