Semiconductor devices - Classification of defects in gallium nitride epitaxial film on silicon carbide substrate

IEC 63229:2021(E) gives guidelines for the definition and classification of defects in GaN epitaxial film grown on SiC substrate. They are identified and described on the basis of examples, mainly by schematic illustrations, optical microscope images, and transmission electron microscope images for these defects. This document covers only defects in as-grown GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate and does not include defects caused by subsequent processes.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Apr-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Apr-2021
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IEC 63229
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside

Semiconductor devices – Classification of defects in gallium nitride epitaxial film

on silicon carbide substrate
IEC 63229:2021-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 63229
Edition 1.0 2021-04
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Classification of defects in gallium nitride epitaxial
film on silicon carbide substrate
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-9669-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Classification of defects ................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Description of the defect classes............................................................................. 9

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Vacancy .......................................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Interstitial ...................................................................................................... 10

4.2.4 Substitutional defect ...................................................................................... 11

4.2.5 Point defect complex ..................................................................................... 12

4.2.6 Threading dislocation .................................................................................... 13

4.2.7 Crack ............................................................................................................. 14

4.2.8 Inclusion ........................................................................................................ 15

4.2.9 Hillock ........................................................................................................... 16

4.2.10 Pit.................................................................................................................. 18

4.2.11 Scratch .......................................................................................................... 20

4.2.12 Others ........................................................................................................... 21

Figure 1 – Vacancy ............................................................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Interstitial ............................................................................................................. 11

Figure 3 – Substitutional defect............................................................................................. 12

Figure 4 – Point defect complex ............................................................................................ 13

Figure 5 – Threading dislocation ........................................................................................... 14

Figure 6 – Crack ................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 7 – Inclusion .............................................................................................................. 16

Figure 8 – Hillock .................................................................................................................. 18

Figure 9 – Pit ........................................................................................................................ 20

Figure 10 – Scratch .............................................................................................................. 21

Table 1 – Classification of defects in GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate ............................... 9

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IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS IN GALLIUM NITRIDE
EPITAXIAL FILM ON SILICON CARBIDE SUBSTRATE
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 63229 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices. It is an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2687/FDIS 47/2693/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
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– 4 – IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

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IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Gallium nitride (GaN) as a representative of the wide band gap semiconductors has

outstanding properties, such as wide band gap, high critical electric field, high electron

saturation drift velocity, and good resistance to corrosion and radiation. Owing to these

properties, GaN can bring significant improvements to electronic devices, such as high-

voltage, high-frequency, and high-power, which will be widely used in wireless communication

base stations, radars, automotive electronics, aerospace, the nuclear industry, and military

electronics.

To date, the development of GaN epitaxial film and related devices is hindered by high cost,

low yield, and poor reliability. Among them, the defects in GaN epitaxial film, which closely

related to device reliability, are especially serious.

There are various defects found in GaN epitaxial film on silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. In

addition, global researchers have not established a uniform definition and classification

criterion for defects in GaN epitaxial film yet. Thus, it is essential to establish a set of

international standards for GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate, which will benefit the

development of GaN epitaxial film and related devices.

To define and classify defects in GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate, a new international

standard is proposed. The main contents of this document are listing and illustrating the

definition and classification of defects in GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate, providing

reference for future GaN-related research and device manufacture.
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– 6 – IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS IN GALLIUM NITRIDE
EPITAXIAL FILM ON SILICON CARBIDE SUBSTRATE
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines for the definition and classification of defects in

GaN epitaxial film grown on SiC substrate. They are identified and described on the basis of

examples, mainly by schematic illustrations, optical microscope images, and transmission

electron microscope images for these defects. This document covers only defects in as-grown

GaN epitaxial film on SiC substrate and does not include defects caused by subsequent

processes.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
Gallium nitride
GaN
compound semiconductor crystal composed of gallium and nitrogen
3.2
substrate
material on which epitaxial layer is deposited
[SOURCE: IEC 63068-1:2019, 3.9, modified – "Homoepitaxial" has been replaced by
"epitaxial".]
3.3
Silicon carbide
SiC

semiconductor crystal composed of silicon and carbon, which exhibits a large number of

polytypes such as 4H and 6H

Note 1 to entry: A symbol like 4H gives the number of periodic stacking layers (2, 3, 4,…) and the crystal

symmetry (H=hexagonal) of each polytype.
[SOURCE: IEC 63068-1:2019, 3.1, modified – Polytype of 3C has been deleted.]
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IEC 63229:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.4
4H-SiC
SiC crystal showing
...

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