Fuel cell technologies - Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking - Product category rules for environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power systems and alternative systems for residential applications

IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 provides a set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines (i.e. so-called product category rules (PCR) according to ISO 14025 and thus in line with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044) for characterizing the environmental performance of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and alternative systems for residential applications based on life cycle thinking primarily for communication to consumers.
This document covers stationary fuel cell CHP systems and alternative heat (and power) systems for residential applications that primarily serve heating purposes. The systems can be complemented with a hot water storage tank and one or more additional heat generators. The systems are connected to the electricity grid. The environmental performance is characterized in an EPD for each individual heat-related device or CHP generator separately. This document also describes how the environmental performance of a given combination of heat-related devices (including CHP generators) is characterized based on the environmental performance of its individual components. The domestic heat distribution system, district heating, or local infrastructures for fuel supply or for fuel storage are not considered

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Published
Publication Date
13-Jan-2021
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PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
14-Jan-2021
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IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 - Fuel cell technologies - Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking - Product category rules for environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power systems and alternative systems for residential applications
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IEC TS 62282-9-102
Edition 1.0 2021-01
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel
cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Product category rules for
environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power systems and
alternative systems for residential applications
IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62282-9-102
Edition 1.0 2021-01
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Fuel cell technologies –
Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of fuel
cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Product category rules for
environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power systems and
alternative systems for residential applications
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.070 ISBN 978-2-8322-9223-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Principles ...................................................................................................................... 12

4.1 Accuracy ............................................................................................................... 12

4.2 Completeness ....................................................................................................... 12

4.3 Consistency .......................................................................................................... 12

4.4 Relevance ............................................................................................................. 12

4.5 Transparency ........................................................................................................ 12

4.6 Voluntary nature ................................................................................................... 12

4.7 Units to be used .................................................................................................... 12

4.8 Quantities to be provided ...................................................................................... 12

5 Product group ................................................................................................................ 13

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Combination of heat-related devices ..................................................................... 13

5.3 Product and manufacturing company specification ................................................ 13

6 Assessment ................................................................................................................... 14

6.1 Goal of the assessment ........................................................................................ 14

6.2 Boundary .............................................................................................................. 14

6.2.1 Functional unit and reference flow ................................................................. 14

6.2.2 General system boundary and life cycle stages ............................................. 15

6.2.3 Criteria for the inclusion of inputs and outputs ............................................... 16

6.2.4 Data quality rules ........................................................................................... 18

7 Life cycle inventory ........................................................................................................ 18

7.1 Data collection ...................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Inventory and calculation rules .............................................................................. 18

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

7.2.2 Carbon neutrality and market-mediated impacts of biofuels ........................... 19

7.3 Allocation rules and multifunctionality ................................................................... 20

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.3.2 Credits to electricity generated by a CHP generator for residential

application ..................................................................................................... 20

7.3.3 Credits to cold generated by heat pumps for residential application ............... 21

7.3.4 Dealing with multifunctionality of CHP in manufacturing ................................. 21

8 Life cycle impact assessment ........................................................................................ 21

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

8.2 Impact categories ................................................................................................. 21

8.3 Impact assessment methods ................................................................................. 21

9 Environmental product declaration (EPD) ...................................................................... 22

9.1 Content ................................................................................................................. 22

9.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

9.1.2 Data from the LCA ......................................................................................... 23

9.1.3 Additional environmental information to be reported ...................................... 24

9.1.4 Demonstration of verification ......................................................................... 25

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IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
9.1.5 Instructions for the installer on how to derive more specific

environmental information from the EPD ........................................................ 26

9.2 Environmental information specific to the needs of a given consumer as

compiled by the installer based on the EPD .......................................................... 26

9.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

9.2.2 Case of an individual heat-related device operated at a specific site .............. 27

9.2.3 Case of combinations of heat-related devices operated at a specific site ....... 27

9.2.4 Dealing with greenhouse gas emissions from heat-related devices

burning biofuels ............................................................................................. 28

10 Verification and validity of the EPD ................................................................................ 28

10.1 Report/documentation ........................................................................................... 28

10.2 Verification............................................................................................................ 28

10.3 Validity (period of validity) and update .................................................................. 28

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 1 – System boundary, foreground and background ..................................................... 16

Table 1 – Combinations of space heating and hot water demands to which the

determined environmental impacts shall be related (reference flows) .................................... 15

Table 2 – Credits by impact category attributed to a kWh of electricity produced by

CHP generators in a given country or region ......................................................................... 20

Table 3 – Replacing impact category names used by the LCA community by names

more readily understandable by the general public ............................................................... 23

Table 4 – Environmental impact results due to the "supply of one device" to a given

market – Information for the installer ..................................................................................... 23

Table 5 – Environmental impact results due to the "operation of device" in a given

market – Information for the installer ..................................................................................... 24

Table 6 – Environmental impact results due to both "supply of one device" and

"operation of device" in a given market – Information for the consumer compiled by the

installer based on the EPD.................................................................................................... 27

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– 4 – IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of
fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Product category
rules for environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power
systems and alternative systems for residential applications
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TS 62282-9-102 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 105: Fuel cell technologies.

It is a Technical Specification.
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
DTS Report on voting
105/797/DTS 105/813A/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.

The language used for the development of this Technical Specification is English.

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IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62282 series, published under the general title Fuel cell technologies,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

In developing new or improved products, manufacturers pursue environmentally conscious

designs and evaluate their efforts, for example, by adopting a life cycle assessment (LCA)

approach, in order to improve the environmental performance and communicate it to consumers.

This part of IEC 62282 addresses core product category rules (PCR) for characterizing the

environmental performance of stationary fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) systems

(defined as: generator systems that use one or more fuel cell stack(s) to generate electric power

and heat) and alternative heat (and power) systems for residential applications based on life

cycle thinking for communication to consumers. They primarily serve heating purposes.

Alternative micro combined heat and power production (µCHP) systems (e.g. Stirling or internal

combustion engines) and residential heating systems are also covered. All of these heating

systems can be complemented with a peak boiler and/or a hot water storage tank. This shows

that there are multiple possibilities to combine stationary fuel cell CHP systems and alternative

heat (and power) systems in residential applications. This document is therefore written in a

way to allow for an environmental product declaration (EPD) for each individual heat-related

device to be established. If combined in a given home, this document also provides

requirements and guidance on how to derive specific information on their joint environmental

impacts based on the individual EPDs. Because the environmental implications of local

infrastructures are known neither to the manufacturer nor to the installer, local infrastructures

are not considered (i.e. the domestic heat distribution system and infrastructures for fuel supply

(e.g. municipal natural gas network) or fuel storage (e.g. oil tank in situ or in the municipality)).

District heating is beyond the scope of this document.

According to ISO 14025, a PCR is a set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for

developing Type III environmental declarations of one or more product categories, providing

quantified environmental data. The PCR, and the resulting EPDs, are based on life cycle

thinking in order to avoid an incomplete assessment of the systems in question and to identify

environmental burden shifting among environmental impact categories and life cycle stages.

The EPDs are accordingly generated using the principles, framework, methodologies and

practices established by the ISO 14040 series of standards (i.e. ISO 14040 and ISO 14044).

The overall goal of the EPD of stationary fuel cell CHP systems and alternative systems for

residential applications is to encourage the demand for, and supply of, those products that

cause less burden on the environment, through communication of verified and accurate

information that is not misleading, thereby stimulating the potential for market-driven continuous

environmental improvement. This document focuses on residential applications, but can also

be applied to applications in the tertiary sector.

This document is intended to be used by manufacturers of heat-related devices (including CHP

generators) on a voluntary basis. The information provided is then used by consumers or

installers.
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IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

The installation of a heating system (including CHP systems) individually or in combination with

other heat-related devices (e.g. µCHP combined with a peak boiler and a hot water storage

tank) depends on the heating demand of the consumer in a given home (in turn depending on

e.g. the climate, and the size and insulation level of the building) and also on the consumer's

technical preferences (e.g. CHP versus only heating, fuel cell CHP systems versus other

systems). The environmental performance of an individual heat-related device or a combination

thereof will therefore depend on the specific setting that the manufacturer cannot anticipate in

the EPD of its heat-related device. It will, therefore, be the task of the installer of a heat-related

device (including CHP generators), or a combination thereof, to adapt or integrate the

information of the EPD(s) of the heat-related device(s) in order to provide information on the

environmental performance of the overall heating systems that can potentially be installed in a

given home. Neither will the manufacturers be necessarily able to know to which extent the

devices run on biofuels (including on which kind of biofuel) and in particular whether the biofuels

used can be regarded as carbon neutral. Therefore, the case of carbon neutrality of biofuels is

not quantitatively dealt with in the EPD. However, it is discussed in the EPD so that the

consumer or installer of a heat-related device can take potentially existing carbon neutrality into

account.

NOTE At the time of publication of this document, a new ISO standard on "carbon neutrality" (ISO 14068) is under

development.
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– 8 – IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES –
Part 9-102: Evaluation methodology for the environmental performance of
fuel cell power systems based on life cycle thinking – Product category
rules for environmental product declarations of stationary fuel cell power
systems and alternative systems for residential applications
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62282 provides a set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines (i.e. so-

called product category rules (PCR) according to ISO 14025 and thus in line with ISO 14040

and ISO 14044) for characterizing the environmental performance of stationary fuel cell

combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and alternative systems for residential applications

based on life cycle thinking primarily for communication to consumers. The environmental

performance of a system is communicated to the consumer and the installer by means of an

environmental product declaration (EPD).

This document covers stationary fuel cell CHP systems and alternative heat (and power)

systems for residential applications that primarily serve heating purposes. The systems can be

complemented with a hot water storage tank and one or more additional heat generators. The

systems are connected to the electricity grid. The environmental performance is characterized

in an EPD for each individual heat-related device or CHP generator separately. This document

also describes how the environmental performance of a given combination of heat-related

devices (including CHP generators) is characterized based on the environmental performance

of its individual components. The domestic heat distribution system, district heating, or local

infrastructures for fuel supply or for fuel storage are not considered.

This document focuses on residential applications, but can also be used to assess applications

in the tertiary or service sector.

This document does not override, or in any way change, legally required environmental

information, claims or labelling, or any other applicable legal requirements.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.
ISO 14020:2000, Environmental labels and declarations – General principles

ISO 14021:2016, Environmental labels and declarations – Self-declared environmental claims

(Type II environmental labelling)

ISO 14025:2006, Environmental labels and declarations – Type III environmental declarations

– Principles and procedures
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
fuel cell stack

assembly of cells, separators, cooling plates, manifolds and a supporting structure that

electrochemically converts, typically, hydrogen-rich gas and air reactants to DC power, heat

and other reaction products
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-485:2020, 485-06-01]
3.2
combined heat and power
CHP
simultaneous generation of thermal and electric energy in one process
[SOURCE: IEC 62282-3-400:2016, 3.1.19]
3.3
CHP generator
system that produces thermal and electric energy

[SOURCE: IEC 62282-3-400:2016, 3.1.21, modified – "includes a fuel cell power system

producing" replaced by "produces"; "and is the preferential source of heat" and Note 1 to entry

deleted.]
3.4
fuel cell combined heat and power system
fuel cell CHP system

device consisting of one or more fuel cell stack(s) that is intended to simultaneously produce

both electric power and heat

Note 1 to entry: The configuration of a fuel cell CHP system neither includes a supplementary heat generator nor a

hot water storage tank. As a result, it is not necessarily identical to a fuel cell cogeneration system as defined in

IEC 60050-485.
3.5
heat generator
system that produces thermal energy
3.6
domestic hot water

water delivered by a heat generator or a CHP generator, raised to a certain temperature in

order to use it for domestic needs, such as kitchen, bathroom

[SOURCE: IEC 62282-3-400:2016, 3.1.37, modified – "the small fuel cell CHP appliance"

replaced by "a heat generator or a CHP generator".]
3.7
heat-related device
device that can generate, store, transfer or control thermal energy

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, the transfer function is generally not included.

Note 2 to entry: CHP generators are also considered as heat-related devices.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021
3.8
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.20]
3.9
reference flow

measure of the outputs from processes in a given product system required to fulfil the function

expressed by the functional unit
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.29]
3.10
foreground system
element of the life cycle of a product that is specific to it

Note 1 to entry: The foreground system notably comprises the manufacturing, use and end-of-life of the product.

3.11
background system
element of the life cycle of a product that is not specific to it

EXAMPLE Material supply for constructing the manufacturing site or machinery used.

3.12
elementary flow

material or energy entering the system being studied that has been drawn from the environment

without previous human transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied

that is released into the environment without subsequent human transformation
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.12]
3.13
environmental aspect

element of an organization's activities or products or services that interacts or can interact with

the environment

Note 1 to entry: An environmental aspect can cause (an) environmental impact(s). A significant environmental

aspect is one that has or can have one or more significant environmental impact(s).

[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.2, modified – Note 2 to entry deleted.]
3.14
environmental impact

change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an

organization's environmental aspects
[SOURCE: ISO 14001:2015, 3.2.4]
3.15
impact category

class representing environmental issues of concern to which life cycle inventory analysis results

may be assigned
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.39]
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IEC TS 62282-9-102:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
3.16
characterization factor

factor derived from a characterization model which is applied to convert an assigned life cycle

inventory analysis result
...

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