Fire hazard testing - Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods - Glow-wire flammability test method for end products (GWEPT)

IEC 60695-2-11:2021 is available as IEC 60695-2-11:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 specifies a test method on an end product. It is intended to simulate the effects of thermal stresses produced by an electrically heated source to represent a fire hazard. This test method is used to check that, under defined test conditions, an end product exposed to an electrically heated source has either a limited ability to ignite or, if it ignites, a limited ability to propagate flame. However, the fire hazard analysis, the flammability aspects and the flame spreading to other products are not covered by this document. This basic safety publication focusing on safety test method(s) is primarily intended for use by technical committees in the preparation of safety publications in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51. One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. This publication is to be read in conjunction with IEC 60695-2-10. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2014. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) Numerous terms and definitions relevant to this document have been added to Clause 3.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2-11: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant - Méthode d'essai d'inflammabilité pour produits finis (GWEPT)

IEC 60695-2-11:2021 est disponible sous forme de IEC 60695-2-11:2021 RLV qui contient la Norme internationale et sa version Redline, illustrant les modifications du contenu technique depuis l'édition précédente.
L'IEC 60695-2-11:2021 spécifie une méthode d’essai applicable au produit fini. Elle est destinée à simuler les effets des contraintes thermiques produites par une source chauffée électriquement afin de représenter un danger d’incendie. La présente méthode d’essai permet de vérifier que, dans des conditions d’essai définies, un produit fini exposé à une source chauffée électriquement présente une aptitude limitée à s’enflammer ou, s’il s’enflamme, une aptitude limitée à propager la flamme. Cependant, le présent document ne traite pas de l’analyse du danger d'incendie, des aspects d’inflammabilité et de propagation de flammes à d’autres produits. La présente publication fondamentale de sécurité, fondée sur la ou les méthodes d'essai de sécurité, est essentiellement destinée à être utilisée par les comités d’études dans le cadre de l’élaboration de publications de sécurité conformément aux principes établis dans le Guide IEC 104 et le Guide ISO/IEC 51. L’une des responsabilités d’un comité d’études consiste, le cas échéant, à utiliser les publications fondamentales de sécurité dans le cadre de l’élaboration de ses publications. Cette norme doit être utilisée conjointement avec l’IEC 60695-2-10. Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2014. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a) ajout à l’Article 3 de nombreux termes et définitions applicables au présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Oct-2021
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IEC 60695-2-11
Edition 3.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire flammability test
method for end products (GWEPT)
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 2-11: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant – Méthode d’essai
d’inflammabilité pour produits finis (GWEPT)
IEC 60695-2-11:2021-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11
Edition 3.0 2021-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
HORIZONTAL PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION HORIZONTALE
Fire hazard testing –
Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-wire flammability test
method for end products (GWEPT)
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 2-11: Essais au fil incandescent/chauffant – Méthode d’essai
d’inflammabilité pour produits finis (GWEPT)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-1011-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Test specimens ............................................................................................................... 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Complete end product ............................................................................................. 8

4.3 Partial end product (alternative) .............................................................................. 9

4.4 Test considerations and limitations associated with the specimen

configuration ........................................................................................................... 9

5 Test apparatus .............................................................................................................. 10

6 Verification of the temperature measuring system .......................................................... 10

7 Conditioning .................................................................................................................. 10

7.1 Conditioning of test specimens ............................................................................. 10

7.2 Conditioning of specified layers ............................................................................ 11

7.3 Testing conditions ................................................................................................. 11

8 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 11

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

8.2 Test temperatures ................................................................................................. 11

8.3 Number of test specimens ..................................................................................... 12

9 Observations and measurements ................................................................................... 12

10 Evaluation of test results ............................................................................................... 12

11 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 12

12 Information to be given in the relevant product standard ................................................ 13

Annex A (informative) Suggested GWEPT temperatures ...................................................... 14

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 1 – Small parts ........................................................................................................... 10

Figure A.1 – Suggested GWEPT temperatures ..................................................................... 15

Table 1 – Test temperatures ................................................................................................. 11

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –
Glow-wire flammability test method for end products (GWEPT)
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC Publication(s)"). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

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expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60695-2-11 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire hazard testing. It is an

International Standard.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2014. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) Numerous terms and definitions relevant to this document have been added to Clause 3.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1536/FDIS 89/1544/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-2-10.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can be

found on the IEC web site.
In this standard, the following print types are used:
• terms defined in Clause 3: in bold type

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

In the design of any electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective within the design of

component, circuit, and product design, as well as the choice of the materials, is to reduce to

acceptable levels the potential risks of fire during normal operating conditions, reasonable

foreseeable abnormal use, malfunction, and/or failure. IEC 60695-1-10 [1] , together with its

companion IEC 60695-1-11 [2], has been developed to provide guidance on how this is to be

accomplished.

The primary aims of IEC 60695-1-10 and IEC 60695-1-11 are to provide guidance on how to:

a) prevent ignition caused by an electrically energized component part, and

b) confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the electrotechnical product

in the event of ignition.

Secondary aims of IEC 60695-1-10 and IEC 60695-1-11 include the minimization of any flame

spread beyond the product’s enclosure and the minimization of harmful effects of fire effluents

such as heat, smoke, toxicity and/or corrosivity.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature are normally dealt with in the overall fire hazard

assessment.

In electrotechnical equipment, overheated metal parts can act as ignition sources. In glow-wire

tests, a glowing wire is used to simulate such an ignition source.

IEC 60695-2-10 describes a glow-wire test apparatus and common test procedure, IEC 60695-

2-12 [3] describes a glow-wire flammability index (GWFI) test method for materials, and

IEC 60695-2-13 [4] describes a glow-wire ignition temperature (GWIT) test method for materials.

This document is used to assess the reaction of end products to heat caused by contact with

an electrically heated wire under controlled laboratory conditions. This may be useful for the

evaluation of end products that may be exposed to excess thermal stress such as a fault current

flowing through a wire, overloading of components, and/or bad connections. It should not be

used to solely describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of products, or assemblies under

actual fire conditions. However, results of this test can be used as elements of a fire hazard

assessment which takes into account all of the factors which are pertinent to a particular end

use.

This document may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. It does not purport

to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user

of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the

applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 2-11: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods –
Glow-wire flammability test method for end products (GWEPT)
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695 specifies a test method on an end product. It is intended to simulate the

effects of thermal stresses produced by an electrically heated source to represent a fire hazard.

This test method is used to check that, under defined test conditions, an end product exposed

to an electrically heated source has either a limited ability to ignite or, if it ignites, a limited

ability to propagate flame. However, the fire hazard analysis, the flammability aspects and the

flame spreading to other products are not covered by this document.

This basic safety publication focusing on safety test method(s) is primarily intended for use by

technical committees in the preparation of safety publications in accordance with the principles

laid down in IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC Guide 51.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-2-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 2-10: Glowing/hot-wire based test methods – Glow-

wire apparatus and common test procedure

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products
ISO 13943:2017, Fire safety – Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943:2017 and

IEC 60695-4:2012, some of which are reproduced below for the user's convenience, and in

IEC 60695-2-10 regarding times and durations, and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
burn, intransitive verb
undergo combustion
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.34]
3.2
combustible, adjective
capable of being ignited and burned
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.52]
3.3
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames and/or glowing.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.55]
3.4
enclosure

external casing protecting the electrical and mechanical parts of apparatus

Note 1 to entry: The term excludes cables.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.93]
3.5
end product
product that is ready for use without modification
Note 1 to entry: An end product can be a component of another end product.
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.7]
3.6
fire hazard
potential for harm associated with fire

Note 1 to entry: Alternatively, fire hazard can be a physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable

consequence from fire.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.131]
3.7
fire hazard assessment

evaluation of the possible causes of fire, the possibility and nature of subsequent fire growth,

and the possible consequences of fire
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.10]
3.8
fire risk

estimation of expected fire loss that combines the potential for harm in various fire scenarios

that can occur with the probabilities of occurrence of those scenarios

Note 1 to entry: An alternative definition of fire risk is, "combination of the probability of a fire and a quantified

measure of its consequence".

Note 2 to entry: Fire risk is often calculated as the product of probability and consequence.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.145]
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021
3.9
flame

rapid, self-sustaining, sub-sonic propagation of combustion in a gaseous medium, usually with

emission of light
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.159]
3.10
flame spread
propagation of a flame front
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.168]
3.11
flammability
ability of a material or product to burn with a flame under specified conditions
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.178]
3.12
glowing, adjective

emitting light without flame from the combustion of a material in the solid phase

3.13
ignition
DEPRECATED: sustained ignition
initiation of combustion
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2017, 3.217]
3.14
insignificant mass
insufficient combustible material to constitute a fire hazard

Note 1 to entry: A default value is 2 g, but product TCs may assign a different value appropriate to the product type

and scale.
[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.16]
3.15
small part

part with a dimension less than the minimum specified for the relevant test method

[SOURCE: IEC 60695-4:2012, 3.2.25]
4 Test specimens
4.1 General

It is not necessary to test end products or parts of end products which have insignificant

mass. Additionally, this test method is not suitable for testing small parts (see 4.4).

4.2 Complete end product

Whenever possible, the test specimen should be a complete end product as opposed to a

partial end product (see 4.3). The test specimen shall be chosen so that the conditions of the

test will not be significantly different from those occurring in normal use with regard to shape,

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

ventilation, effect of thermal stresses, and eventually, the effects of burning or glowing particles

falling from the test specimen.
4.3 Partial end product (alternative)

If the test cannot be made on a complete end product then, unless otherwise specified by the

relevant product standard, it is acceptable to

a) cut a piece containing the part under examination from a complete and assembled end

product, or
b) cut an aperture in the complete end product to allow the glow-wire access, or
c) remove the part under examination in its entirety and test it separately.

Technical committees should define in their relevant product standards what may be removed

to achieve access. So far as possible, these product standards should strive to replicate actual

service locations and conditions.

4.4 Test considerations and limitations associated with the specimen configuration

When cutting an opening for access purposes, a small aperture may affect the results by leading

to the ignition of the surroundings and/or reducing the temperature of the tip of the glow-wire.

The opening should be large enough to allow an adequate supply of air for combustion.

If, during the test, any part of the end product containing the test specimen is ignited by

extraneous heat from the glow-wire which in turn influences the thermal conditions at the test

specimen, the test is invalid.

The glow-wire flammability test method for end products shall not be used for testing small

parts. This is because such parts cannot be effectively supported to avoid heat losses (see

IEC 60695-2-10), and they are not able to accommodate the penetration of the glow-wire.

The following are considered to be small parts:
a) where each surface lies completely within a circle of 15 mm in diameter; or

b) where it is not possible to fit a circle of 8 mm in diameter completely on at least one of the

surfaces while, at least one part dimension is > 15 mm.
See Figure 1.
When checking a surface,
1) projections on the surface are disregarded, and

2) holes or recesses which are not greater than 2 mm in any dimension are disregarded.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 1 – Small parts
5 Test apparatus

The test apparatus of IEC 60695-2-10 shall be used except that the reference to a specified

layer may not apply.

To evaluate the possibility of the spread of fire, for example by burning or glowing particles

falling from the test specimen, a specified layer as described in IEC 60695-2-10, or the material

or components normally surrounding or situated underneath the test specimen, are placed

underneath the test specimen. The distance between the test specimen and the specified layer

representing the surrounding material or components shall be equal to that which occurs in end

use. If the test specimen is a component such that surrounding materials and distances are

unknown, then the specified layer described in IEC 60695-2-10 shall be placed 200 mm ± 5 mm

below the glow-wire point of contact.

If the test specimen is a complete free-standing equipment, it is placed in its normal position of

use on the specified layer as described in IEC 60695-2-10 extending for at least 100 mm outside

the base of the equipment in all directions.

If the test specimen is a complete wall-mounted equipment, it is fixed in its normal position of

use 200 mm ± 5 mm above the specified layer as described in IEC 60695-2-10.
6 Verification of the temperature measuring system

The temperature measuring system shall be verified as specified in IEC 60695-2-10.

7 Conditioning
7.1 Conditioning of test specimens

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant product standard, the test specimens shall be

conditioned for 24 h in an atmosphere having a temperature between 15 °C and 35 °C and a

relative humidity between 45 % and 75 %.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60695-2-11:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
7.2 Conditioning of specified layers

If the wrapping tissue or wooden board is used as specified layer, the conditioning shall be

carried out according to IEC 60695-2-10. If the material or components normally surrounding

or situated underneath the test specimen is used, the material or components shall be

conditioned in the same way as the test specimen (see 7.1).
7.3 Testing conditions

The test specimens shall be tested in a laboratory atmosphere having a temperature between

15 °C and 35 °C and a relative humidity less than or equal to 75 %. Testing shall be completed

within 30 minutes after the specimens and the specified layers (if any) are removed from the

conditions specified in 7.1 and 7.2, respectively.
8 Test procedure
8.1 General

In addition to the common test procedure specified in IEC 60695-2-10, if not otherwise specified,

the test specimen shall be so arranged that the tip of the glow-wire is applied to the part of the

surface of the test specimen which is likely to be subjected to thermal stresses in normal use.

The glow-wire shall be maintained as close to the horizontal as is practicable.

In cases where the test shall be made at more than one point on the same test specimen,

ensure that any deterioration caused by previous tests does not affect the result. In this case,

the test shall be made at a minimum distance from the edges of the
...

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