Photovoltaic devices - Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics

IEC 60904-9:2020 is applicable for solar simulators used in PV test and calibration laboratories and in manufacturing lines of solar cells and PV modules. This document define classifications of solar simulators for use in indoor measurements of terrestrial photovoltaic devices. Solar simulators are classified as A+, A, B or C based on criteria of spectral distribution match, irradiance non-uniformity in the test plane and temporal instability of irradiance. This document provides the required methodologies for determining the classification of solar simulators in each of the categories. A solar simulator which does not meet the minimum requirements of class C cannot be classified according to this document. This document is used in combination with IEC TR 60904-14, which deals with best practice recommendations for production line measurements of single-junction PV module maximum power output and reporting at standard test conditions.
This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition issued in 2007. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- Changed title;
- Added spectral match classification in an extended wavelength range;
- Introduction of new A+ class;
- Definition of additional parameters for spectral irradiance evaluation;
- Added apparatus sections for spectral irradiance measurement and spatial uniformity measurement;
- Revised procedure for spectral match classification (minimum 4 measurement locations);
- Revised measurement procedure for spatial uniformity of irradiance;
- Added informative Annex for sensitivity analysis of spectral mismatch error related to solar simulator spectral irradiance.

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Partie 9: Classification des caractéristiques des simulateurs solaires

l'IEC 60904-9:2020 est applicable aux simulateurs solaires utilisés dans les laboratoires d’essai et d’étalonnage des dispositifs PV et dans les chaînes de fabrication des cellules solaires et des modules PV.. Le présent document définit les classifications des simulateurs solaires à utiliser dans les mesures en intérieur des dispositifs photovoltaïques terrestres.Les simulateurs solaires sont classés en catégorie A+, A, B ou C, sur la base de critères d’équilibre de répartition spectrale, de non-uniformité de l’éclairement énergétique dans le plan d’essai et d’instabilité temporelle de l’éclairement énergétique. Le présent document fournit les méthodologies exigées pour déterminer la classification des simulateurs solaires dans chacune des catégories. Un simulateur solaire qui ne satisfait pas aux exigences minimales de la classe C ne peut pas être classé conformément au présent document. Le présent document est utilisé conjointement avec l’IEC TR 60904-14, qui traite des recommandations en matière de meilleures pratiques pour les mesurages sur la chaîne de production de la puissance maximale de sortie des modules PV à jonction unique et des comptes rendus dans les conditions d’essai standard.
Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition parue en 2007 .Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- Modification du titre;
- Ajout d’une classification de l’égalisation spectrale dans une plage de longueurs d'onde étendue;
- Introduction d’une nouvelle classe A+;
- Définition de paramètres supplémentaires pour l’évaluation de l’éclairement énergétique spectrique;
- Ajout de sections d’appareils pour le mesurage de l’éclairement énergétique spectrique et le mesurage de l’uniformité spatiale;
- Révision de la procédure de classification de l’égalisation spectrale (au moins 4 emplacements de mesure);
- Révision de la procédure de mesure pour l’uniformité spatiale de l’éclairement énergétique;
- Ajout d’une annexe informative pour l’analyse de sensibilité de l’erreur de désadaptation des réponses spectrales liée à l’éclairement énergétique spectrique des simulateurs solaires.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Sep-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Sep-2020
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IEC 60904-9
Edition 3.0 2020-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Photovoltaic devices –
Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics
Dispositifs photovoltaïques –
Partie 9: Classification des caractéristiques des simulateurs solaires
IEC 60904-9:2020-09(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60904-9
Edition 3.0 2020-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Photovoltaic devices –
Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics
Dispositifs photovoltaïques –
Partie 9: Classification des caractéristiques des simulateurs solaires
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-8765-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Classification of solar simulator characteristics .............................................................. 12

5 Measurement procedures .............................................................................................. 13

5.1 Introductory remarks ............................................................................................. 13

5.2 Spectral match ...................................................................................................... 13

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 13

5.2.2 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 13

5.2.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 14

5.2.4 Measurement uncertainty............................................................................... 15

5.3 Non-uniformity of irradiance in the test plane ........................................................ 16

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

5.3.2 Apparatus ...................................................................................................... 16

5.3.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................... 17

5.3.4 Uncertainty of non-uniformity measurement ................................................... 19

5.4 Temporal instability of irradiance .......................................................................... 19

5.4.1 Solar simulators for I-V measurement ............................................................ 19

5.4.2 Solar simulators for irradiance exposure ........................................................ 21

5.4.3 Classification for temporal instability .............................................................. 21

5.4.4 Uncertainty of temporal instability .................................................................. 22

5.5 AM1.5 spectral coverage (SPC) ............................................................................ 22

5.6 AM1.5 spectral deviation (SPD) ............................................................................ 22

6 Name plate and data sheet ............................................................................................ 22

Annex A (informative) Assessment of spectral mismatch error: Sensitivity to spectral

irradiance ............................................................................................................................. 24

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

A.2 Estimation of spectral mismatch-related uncertainty when the spectral

responsivities are known ....................................................................................... 24

A.3 Sensitivity of spectral irradiance for spectral mismatch error when the

variation of spectral responsivities is not known .................................................... 25

A.4 Reporting .............................................................................................................. 28

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 1 – Locations for spectral irradiance measurement of a rectangular test area

(left) and a circular test area (right) ....................................................................................... 15

Figure 2 – Evaluation of STI for a long pulse solar simulator ................................................. 20

Figure 3 – Evaluation of STI for a short pulse solar simulator................................................ 21

Figure A.1 – Virtual spectral responsivity with its dispersions and the modelling

parameters ........................................................................................................................... 25

Figure A.2 – Reference SR curves for typical PV technologies .............................................. 27

Figure A.3 – Robustness of spectral irradiance regarding spectral mismatch error ................ 28

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Table 1 – Global reference solar spectral irradiance distribution given in IEC 60904-3

contribution of wavelength intervals to total irradiance in the restricted wavelength

range 400 nm to 1 100 nm ...................................................................................................... 9

Table 2 – Global reference solar spectral irradiance distribution given in IEC 60904-3

contribution of wavelength intervals to total irradiance in the extended wavelength

range 300 nm to 1 200 nm .................................................................................................... 10

Table 3 – Definition of solar simulator classifications ............................................................ 12

Table A.1 – Reference SR curves for typical PV technologies ............................................... 26

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60904-9 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar

photovoltaic energy systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition issued in 2007. It constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
• Changed title;
• Added spectral match classification in an extended wavelength range;
• Introduction of new A+ class;
• Definition of additional parameters for spectral irradiance evaluation;

• Added apparatus sections for spectral irradiance measurement and spatial uniformity

measurement;
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

• Revised procedure for spectral match classification (minimum 4 measurement locations);

• Revised measurement procedure for spatial uniformity of irradiance;

• Added informative Annex A for sensitivity analysis of spectral mismatch error related to

solar simulator spectral irradiance.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
82/1756/FDIS 82/1775/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60904 series, published under the general title Photovoltaic

devices, can be found on the IEC web site.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020
PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES –
Part 9: Classification of solar simulator characteristics
1 Scope

IEC standards for photovoltaic devices require the use of specific classes of solar simulators

deemed appropriate for specific tests. Solar simulators can be either used for performance

measurements of PV devices or endurance irradiation tests. This part of IEC 60904 provides

the definitions of and means for determining simulator classifications at the required

irradiance levels used for electrical stabilization and characterisation of PV devices.

This document is applicable for solar simulators used in PV test and calibration laboratories

and in manufacturing lines of solar cells and PV modules. The A+ category is primarily

intended for calibration laboratories and is not considered necessary for power measurements

in PV manufacturing and in qualification testing. Class A+ has been introduced because it

allows for reduction in the uncertainty of secondary reference device calibration, which is

usually performed in a calibration laboratory. Measurement uncertainty in PV production lines

will directly benefit from a lower uncertainty of calibration, because production line

measurements are performed using secondary reference devices.

In the case of PV performance measurements, using a solar simulator of a particular class

does not eliminate the need to quantify the influence of the simulator on the measurement by

making spectral mismatch corrections and analysing the influences of spatial non-uniformity

of irradiance in the test plane and temporal stability of irradiance on that measurement. Test

reports for PV devices tested with the simulator report the class of simulator used for the

measurement and the method used to quantify the simulator’s effect on the results.

The purpose of this document is to define classifications of solar simulators for use in indoor

measurements of terrestrial photovoltaic devices. Solar simulators are classified as A+, A, B

or C based on criteria of spectral distribution match, irradiance non-uniformity in the test

plane and temporal instability of irradiance. This document provides the required

methodologies for determining the classification of solar simulators in each of the categories.

A solar simulator which does not meet the minimum requirements of class C cannot be

classified according to this document.

For spectral match classification a new procedure has been added. This procedure addresses

the actual need for an extended wavelength range, which is arising from advances in solar

cell technology (such as increased spectral responsivity below 400 nm) as well as solar

simulator technology (use of component LEDs). The procedure of the second edition of this

standard is still valid, but is only applied if backward compatibility of classification for solar

simulators already in use and for solar simulators in production/sale is required. This

document is referred to by other IEC standards, in which class requirements are laid down for

the use of solar simulators. The solar simulator characteristics described in this document

are not used in isolation to imply any level of measurement confidence or measurement

uncertainty for a solar simulator application (for example, PV module power measurement).

Measurement uncertainties in each application depend on many factors, several of which are

outside the scope of this document:

• Characteristics of the solar simulator, possibly including characteristics not covered by this

document;
• Methods used to calibrate and operate the solar simulator;

• Characteristics of the device(s) under test (for example, size and spectral responsivity);

• Quantities measured from the device(s) under test, including equipment and methods

used for measurement;
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
• Possible corrections applied to measured quantities.

When applications require a certain solar simulator characteristic, it is preferable to specify a

numerical value rather than a letter classification (for example, “≤ 5 % non-uniformity of

irradiance” rather than “Class B non-uniformity of irradiance”). If not obvious from the

application, it should also be indicated how the required simulator characteristic correlates to

relevant measured quantities. Since PV module power measurement is one of the most

common applications for solar simulators, brief guidance on this application is given in

informative notes for each solar simulator characteristic described in this document. This

document is used in combination with IEC TR 60904-14, which deals with best practice

recommendations for production line measurements of single-junction PV module maximum

power output and reporting at standard test conditions. For output power characterization of

PV devices, IEC TR 60904-14 addresses the relevance of the letter grades (A+, A, B, C) for

measurement uncertainty.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60904-1, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic current-voltage

characteristics

IEC 60904-3, Photovoltaic devices – Part 3: Measurement principles for terrestrial

photovoltaic (PV) solar devices with reference spectral irradiance data

IEC TR 60904-14:– , Photovoltaic devices – Part 14: Guidelines for production line

measurements of single junction PV module maximum power output and reporting at standard

test conditions
IEC TS 61836, Solar photovoltaic energy systems – Terms, definitions and symbols
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC TS 61836 together

with the following, apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
solar simulator

equipment employing a light source with a spectral distribution similar to the natural sunlight

used to evaluate characteristics of PV devices
Note 1 to entry: Simulators usually consist of three main components:
a) light source(s) and associated power supply;

b) any optics and filters required to modify the output beam to meet the classification requirements; and

___________
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: 82/1748/DTR.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020

c) the necessary controls to operate the simulator. If the system is used for maximum power determination of PV

modules, the I-V data acquisition system shall be additionally regarded as integral part. Solar simulators shall

be labelled by their mode of operation during a test cycle. These are steady state, single pulse, and multi-

pulse.

Note 2 to entry: Various types of solar simulators are commonly used to determine the current-voltage (I-V)

characteristics of PV devices as defined in IEC 60904-1. Generally, these work as single lamp systems where the

PV device is placed in the designated test area or multiple lamp systems, which are based on the superposition of

light cones. Examples include:

a) Pulsed single lamp or multilamp solar simulator operated in a dark room with typically several metres distance

between light source(s) and PV device. Internal reflections from walls may be suppressed by use of baffles.

b) Pulsed solar simulator operated in a casing or in tabletop configuration with typically less than 1 m distance

between light source(s) and PV device. Diffuser plates and reflectors may be used to achieve the specified

spatial uniformity of irradiance.

c) Steady state single lamp or multilamp solar simulator operated in a dark room with typically several metres

distance between light source(s) and PV device. Internal reflections from walls may be suppressed by use of

baffles.

d) LED based multilamp solar simulator operated with typically less than 1 m distance between light source(s)

and PV device.

Note 3 to entry: Pulsed solar simulators can be further subdivided into long pulse systems acquiring the total I-V

characteristic or a section of the I-V characteristic during one flash and systems acquiring one I-V data point per

flash. Several lamp types may be used in a multilamp solar simulator. These instruments are spectrally tuneable

instruments, which work with superposition of different spectral irradiances, emitted from various lamp types. If

available, in addition to the rating, the reported test data should be referred to for evaluation of the applicability of

the solar simulator for a specific use or testing purposes.

Note 4 to entry: Multilamp systems can be further subdivided into systems, where each lamp irradiates the total

test area, and systems, where a single lamp just irradiates a part of the test area.

Besides the light source, the lamp power supply and the optics, also the I-V data acquisition, the electronic load

and the operating software may be an integral part of the solar simulator. Requirements for the related

measurement technique are included in other parts of the IEC 60904 series.
3.2
test plane
plane intended to contain the device under test
3.3
designated test area
region of the test plane that is assessed for solar simulator classification

Note 1 to entry: If required, typical geometries can be specified. A specification related to a circular geometry is

also permitted.
3.4
data sampling time

time to take a single data set (irradiance, voltage, current). In the case of simultaneous

measurement, this is given by the characteristic of the A/D converter. In the case of

multiplexed systems the data sampling rate is the multiplexing rate.

Note 1 to entry: In the case of simultaneous measurement, the data sampling time is given by the characteristic of

the A/D converter. In the case of multiplexed systems the data sampling time is the multiplexing rate.

The data sampling time is used for evaluation of temporal stability.

EXAMPLE In the case of non-simultaneous measurement, a multiplexing time of 1 µs would give a sampling rate

of 1 Mega samples per second; the data sampling time would be 3 µs.
3.5
data acquisition time
time to take the entire or a part of the I-V curve of a PV device

Note 1 to entry: The data acquisition time depends on the number of I-V data points and a delay time that might

be adjustable.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of pulsed solar simulators the data acquisition time is related to the measurements

recorded during a single flash.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60904-9:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
3.6
time for acquiring the I-V characteristic
time for acquiring the entire I-V characteristic of a PV device

Note 1 to entry: If the I-V characteristic of the PV device is measured in a single flash it is equal to the data

acquisition time.

Note 2 to entry: If the I-V characteristic of the PV device is measured through sectoring in different parts with

multiple flashes, it is the sum of data acquisition times for the single sectors of the IV characteristic.

3.7
spectral range

reference spectral distribution of sunlight at Air Mass 1,5 Global (AM1.5), defined in

IEC 60904-3. For simulator evaluation purposes two wavelength ranges are defined:

a) Restricted wavelength range (400 nm to 1 100 nm): This definition shall establish

backward compatibility to IEC 60904-9 Ed.2:2007. Spectral match evaluation is performed

in the 6 wavelength bands given in Table 1.

b) Extended wavelength range (300 nm to 1 200 nm): In accordance with Table 2 the total

wavelength range is divided into 6 wavelength bands, each contributing the same
percentage to the integrated irradiance.
3.8
spectral match

spectral match of a solar simulator defined by the deviation from AM1.5 reference spectral

irradiance as laid down in IEC 60904-3
Note 1 t
...

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