Internet of Things (IoT) - Compatibility requirements and model for devices within Industrial IoT systems

ISO/IEC 30162:2022 specifies network models for IIoT connectivity and general compatibility requirements for devices and networks within IIoT systems in terms of:
a) data transmission protocols interaction;
b) distributed data interoperability & management;
c) connectivity framework;
d) connectivity transport;
e) connectivity network;
f) best practices and guidance to use in IIoT area.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Feb-2022
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
07-Feb-2022
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ISO/IEC 30162
Edition 1.0 2022-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of Things (IoT) – Compatibility requirements and model for devices
within industrial IoT systems
ISO/IEC 30162:2022-02(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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ISO/IEC 30162
Edition 1.0 2022-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Internet of Things (IoT) – Compatibility requirements and model for devices
within industrial IoT systems
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 25.040; 35.020; 35.240.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-1073-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Description of IIoT compatibility aspects and levels ......................................................... 8

4.1 IIoT compatibility aspects ........................................................................................ 8

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 8

4.1.2 Connectivity functional compatibility description by aspects for the IIoT

entities ............................................................................................................ 8

4.1.3 Connectivity non-functional compatibility description by aspects for the

IIoT entities ..................................................................................................... 9

4.2 IIoT compatibility levels......................................................................................... 10

5 Compatibility requirements ............................................................................................ 10

5.1 Connectivity functional compatibility aspects ......................................................... 10

5.1.1 Compatibility requirements for physical aspect .............................................. 10

5.1.2 Compatibility requirements for MAC aspect ................................................... 11

5.1.3 Compatibility requirements for LLC aspect ..................................................... 11

5.1.4 Compatibility requirements for network aspect ............................................... 12

5.1.5 Compatibility requirements for transport aspect ............................................. 13

5.1.6 Compatibility requirements for session aspect ............................................... 14

5.1.7 Compatibility requirements for data presentation aspect ................................ 14

5.1.8 Compatibility requirements for application aspect .......................................... 15

5.1.9 Compatibility requirements for measuring and automation aspect .................. 16

5.1.10 Compatibility requirements for semantic aspect ............................................. 16

5.2 Connectivity non-functional compatibility requirements ......................................... 17

5.2.1 Compatibility requirements for version compatibility ....................................... 17

5.2.2 Compatibility requirements for QoS management .......................................... 17

5.2.3 Compatibility requirements for security and privacy aspects .......................... 18

5.2.4 Compatibility requirements for compliance ..................................................... 21

5.2.5 Compatibility requirements for safety ............................................................. 22

6 Devices and data format compatibility requirements for IIoT connectivity ....................... 22

7 IIoT system models with IIoT gateways .......................................................................... 23

8 Network model for IIoT compatibility testing ................................................................... 25

9 IIoT device connectivity models ..................................................................................... 26

9.1 Direct connectivity ................................................................................................ 26

9.2 Connectivity through IIoT gateway ........................................................................ 26

9.3 Connectivity through industrial control systems ..................................................... 27

Annex A (informative) Compatibility checklist for devices and services IIoT systems ............ 29

Annex B (informative) Load testing scenario for different IIoT devices ................................. 32

Annex C (informative) The structure of the IIoT network connectivity infrastructure with

the communication networks ................................................................................................. 37

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

C.2 Connectivity Level 1 .............................................................................................. 40

C.3 Connectivity Level 2 .............................................................................................. 40

C.4 Connectivity Level 3 .............................................................................................. 41

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ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 3 –

C.5 Connectivity Level 4 .............................................................................................. 42

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 1 – A sample software/hardware set performing conversion between IIoT

protocols using semantic Industrial Internet of Things gateway (SIIG) ................................... 23

Figure 2 – SIIG architecture example .................................................................................... 23

Figure 3 – IIoT system model with heterogeneous gateways ................................................. 24

Figure 4 – Network model for IIoT compatibility testing ......................................................... 25

Figure 5 – Direct connectivity ................................................................................................ 26

Figure 6 – Connectivity with IIoT gateway. ............................................................................ 27

Figure 7 – Connectivity with an industrial control system ...................................................... 28

Figure C.1 – The structure of the IIoT network connectivity infrastructure with the

communication networks ....................................................................................................... 37

Figure C.2 – The traditional Purdue Model ............................................................................ 38

Table A.1 – Compatibility checklist for devices and services IIoT systems ............................ 29

Table B.1 – The Industrial Internet of Things edge server operation testing based on

existing network .................................................................................................................... 32

Table B.2 – Testing of interaction between edge and cloud Industrial Internet of Things

servers, based on the existing network ................................................................................. 33

Table B.3 – The Industrial Internet of Things application protocols conversion testing

for the heterogeneous IIoT gateways and based on the existing network .............................. 33

Table B.4 – Format of the test sheet for load testing scenarios ............................................. 35

Table B.5 – Example of filling the test sheet defined in Table B.4 ......................................... 36

Table C.1 – Mapping of the entities and networks in Figure C.1 to IEC 62264 functional

levels. ................................................................................................................................... 39

Table C.2 – Approximate mapping of the network connectivity levels to IEC 62264 ............... 39

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– 4 – ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTS AND MODEL
FOR DEVICES WITHIN INDUSTRIAL IoT SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

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ISO/IEC 30162 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things and Digital Twin, of

ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology. It is an International Standard.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/251/FDIS JTC1-SC41/265/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

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The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

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ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Dynamic growth and embracing of digital technologies in all spheres of human life has created

the conducive basis for transitioning toward the digital economy, while adoption of Industrial

Internet of Things (IIoT) is one of the major technology directions of the digital economy growth.

As it is essential to implement IIoT technologies in enterprises worldwide, the issue of practical

aspects in the realization of the IIoT concepts has gained vital importance. In particular, one of

the existing problems is unavailability of transparent mechanisms in terms of how and in what

way to establish connections of industrial equipment to cloud platforms designed for data

collection and analysis.

As soon as numerical programmable tools became widely available, the development of

technologies and protocols enabling management and control of the industrial equipment

control software utility within an enterprise network became necessary. At that time,

management of such control utility over Internet was out of question. In parallel, a number of

concerns arose due to the design and development of proprietary technologies and protocols;

in most cases, they are incompatible with each other. Since such technologies and protocols

were the intellectual property (IP) of the relevant enterprise, no legal framework describing

structure and operation principles of such technologies and protocols existed. As the IIoT

concept started to appear, activities aimed at standardizing and documenting the previously

developed technologies and protocols began. As a result of the analysis of existing protocol

elements, a document having a general list or register of protocols was developed.

Notwithstanding, the compiled document contained just descriptions of the existing set of

technologies and protocols, without the information about their ability to interact with each other,

or about the methods of connecting to cloud-based platforms. Each manufacturer built the

systems based on those protocols that the manufacturer considered to be the most suitable for

solving specific tasks. Numerous manufacturers' equipment use specific protocols that were

specially developed by the manufacturers for the management and data delivery tasks for

different industrial solutions. For instance, the protocols described in IEC 60870-5-101,

IEC 60870-5-103, IEC 60870-5-104, Modbus, DNP3, etc. are widely used today.

In the initial stages, developers and large enterprises insisted on using their own proprietary

protocols, arguing that their protocols were designed and developed for executing specific

functions. For instance, IEC 61850 (describing some protocols) is widely applied for power

substations while Modbus is used for transmitting raw data from pressure sensors. Controller

area network (CAN) technology is mostly adopted in the automotive industry and robotics

(see ISO 11898 series). As a variety of protocol versions started to emerge, different version

and metadata format incompatibility became apparent. A majority of production hardware

supports Modbus-RTU and Modbus-ASCII, while a more advanced version of Modbus-TCP

protocol no longer requires such complications as RTU and ASCII. The major problems are

data conversion from one protocol to another and protocol identification using certain attributes

(semantic) for seamless interoperability of the IIoT devices and platforms. The interoperability

issues can be resolved by defining particular compatibility requirements for the IIoT devices,

applications, systems, components, and other IIoT entities.

This document specifies compatibility requirements for various entities of the IIoT systems that

can be used as guidance for connecting, configuring and testing of industrial hardware.

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– 6 – ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
COMPATIBILITY REQUIREMENTS AND MODEL
FOR DEVICES WITHIN INDUSTRIAL IoT SYSTEMS
1 Scope

This document specifies network models for IIoT connectivity and general compatibility

requirements for devices and networks within IIoT systems in terms of:
a) data transmission protocols interaction;
b) distributed data interoperability and management;
c) connectivity framework;
d) connectivity transport;
e) connectivity network;
f) best practices and guidance to use in IIoT area.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
co-existence

degree to which a product can perform its required functions efficiently while sharing a common

environment and resources with other products, without detrimental impact on any other product

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 25010:2011, 4.2.3.1]
3.2
compatibility

degree to which a product, system or component can exchange information with other products,

systems or components, and/or perform its required functions, while sharing the same hardware

or software environment
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 25010:2011, 4.2.3]
3.3
edge gateway

heterogeneous IoT gateway that takes part in functionality of mobile edge host, especially its

data processing functions
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 7 –
3.4
IIoT compatibility

degree to which an industrial system, information resource or other IIoT entity can exchange

information with any other IIoT entities, and/or perform its required functions, while sharing the

same hardware or software environment and network

Note 1 to entry: Compatibility includes interoperability and co-existence in accordance with Annex A of

ISO/IEC 25010:2011.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 25010:2011, 4.2.3, modified – "a product, system or component" has been

replaced with "an industrial system, information resource or other IIoT entity"; "products,

systems or components" has been replaced with "IIoT entities"; and "and network" has been

added after "environment".]
3.5
IIoT service platform

part of an IIoT platform responsible for the interactions with the IIoT end-nodes and for providing

services to the user
3.6
Industrial Internet of Things
IIoT

Internet of Things based enabling approach for industrial transformation, by taking advantage

of existing and emerging information and communication technologies
[SOURCE: Rec. ITU-T Y.4003]
3.7
industrial Internet connectivity framework

framework for the software development used to develop applications that are responsible for

the mutual compatibility of various IIoT application protocols and payload formats for the

semantic aspect of the compatibility model
3.8
Industrial Internet of Things gateway
IIoT gateway

entity of an IIoT system which provides interconnection between one or more devices within

IIoT systems and external networks for interoperability even in the case of incompatibility or

partial compatibility between devices, between devices and networks, and between networks

Note 1 to entry: An IIoT gateway is also known as a heterogeneous IIoT gateway.

Note 2 to entry: An IIoT gateway combines the capabilities of edge gateway and SIIG (semantic Industrial Internet

of Things gateway) to solve the problems in order to ensure the compatibility of various communication technologies

and protocols between themselves and the Internet and other communication networks for satisfying the industrial

sector requirements.
3.9
interoperability

degree to which two or more systems, products or components can exchange information and

use the information that has been exchanged
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 25010:2011, 4.2.3.2]
3.10
semantic Industrial Internet of Things gateway
SIIG

IIoT gateway that ensures the compatibility of IIoT systems in terms of the semantic aspect

Note 1 to entry: The main task of the semantic Industrial Internet of Things gateway is to ensure the mutual

compatibility of various application protocols and IIoT payload formats.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022
3.11
controller area network
CAN
high-integrity bus system for networking intelligent devices within a system

Note 1 to entry: Commonly used in embedded networks for vehicles or medical equipment.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2017, 3.872]
4 Description of IIoT compatibility aspects and levels
4.1 IIoT compatibility aspects
4.1.1 General

The compatibility requirements aspect is a separate part of the requirements combined at

different technological levels.

Compatibility aspects for the IIoT entities are represented by both functional and non-functional

aspects. As defined in ISO/IEC 30141, the physical entities of IoT and IIoT devices are sensors

and actuators. The information given in 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 can be found in checklist format in

Annex A.
4.1.2 Connectivity functional compatibility description by aspects for the IIoT
entities

To determine connectivity functional compatibility requirements for the IIoT entities, the

appropriate aspects are as follows.
a) Physical aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility with regard to data transmission media should

address the issues of using the same media for exchanging signals between physical

interfaces of data transceivers, of the format for transmitting the signals over the physical

channel (analogue, digital) as well as of ensuring the electromagnetic compatibility

[ISO/IEC 7498-1, IEC 61000-1-2:2016].
b) Media Access Control (MAC) aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility at MAC layer should agree on the implementation of

controlling the access to data transmission media; addressing possible issues, including the

detection and resolution of the network frame collisions; assigning addresses to the nodes

in the local area network (LAN) [IEEE 802.1AC-2012, IETF RFC 2637, IETF RFC 2341,

IETF RFC 2661].
c) Logical Link Control (LLC) aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility with regard to data transmission over the provisioned

logical link should: (1) help with combining networks of different topologies; (2) support

network frame generation and efficient error correction when errors occur during data

transmission at MAC level; and (3) facilitate proper data transmission control over the

established communications channel [IEEE 802.2-1994].
d) Network aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility at the network layer should be required for the

support of unified addressing scheme and routing of messages. It also helps with quality

control, managing and reconfiguring the network logical topology [ISO/IEC 7498-1,

IETF RFC 791].
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30162:2022  ISO/IEC 2022 – 9 –
e) Transport aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility should consider the multiplexing/de-multiplexing

compatibility and support of matching options, e.g. for the data transmission over the

established connection, control of this transmission, and others [ISO/IEC 7498-1,

Rec. ITU-T X.224, Rec. ITU-T X.225, Rec. ITU-T X.234, IETF RFC 1122].
f) Session aspect.

Ensuring the IIoT entities' compatibility should consider the mechanism for communications

session set-up and completion over global networks and maintaining and synchronizing

sessions [ISO/IEC 7498-1, Rec. ITU-T X.224, Rec. ITU-T X.225, Rec. ITU-T X.234, IETF

RFC 1122].
g) Data presentation aspect.

Ensuring the compatibility at the data presentation layer should address possible issues

related to different data formats by using special-purpose protocols, covering data

coding/decoding according to these protocols and data compression prior to its transmission

over a network [ISO/IEC 7498-1, W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth
Edition), IETF RFC 4506, IETF RFC 7303].
h) Application aspect.

Ensuring the compatibility at the application layer should address possible issues of

accessing the network services, exchanging application-specific service messages, error

detection and correction [ISO/IEC 7498-1].
i) Measuring and automation aspect.

Ensuring the compatibility of measuring and automation of the IIoT devices (sensors,

actuators), and application and services should guarantee the compatibility of the physical

interfaces of IIoT sensors/actuators to address issues of interoperating heterogeneous

sensors, actuators, and IIoT applications and services [Rec. ITU-T H.810, Rec. ITU-T

H.811].
j) Semantic aspect.

Ensuring the semantic compatibility should address the issues of correct interpretation of

the information which IIoT devices exchange among each other [Rec. ITU-T
Y.4111/Y.2076].

4.1.3 Connectivity non-functional compatibility description by aspects for the IIoT

entities

To determine connectivity non-functional compatibility requirements for the IIoT entities, the

appropriate aspects are as follows.
a) Version aspect.

Ensuring the version compatibility should aim at providing the capability of interoperation of

any earlier or later version of the same software (backward and forward compatibility,

respectively) [ISO/IEC/IEEE 9945].
b) Quality of service (QoS) management aspect.

Ensuring the compatibility of QoS management methods should address possible issues of

timely processing of data, processing data of various types, optimization factors such as

selection of data delivery route, etc. [Rec. ITU-T G.1010, IETF RFC 4594].
c) Security and privacy aspect.

Ensuring the compatibility of methods supporting security of IIoT entities should address

the gaps in design and implementation of protection mechanisms and ensures the

trustworthiness aspects of these solutions such as data confidentiality and integrity,

availability and reliability of service provision, privacy, safety, and resilience of systems and

overall IIoT infrastructure [ISO/IEC 27000 to ISO/IEC 27009, Rec. ITU-T X.1362, Rec. ITU-

T Y.4806].
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– 10 – ISO/IEC 30162:2022
...

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