Electrostatics - Part 5-6 : Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena - Process assessment techniques

IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 describe a set of methodologies, techniques, and tools that can be used to characterize a process where ESD sensitive (ESDS) items are handled. The process assessment covers risks by charged personnel, ungrounded conductors, charged ESDS items, and ESDS items in an electrostatic field. This document applies to activities that manufacture, process, assemble, install, package, label, service, test, inspect, transport, or otherwise handle electrical or electronic parts, assemblies, and equipment susceptible to damage by electrostatic discharges. This document does not apply to electrically initiated explosive items, flammable liquids, or powders. The document does not address program management, compliance verification, troubleshooting, or program manager/coordinator certification. In this version of the document, risks due to electromagnetic sources that produce AC fields are not considered.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jun-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Jun-2022
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IEC PAS 61340-5-6
Edition 1.0 2022-06
PUBLICLY AVAILABLE
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 5-6: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena –
Process assessment techniques
IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022-06(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC PAS 61340-5-6
Edition 1.0 2022-06
PUBLICLY AVAILABLE
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Electrostatics –
Part 5-6: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena –
Process assessment techniques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220.99; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3943-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................ 4

1.0 PURPOSE, SCOPE, LIMITATION, and EXPERIENCE LEVEL REQUIRED ................... 9

1.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................. 9

1.2 Scope ..................................................................................................................................... 9

1.3 Limitation ............................................................................................................................... 9

1.4 Experience Level Required ................................................................................................... 9

2.0 ReferenceD PUBLICATIONS ........................................................................................ 9

3.0 DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................. 10

4.0 Personnel Safety .......................................................................................................... 10

5.0 Measurement Techniques FOR ESd Risk Assessment ................................................ 10

6.0 ESD Robustness of ESDS ITEMS used in Processes .................................................. 12

6.1 ESD Withstand Currents of Single Devices (Components) ................................................ 13

6.1.1 Human Body Model ..................................................................................................... 13

6.1.2 Discharge of Charged Conductors .............................................................................. 13

6.1.3 Charged Device Model ................................................................................................ 14

6.2 ESD Withstand Currents of Electronic Assemblies ............................................................. 14

6.2.1 Discharge of Charged Personnel ................................................................................ 14

6.2.2 Discharge of Charged Conductors .............................................................................. 14

6.2.3 Discharge of Boards/Systems ..................................................................................... 15

7.0 Process Assessment Flow ........................................................................................... 15

7.1 General Considerations ....................................................................................................... 15

7.2 Manual Handling Steps ....................................................................................................... 16

7.2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 16

7.2.2 Parameter Limits for ESD Process Assessment in Manual Handling Steps ............... 16

7.2.3 Detailed ESD Risk Assessment Flow .......................................................................... 17

7.3 Conductors .......................................................................................................................... 18

7.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 18

7.3.2 Parameter Limits for Process Assessment of Conductors .......................................... 19

7.3.3 Detailed ESD Risk Assessment Flow .......................................................................... 19

7.4 Charged ESDS Items .......................................................................................................... 20

7.4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 20

7.4.2 Parameter Limits for Process Assessment of Charged ESDS Items .......................... 20

7.4.3 Detailed ESD Risk Assessment Flow .......................................................................... 21

7.5 Risks Due to Process-Required Insulators .......................................................................... 23

7.5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 23

7.5.2 Parameter Limits for Process Assessment of Process-Required Insulators ............... 23

7.5.3 Detailed ESD Risk Assessment Flow .......................................................................... 24

7.6 Process Assessment by ESD Event Detection ................................................................... 25

7.6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 25

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IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

7.6.2 General Procedure ...................................................................................................... 26

7.6.3 Detailed ESD Risk Assessment Flow .......................................................................... 26

ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE): Measurement TECHNIQUES And EQuipment ........................ 28

A.1 General Considerations ............................................................................................................. 28

A.2 Measurements of Grounding ..................................................................................................... 28

A.3 Measurements of Electrostatic Fields ....................................................................................... 31

A.4 Measurements of Charges ........................................................................................................ 32

A.5 Measurements of Electrostatic Voltages ................................................................................... 33

A.6 Measurements of Discharge Events ......................................................................................... 37

A.7 Measurements of Discharge Currents ....................................................................................... 39

ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE) – PREPARATION: WHAT IS NECESSARY TO ..........................

PREPARE AN EFFECTIVE PROCESS EVALUATION? ....................................................... 45

B.1 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity, and Basic Electrostatic Conditions .......................... 45

B.2 Further Hints for Preparation ..................................................................................................... 45

ANNEX C (INFORMATIVE) – Risk Assessment and Mitigation ............................................ 46

ANNEX D (INFORMATIVE) – ExampleS for defining limits in process assessment for ..........

Risks Due to Charged Personnel ........................................................................................ 47

ANNEX E (INFORMATIVE) – Example for CDM risk assessment in a ...................................

semiconductor manufacturing line ....................................................................................... 49

ANNEX F (INFORMATIVE) – Bibliography .......................................................................... 53

ANNEX g (INFORMATIVE) – revision History for ANSI/ESD Sp17.1 ................................... 54

Table 1 – Overview of Possible Measurement Equipment Used for Different Scenarios .....................

to Assess ESD Risk ............................................................................................................................. 11

Table 2 – Peak Current Ranges of CDM Discharges of Small and Large Verification Modules for

Oscilloscopes with a Bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6 GHz According to ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-002 ...... 44

Table 3 – Recommended Measurement Locations During Process Assessment in Assembly ............

(Pre-Assembly) of Devices .................................................................................................................. 49

Table 4 – Recommended Measurement Locations During Process Assessment in Device Testing . 50

Figure 1 – Direct (Best Correlation) and Indirect (Least Correlation) Measurements ............................

to Assess an ESD Risk ........................................................................................................................ 12

Figure 2 – Flow to Assess ESD Risk Induced by Personnel ............................................................... 18

Figure 3 – Flow to Assess the ESD Risk Induced by Conductors ...................................................... 20

Figure 4 – Flow to Assess the ESD Risk Induced by Charged ESDS Items ...................................... 22

Figure 5 – Flow to Assess the ESD Risk Induced by Process-Required Insulators ........................... 25

Figure 6 – Flow to Assess the ESD Risk by Detecting the Electromagnetic Radiation .........................

Using ESD Event Detectors or Antennas and Oscilloscopes ............................................................. 27

Figure 7 – Examples of Current Probes .............................................................................................. 40

Figure 8 – Example of a 4-GHz Pellegrini Target ............................................................................... 42

Figure 9 – Commercially Available CDM Test Head Used for Discharge Current Measurements ..... 43

Figure 10 – Discharge Current Measured in the Field and During Device Qualification [8] ............... 47

Figure 11 – Examples of Measurements During Semiconductor Assembly and Testing ................... 50

Figure 12 – Schematic of Possible CDM-Like Scenarios During Device Testing ............................... 52

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– 4 – IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTROSTATICS –
Part 5-6: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena –
Process assessment techniques
FOREWORD

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A PAS is an intermediate specification made available to the public and needing a lower level

of consensus than an International Standard to be approved by vote (simple majority).

IEC PAS 61340-5-6 has been processed by IEC technical committee 101: Electrostatics.

It is based on ANSI/ESD SP17.1-2020. The structure and editorial rules used in this publication

reflect the practice of the organization which submitted it.
The text of this PAS is based on the This PAS was approved for
following document: publication by the P-members of the
committee concerned as indicated in
the following document
Draft PAS Report on voting
101/654/DPAS 101/663/RVDPAS
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

Following publication of this PAS, the technical committee or subcommittee concerned may

transform it into an International Standard.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61340 series, published under the general title Electrostatics, can

be found on the IEC website.

This PAS shall remain valid for an initial maximum period of 2 years starting from the publication

date. The validity may be extended for a single period up to a maximum of 2 years, at the end

of which it shall be published as another type of normative document, or shall be withdrawn.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022
ESD Association Standard Practice for
the Protection of Electrostatic Discharge
Susceptible Items –
Process Assessment Techniques
Approved November 17, 2020
EOS/ESD Association, Inc.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –

(This foreword is not part of EOS/ESD Association, Inc. Standard Practice ANSI/ESD SP17.1-2020)

FOREWORD

This standard practice describes a set of methodologies, techniques, and tools that can be used to

characterize a process where ESD sensitive (ESDS) items are handled. This document's procedures

are meant to be used by those possessing knowledge and experience with electrostatic measurements.

This document provides methods to determine the level of ESD risk that remains in the process after

ESD protective equipment and materials are implemented.

These test methods' objective is to identify if potentially damaging ESD events are occurring or if

significant electrostatic charges are generated on people, equipment, materials, components, or printed

circuit board assemblies (PCBA) even though there are static control measures in place.

Sensitivities of items are characterized by industry-standard ESD testing and rated by their withstand

voltages. This document is intended to provide methods to determine whether items of a given withstand

voltage are at risk in the process.

The wide variety of ESD protective equipment and materials and the environment in which these items

are used may require test setups different from those described in this document. Users of this standard

practice may need to adapt the test procedure and setups described in Annex A to produce meaningful

data for the user’s application.

Organizations performing these tests will need to determine if on-going process characterization is

necessary, and if so, the time interval between observations. It may also be important to make these

observations when new products are introduced or when process changes occur. Examples of process

changes may include tools, fixtures, equipment, new items/products, and additional manufacturing steps.

The topics below are not addressed in this document:

• Program Management: see ANSI/ESD S20.20 Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts,

Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices)

• Compliance Verification: see ESD TR53-01 Compliance Verification of ESD Protective Equipment

and Materials
• Troubleshooting: ESD TR53-01

• ESD Program Certification: see ANSI/ESD S20.20 Certification Program at www.esda.org

This document was designated ANSI/ESD SP17.1-2020 and approved on November 17, 2020.

ESD Association Standard Practice: A procedure for performing one or more operations or functions that may

or may not yield a test result. Note, if a test result is obtained it may not be reproducible.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022

At the time ANSI/ESD SP17.1-2020 was prepared, the 17.0 Subcommittee had the following members:

Reinhold Gaertner, Co-Chair Wolfgang Stadler, Co-Chair
Infineon Technologies AG Intel Deutschland GmbH
Christopher Almeras Donn Bellmore Stephen Blackard
Raytheon Advanced ESD Services + Finisar Corporation
Rodney Doss David N. Girard Toni Gurga
Samtec, Inc. Staticon Support Services, Inc. Reliant ESD
Ginger Hansel John Kinnear Vladimir Kraz
Dangelmayer Associates IBM OnFILTER, Inc
Chuck McClain Ronnie Millsaps Andrew Nold
Micron Technology, Inc. Teradyne
Dale Parkin Keith Peterson Alan Righter
Seagate Technology Missile Defense Agency Analog Devices
James Roberts Jeff Salisbury Arnold Steinman
ZF Friedrichshafen AG Finisar Corporation Electronics Workshop
David Swenson Chin Sing Tay
Matt Strickland
Affinity Static Control Suzhou TA&A Ultra Clean
The Boeing Company
Consulting, LLC Technology Co., Ltd.
Arman Vassighi Toni Viheriaekoski Nobuyuki Wakai
Intel Corp. Cascade Metrology Toshiba
Scott Ward Terry Welsher Joshua Yoo
Texas Instruments, Inc. Dangelmayer Associates Core Insight, Inc.
Craig Zander
Transforming Technologies LLC
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022 – 9 –

ESD Association Standard Practice for the Protection of Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible

Items – Process Assessment Techniques
1.0 PURPOSE, SCOPE, LIMITATION, AND EXPERIENCE LEVEL REQUIRED
1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this document is to describe a set of methodologies, techniques, and tools that can be

used to characterize a process where ESD sensitive (ESDS) items are handled. The process

assessment covers risks by charged personnel, ungrounded conductors, charged ESDS items, and

ESDS items in an electrostatic field.
1.2 Scope

This document applies to activities that manufacture, process, assemble, install, package, label, service,

test, inspect, transport, or otherwise handle electrical or electronic parts, assemblies, and equipment

susceptible to damage by electrostatic discharges. This document does not apply to electrically initiated

explosive items, flammable liquids, or powders. The document does not address program management,

compliance verification, troubleshooting, or program manager/coordinator certification. In this version of

the document, risks due to electromagnetic sources that produce AC fields are not considered.

1.3 Limitation

No detailed description of the processes and measurement techniques is given. An example of a simple

risk assessment of a discharge from a charged human body is described in Annex D.

Due to the sampling nature in this document's procedures, deficiencies may exist that are not detected

at the time the measurements are made. The measurements described are valid only at the time the

measurements are made and may or may not change with time.

NOTE: Environmental parameters such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) may significantly impact the

measurement results.
1.4 Experience Level Required

The procedures in this document are for use by personnel possessing advanced knowledge and

experience with electrostatic measurements. The interpretation of the results from the measurements

described in this document requires significant experience and knowledge of the physics of ESD and

the process.
2.0 REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS

Unless otherwise specified, the following documents of the latest issue, revision, or amendment form a

part of this standard to the extent specified herein:
ESD ADV1.0, ESD Association Glossary of Terms

ANSI/ESD S20.20, For the Development of an Electrostatic Discharge Control Program for –Protection

of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive

Devices)

IEC61340-5-1, Electrostatics–Part 5-1: Protection of Electronic Devices from Electrostatic Phenomena

– General Requirements

EOS/ESD Association, Inc. 7900 Turin Road, Bldg. 3, Rome, NY 13440, Ph: 315-339-6937; www.esda.org

IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission, www.iec.ch
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022
3.0 DEFINITIONS

The terms used in the body of this document are in accordance with the definitions found in ESD ADV1.0,

ESD Association’s Glossary of Terms available for complimentary download at www.esda.org.

process. A unique combination of tools, materials, methods, and people engaged in producing a

measurable output.

NOTE: The term “process” can refer to a complete assembly process or a minor step, such as a pick-and-place

process.

process assessment. A methodological framework to evaluate the process capabilities regarding

defined parameters.

process capability. Parameters for different ESD risks that allow safe handling of items with a given

ESD withstand voltage.
4.0 PERSONNEL SAFETY
THE PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT DESCRIBED IN THIS DOCUMENT MAY EXPOSE
PERSONNEL TO HAZARDOUS ELECTRICAL CONDITIONS. USERS OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE
RESPONSIBLE FOR SELECTING EQUIPMENT THAT COMPLIES WITH APPLICABLE LAWS,
REGULATORY CODES, AND BOTH EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL POLICY. USERS ARE
CAUTIONED THAT THIS DOCUMENT CANNOT REPLACE OR SUPERSEDE ANY
REQUIREMENTS FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY.
GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS (GFCI) AND OTHER SAFETY PROTECTION SHOULD
BE CONSIDERED WHEREVER PERSONNEL MIGHT COME INTO CONTACT WITH ELECTRICAL
SOURCES.
ELECTRICAL HAZARD REDUCTION PRACTICES SHOULD BE EXERCISED, AND PROPER
GROUNDING INSTRUCTIONS FOR EQUIPMENT MUST BE FOLLOWED.
THE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF THIS TEST METHOD
SHALL NOT BE USED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE SAFETY OF PERSONNEL EXPOSED TO
HIGH AC OR DC VOLTAGES.
5.0 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR ESD RISK ASSESSMENT

Specific test equipment is needed for specific measurement techniques to perform a proper risk

assessment. The appropriate instruments are required to measure if a material fulfills given

requirements. Additionally, the charging status of an object or even the discharge current waveform of

this object must be measured. Each process step might need a different technique and tool to measure

whether there is a risk to the ESDS items being processed. This chapter describes the basic

measurement techniques that can be used to assess various risks in different scenarios.

Table 1 lists tools that can measure parameters to assess whether there is a risk for the items handled

in a process. Measurement of the object's actual discharge under consideration is desirable but difficult

to accomplish in a production environment. The discharge waveform then could be compared with the

qualification waveform, and the risk could easily be assessed. However, this is often difficult to achieve,

especially in a production environment. Therefore, indirect parameters must be assessed, such as

charging of the object, although this parameter does not tell the user whether a catastrophic discharge

is happening. If it is not possible to measure charging, measurements such as resistance to ground may

need to be used (see Figure 1). A detailed description of all the test methods is given in Annex A.

NOTE: All measurements should be performed with verified test equipment to ensure that the measurements are

not influenced by defective equipment.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC PAS 61340-5-6:2022 © IEC 2022 – 11 –
Table 1 – Overview of Possible Measurement Equipment Used
for Different Scenarios to Assess ESD Risk
Parameter
Personnel Conductors Insulators Devices/PCBs
(Document)
Resistance
Grounding
measurement Multimeter – –
(Annex A.2)
apparatus
Electrostatic
fields Field meter Field meter Field meter Field meter
(Annex A.3)
Faraday cup Faraday cup
Electrometer
Charge
Electrometer Faraday cup Electrometer
(Annex A.4)
Current probe
Current probe Current probe
Charged Plate
Monitor
a a
ESVM ESVM
Electrostatic
Walking Test Kit
ESVM
b b
voltage HIDVM HIDVM
ESVM
Field meter
c c
(Annex A.5)
Field meter Field meter
HIDVM
Field meter
Resistance
Resistance of
Resistance Resistance
measurement
material
measurement – measurement
apparatus,
contacting ESDS
apparatus apparatus
item (Annex A.6)
Multimeter
Antenna with Antenna with Antenna with
oscilloscope osci
...

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