Fire hazard testing - Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration - General guidance

IEC 60695-6-1:2005+A1:2010 Gives guidance on:
a) optical measurement of smoke obscuration;
b) general aspects of optical smoke test methods;
c) consideration of test methods;
d) expression of smoke test data;
e) relevance of optical smoke data to hazard assessment.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
- Modified title.
- Updated normative references.
- Expanded terms and definitions.
- Numerous editorial changes of a technical nature throughout the publication.
- A flowchart has been added for the evaluation and consideration of smoke test methods.
Has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.
This publication is to be read in conjunction with  IEC 60695-6-2:2005.
This consolidated version consists of the second edition (2005) and its amendment 1 (2010). Therefore, no need to order amendment in addition to this publication.

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 6-1: Opacité des fumées - Lignes directrices générales

La CEI 60695-6-1:2005+A1:2010 Fournit des lignes directrices sur:
a) la mesure optique de l'obscurcissement par la fumée;
b) les aspects généraux des méthodes d'essais optiques de la fumée;
c) des considérations concernant les méthodes d'essais;
d) l'expression des résultats d'essais;
e) la pertinence des résultats des mesures optiques de la fumée pour l'évaluation des risques.
Les principales modifications par rapport à l'édition antérieure sont indiquées ci-dessous:
- Titre modifié.
- Mise à jour des références normatives.
- Ajout de termes et de définitions.
- Nombreuses modifications rédactionnelles de nature technique dans toute la publication.
- Ajout d'un logigramme pour l'évaluation et la considération des méthodes d'essais de fumée.
A le statut de publication fondamentale de sécurité, conformément au Guide CEI 104.
Cette publication doit être lue conjointement avec la  CEI 60695-6-2:2005.
Cette version consolidée comprend la deuxième édition (2005) et son amendement 1 (2010). Il n'est donc pas nécessaire de commander l'amendement avec cette publication.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Sep-2010
Technical Committee
Current Stage
DELPUB - Deleted Publication
Completion Date
05-Aug-2021
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IEC 60695-6-1
Edition 2.1 2010-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration – General guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 6-1: Opacité des fumées – Lignes directrices générales
IEC 60695-6-1:2005+A1:2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-6-1
Edition 2.1 2010-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration – General guidance
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 6-1: Opacité des fumées – Lignes directrices générales
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 13.220.99; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-88912-122-9
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references........................................................................................................7

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .........................................................................................8

3.1 Terms and definitions ..............................................................................................8

3.2 Symbols ................................................................................................................16

4 General aspects of smoke test methods..........................................................................17

4.1 Fire scenarios and fire models ...............................................................................17

4.2 Factors affecting smoke production........................................................................21

5 Principles of smoke measurement...................................................................................22

5.1 Bouguer’s law........................................................................................................22

5.2 Extinction area.......................................................................................................23

5.3 Log units ............................................................................................................24

5.4 Light sources.........................................................................................................24

5.5 Specific extinction area..........................................................................................24

5.6 Mass optical density ..............................................................................................25

5.7 Visibility.................................................................................................................26

6 Static and dynamic methods ...........................................................................................26

6.1 Static methods.......................................................................................................26

6.2 Dynamic methods ..................................................................................................26

7 Test methods..................................................................................................................28

7.1 Consideration of test methods................................................................................32

7.2 Selection of test specimen .....................................................................................32

8 Presentation of data........................................................................................................32

9 Relevance of data to hazard assessment ........................................................................33

Annex A (informative) Calculation of visibility........................................................................35

Annex B (informative) Relationships between D and some other smoke parameters as

measured in IEC 60695-6-30 and IEC 60695-6-31 .................................................................37

Annex C (informative) Relationships between percent transmission, as measured in a

"three metre cube" enclosure, and extinction area .................................................................40

Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................42

Figure 1 – Chart of Different phases in the development of a fire within a compartment .........20

Figure 2 – Attenuation of light by smoke ................................................................................23

Figure 3 – Extinction area .....................................................................................................23

Figure 4 – Dynamic smoke measurement ..............................................................................27

Figure 5 – Evaluation and consideration of smoke test methods ............................................34

Figure 6 – Example SPR versus t curve .............................................................................31

Figure 7 – SMOGRA curve derived from Figure 6 ..................................................................31

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010 – 3 –

Figure A.1 – Visibility (ω) versus extinction coefficient (k).......................................................35

Figure B.1 – Smoke parameters related to D as measured in IEC 60695-6-30 and

IEC 60695-6-31.....................................................................................................................39

Figure C.1 – Extinction area (amount of smoke) related to percent transmission as

measured in the "three metre cube".......................................................................................41

Table 1 – General classification of fires (ISO/TR 9122-1) Characteristics of fire stages

(ISO 19706) ..........................................................................................................................18

Table B.1 – Conversion from D to some other smoke parameters as measured in

IEC 60695-6-30 and IEC 60695-6-31.....................................................................................38

Table C.1 – Conversions from percent transmission, as measured in the “three metre

cube” to amount of smoke (extinction area) ...........................................................................40

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration –
General guidance
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This consolidated version of IEC 60695-6-1 consists of the second edition (2005)
[documents 89/692/FDIS and 89/696/RVD] and its amendment 1 (2010) [documents
89/905/CDV and 89/946A/RVC]. It bears the edition number 2.1.

The technical content is therefore identical to the base edition and its amendment and

has been prepared for user convenience. A vertical line in the margin shows where the

base publication has been modified by amendment 1. Additions and deletions are
displayed in red, with deletions being struck through.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010 – 5 –

International Standard IEC 60695-6-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.
The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
– Modified title.
– Updated normative references.
– Expanded terms and definitions.
– Numerous editorial changes of a technical nature throughout the publication.

– A flowchart has been added for the evaluation and consideration of smoke test methods.

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and ISO/IEC

Guide 51.
This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-6-2.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The IEC 60695-6 series, under the general heading Fire hazard testing, consists of the

following parts
Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration – General guidance
Part 6-2: Smoke obscuration – Summary and relevance of test methods
Part 6-30: Smoke obscuration – Guidance and test methods on the assessment of
obscuration hazard of vision caused by smoke opacity from electrotechnical
products involved in fires – Small scale static method - Determination of smoke
opacity - Description of the apparatus
Part 6-31: Smoke obscuration – Small-scale static test – Materials

The committee has decided that the contents of the base publication and its amendments will

remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch"

in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010
INTRODUCTION

The risk of fire needs to be considered in any electrical circuit, and the objective of component,

circuit and equipment design, as well as the choice of material, is to reduce the likelihood of

fire, even in the event of foreseeable abnormal use, malfunction or failure.

Electrotechnical products, primarily victims of a fire, may nevertheless contribute to the fire.

One of the contributing hazards is the release of smoke, which may cause loss of vision and/or

disorientation which could impede escape from the building or fire fighting.

Smoke particles reduce the visibility due to light absorption and scattering. Consequently,

people may experience difficulties in finding exit signs, doors and windows. Visibility is often

determined as the distance at which an object is no longer visible. It depends on many factors,

but close relationships have been established between visibility and the measurements of the

extinction coefficient of smoke – see Annex A.

The production of smoke and its optical properties can be measured as well as other fire

properties, such as heat release, flame spread, and the production of toxic gas and corrosive

effluent. This part of IEC 60695-6 serves as a guidance document and focuses on obscuration

of light by smoke.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010 – 7 –
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 6-1: Smoke obscuration –
General guidance
1 Scope
This part of IEC 60695 gives guidance on:
a) optical measurement of smoke obscuration;
b) general aspects of optical smoke test methods;
c) consideration of test methods;
d) expression of smoke test data;
e) relevance of optical smoke data to hazard assessment.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of

the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-1-1, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-1: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – General guidelines

IEC 60695-4:2001, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests

IEC 60695-6-2:2001, Fire hazard testing – Part 6-2: Smoke obscuration – Summary and

relevance of test methods

IEC 60695-6-30, Fire hazard testing – Part 6: Guidance and test methods on the assessment of

obscuration hazard of vision caused by smoke opacity from electrotechnical products involved

in fires – Section 30: Small-scale static method – Determination of smoke opacity – Description

of the apparatus

IEC 60695-6-31, Fire hazard testing – Part 6-31: Smoke obscuration – Small-scale static test –

Materials

IEC Guide 104:1997, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety

publications and group safety publications
ISO/TR 9122-1:1989, Toxicity testing of fire effluents – Part 1: General

ISO 5659-2:1994, Plastics – Smoke generation – Part 2: Determination of optical density by a

single-chamber test
ISO/IEC 13943:2000, Fire safety – Vocabulary
ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999. Safety aspects – Guidelines for inclusion in standards
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010

IEC 60695-1-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – General guidelines

IEC 60695-1-11 , Fire hazard testing – Part 1-11: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – Fire hazard assessment

IEC 60695-4:2005, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products

IEC 60695-6-2 , Fire hazard testing – Part 6-2: Smoke obscuration – Summary and relevance

of test methods

IEC 60695-6-30:1996, Fire hazard testing – Part 6: Guidance and test methods on the

assessment of obscuration hazard of vision caused by smoke opacity from electrotechnical

products involved in fires – Section 30: Small-scale static method – Determination of smoke

opacity – Description of the apparatus

IEC 60695-6-31:1999, Fire hazard testing – Part 6-31: Smoke obscuration – Small-scale static

test – Materials

IEC Guide 104:1997, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety

publications and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999. Safety aspects – Guidelines for inclusion in standards

ISO 5659-2:2006, Plastics – Smoke generation – Part 2: Determination of optical density by a

single-chamber test

ISO 5660-2:2002, Reaction-to-fire tests – Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate –

Part 2: Smoke production rate (dynamic measurement)
ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary
ISO 19706:2007, Guidelines for assessing the fire threat to people

NOTE ISO 9122-1:1989, Toxicity testing of fire effluents – Part 1: General, has been withdrawn and replaced by

ISO 19706:2007.

ASTM E 1354:2008, Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for

Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter

EN 13823:2002, Reaction to fire tests for building products – Building products, excluding

floorings, exposed to thermal attack by a single burning item
3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions and symbols given in ISO/IEC

13943, some of which are reproduced below for the uses’ convenience, as well as the following

apply.
___________
To be published.
To be published.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010 – 9 –
3.1.1
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizer

NOTE Combustion generally emits effluent accompanied by flames and/or visible light.

[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 23]
3.1.2
extinction area of smoke
product of the extinction coefficient and the volume occupied by the smoke
NOTE It is a measure of the amount of smoke.
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.130]
3.1.3
extinction coefficient of smoke

natural logarithm of the opacity of smoke divided by the path length of the light used to

measure the smoke opacity
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.131]
3.1.4
fire

a) process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and effluent accompanied by

smoke, and/or flame, and/or glowing;
b) rapid combustion spreading uncontrolled in time and space
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.29]
3.1.5
fire effluent
total gaseous, particulate or aerosol effluent from combustion or pyrolysis
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.33]
3.1.6
fire hazard
potential for injury or loss of life and/or damage to property by fire
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.36]
3.1.7
fire model

a laboratory process, including both the apparatus and the mode of operation, intended to

simulate a certain stage of a real fire
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.120]
3.1.8
fire scenario

detailed description of conditions, including environmental, of one or more stages from before

ignition to after completion of combustion in an actual fire at a specific location or in a real-

scale simulation
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 58]
3.1.9
flash-over

the rapid transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire of combustible materials

within an enclosure
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.59]
3.1.10
heat flux

amount of thermal energy emitted, transmitted or received per unit area and unit time

NOTE It is expressed in watts per square metre.
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 85]
3.1.11
ignition
initiation of combustion

NOTE The term "ignition" in French has a very different meaning [state of body combustion].

[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 96]
3.1.12
large scale test
a test, the size of which exceeds that of a typical laboratory bench test
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.122]
3.1.13
mass optical density of smoke

optical density multiplied by a factor, V /(L × Δm), where V is the volume of the test chamber,

Δm is the mass loss of the test specimen and L is the light path length
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.133]
3.1.14
opacity (of smoke)

the ratio (I/T) of incident luminous flux (I) to transmitted luminous flux (T) through smoke,

under specified test conditions
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.89]
3.1.15
optical density (of smoke) [lg(I/T)]
common logarithm of the opacity of smoke (see also specific optical density)
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.90]
3.1.16
realscale test
a test which simulates an end-use situation in both size and surroundings
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.123]
3.1.17
small scale test
a test which may be made on a typical laboratory bench
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.124]
3.1.18
smoke

a visible suspension of solid and/or liquid particles in gases resulting from combustion or

pyrolysis
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010 – 11 –
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.101]
3.1.19
smoke obscuration
the reduction in visibility due to smoke
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.102]
3.1.20
smoke production rate

extinction area of smoke produced, per unit time, by the combustion of a material under

specified test conditions
3.1.21
smoke release rate
see "smoke production rate"
3.1.22
specific extinction area of smoke
extinction area of smoke divided by the mass loss of the test specimen
[IEC 60695-4, definition 2.137]
3.1.23
specific optical density (of smoke)

optical density multiplied by a geometric factor V /AL, where V is the volume of the test

chamber, A is the exposed surface area of the test specimen and L is the light path length

NOTE The use of the term ‘specific’ does not, in this case, denote 'per unit mass’ but rather denotes a

dimensionless quantity associated with a particular test apparatus and exposed surface area of the test specimen.

3.1.24
visibility

maximum distance at which an object of defined size, brightness and contrast can be seen and

recognized
3.1.1
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

NOTE Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames and/or glowing.

[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.46]
3.1.2
extinction area of smoke

product of the volume occupied by smoke and the extinction coefficient of the smoke

NOTE It is a measure of the amount of smoke, and the typical units are square metres (m ).

[ISO /IEC 13943, definition 4.92]
3.1.3
extinction coefficient

natural logarithm of the ratio of incident light intensity to transmitted light intensity, per unit light

path length
NOTE Typical units are reciprocal metres (m ).
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.93]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – 60695-6-1 © IEC:2005+A1:2010
3.1.4
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame or glowing or a combination thereof

NOTE In the English language the term "fire" is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire (3.1.5) and

fire (3.1.6), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them are

designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.96]
3.1.5
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.97]
3.1.6
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion that has not been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.98]
3.1.7
fire effluent

totality of gases and aerosols, including suspended particles, created by combustion or

pyrolysis in a fire
[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.105]
3.1.8
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire

[ISO/IEC 13943, definition 4.112]
3.1.9
fire model
fire simulation
calculation met
...

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