Semiconductor devices - Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices - Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined method of optical inspection and photoluminescence

IEC 63068-4:2022(E) provides a procedure for identifying and evaluating defects in as-grown 4H-SiC (Silicon Carbide) homoepitaxial wafer by systematically combining two test methods of optical inspection and photoluminescence (PL). Additionally, this document exemplifies optical inspection and PL images to enable the detection and categorization of defects in SiC homoepitaxial wafers.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jul-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
27-Jul-2022
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IEC 63068-4:2022 - Semiconductor devices - Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices - Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined method of optical inspection and photoluminescence
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IEC 63068-4
Edition 1.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in
silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices –
Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined
method of optical inspection and photoluminescence
IEC 63068-4:2022-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 63068-4
Edition 1.0 2022-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in
silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices –
Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined
method of optical inspection and photoluminescence
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-4307-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Principle .......................................................................................................................... 7

5 Requirements .................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Parameter settings .................................................................................................. 9

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Parameter setting process ............................................................................. 10

5.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 10

5.4 Image evaluation .................................................................................................. 10

5.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

5.4.2 Mean width of planar and volume defects ...................................................... 10

5.4.3 Evaluation process ........................................................................................ 11

5.5 Precision ............................................................................................................... 11

5.6 Test report ............................................................................................................ 11

5.6.1 Mandatory elements ...................................................................................... 11

5.6.2 Optional elements .......................................................................................... 12

Annex A (informative) Optical inspection and photoluminescence images of defects ............ 13

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

A.2 Micropipe .............................................................................................................. 13

A.3 TSD ...................................................................................................................... 14

A.4 TED ...................................................................................................................... 15

A.5 BPD ...................................................................................................................... 16

A.6 Scratch trace ........................................................................................................ 17

A.7 Stacking fault ........................................................................................................ 18

A.8 Propagated stacking fault ...................................................................................... 19

A.9 Stacking fault complex .......................................................................................... 20

A.10 Polytype inclusion ................................................................................................. 21

A.11 Particle inclusion ................................................................................................... 22

A.12 Bunched-step segment ......................................................................................... 23

A.13 Surface particle ..................................................................................................... 25

Figure A.1 – Micropipe .......................................................................................................... 14

Figure A.2 – TSD .................................................................................................................. 15

Figure A.3 – TED .................................................................................................................. 16

Figure A.4 – BPD .................................................................................................................. 17

Figure A.5 – Scratch trace .................................................................................................... 18

Figure A.6 – Stacking fault .................................................................................................... 19

Figure A.7 – Propagated stacking fault ................................................................................. 20

Figure A.8 – Stacking fault complex ...................................................................................... 21

Figure A.9 – Polytype inclusion ............................................................................................. 22

Figure A.10 – Particle inclusion............................................................................................. 23

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IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

Figure A.11 – Bunched-step segment ................................................................................... 24

Figure A.12 – Surface particle ............................................................................................... 25

Table 1 – Combination table for identifying defects ................................................................. 8

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– 4 – IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
NON-DESTRUCTIVE RECOGNITION CRITERIA OF DEFECTS IN SILICON
CARBIDE HOMOEPITAXIAL WAFER FOR POWER DEVICES –
Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined
method of optical inspection and photoluminescence
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63068-4 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices. It is

an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
47/2751/CDV 47/2768/RVC

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
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IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 63068 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer

for power devices, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
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– 6 – IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022
INTRODUCTION

Results of evaluating defects on silicon carbide homoepitaxial wafer by a single test method

using optical inspection or photoluminescence often depends on examined wafer conditions

such as surface morphology and spatial variation of impurity concentration, and thus need

human visual confirmation of the results after inspection using equipment. The procedure

described in this part of IEC 63068 uses a combined method of optical inspection and

photoluminescence and can yield more accurate and reproducible results of defect recognition

compared to when a single test method is used.
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IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022 – 7 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
NON-DESTRUCTIVE RECOGNITION CRITERIA OF DEFECTS IN SILICON
CARBIDE HOMOEPITAXIAL WAFER FOR POWER DEVICES –
Part 4: Procedure for identifying and evaluating defects using a combined
method of optical inspection and photoluminescence
1 Scope

This part of IEC 63068 provides a procedure for identifying and evaluating defects in as-grown

4H-SiC (Silicon Carbide) homoepitaxial wafer by systematically combining two test methods of

optical inspection and photoluminescence (PL). Additionally, this document exemplifies optical

inspection and PL images to enable the detection and categorization of defects in SiC

homoepitaxial wafers.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 63068-1, Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon

carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices – Part 1: Classification of defects

IEC 63068-2, Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon

carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices – Part 2: Test method for defects using optical

inspection

IEC 63068-3, Semiconductor devices – Non-destructive recognition criteria of defects in silicon

carbide homoepitaxial wafer for power devices – Part 3: Test method for defects using

photoluminescence
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
4 Principle

Defects can be more accurately and reproducibly identified by systematically combining two

test methods of optical inspection and PL.
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– 8 – IEC 63068-4:2022 © IEC 2022

A grey scale image (or colour image) is produced from the original digital image of defects on

the wafer surface. This image is converted into a binary image. The size and shape of defects

are measured, and the distribution and number of defects within a specified area of wafer are

calculated.

First, both optical and PL images of defects are captured and transformed into a digital format.

Each image is captured via an optical image sensor such as a CCD image sensor. Then, the

obtained digital images are processed by manipulating the grey levels of the image. Through a

specified scheme of image analysis, the image information is reduced to a set of values which

are specific to the detected defects.
5 Requirements
5.1 General

The defects in SiC homoepitaxial wafers, which are defined in IEC 63068-1, shall be identified

and evaluated by systematically conducting the two test methods using optical inspection and

PL. Visual features pertinent to each defect class, given in Table 1, are acquired from the data

sets of the two test methods. The methods for detecting defects using optical inspection and

PL shall be carried out under the conditions specified in IEC 63068-2 and IEC 63068-3,

respectively. Table 1 shows representative PL data obtained through analysis of images

captured by detecting emissions from defects at wavelengths longer than 650 nm. It is noted

that contrasts of defects in PL images vary depending on the specifications of homoepitaxial

wafers such as doping concentration and su
...

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