Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 6: Safe operation of lithium-ion batteries in traction applications

IEC 62485-6:2021 applies to battery installations used for electric off-road vehicles; it does not cover the design of such vehicles.
Examples of the main applications are:
- industrial
• cleaning machines,
• trucks for material handling, for example, lift trucks, tow trucks, automatic guided vehicles,
• electrically propulsed lifting platforms;
- other applications
• electric powered boats and ships.

Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs et les installations de batteries - Partie 6: Fonctionnement en toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans les applications de traction

L’IEC 62485-6:2021 s’applique aux installations de batteries utilisées pour les véhicules non autorisés à circuler sur le réseau routier, mais ne traite pas de la conception de ce type de véhicule.
Exemples des principales applications:
- applications industrielles
• machines de nettoyage,
• chariots de manutention, par exemple, chariots élévateurs, tracteurs électriques, véhicules automatiques guidés,
• plateformes de levage à propulsion électrique;
- autres applications
• bateaux et navires à propulsion électrique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Jan-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
05-Jan-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 62485-6:2021 - Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations - Part 6: Safe operation of lithium-ion batteries in traction applications
English and French language
47 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 62485-6
Edition 1.0 2021-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs et les installations
de batteries –
Partie 6: Fonctionnement en toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans
les applications de traction
IEC 62485-6:2021-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2021 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
CH-1211 Geneva 20 www.iec.ch
Switzerland
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC publications search - webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a Discover our powerful search engine and read freely all the

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical publications previews. With a subscription you will always

committee, …). It also gives information on projects, replaced have access to up to date content tailored to your needs.

and withdrawn publications.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
The world's leading online dictionary on electrotechnology,
Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published
containing more than 22 000 terminological entries in English
details all new publications released. Available online and
and French, with equivalent terms in 18 additional languages.
once a month by email.
Also known as the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
(IEV) online.
IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc
If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or
need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service
Centre: sales@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Recherche de publications IEC - IEC online collection - oc.iec.ch

webstore.iec.ch/advsearchform Découvrez notre puissant moteur de recherche et consultez

La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC gratuitement tous les aperçus des publications. Avec un

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, abonnement, vous aurez toujours accès à un contenu à jour

comité d’études, …). Elle donne aussi des informations sur adapté à vos besoins.
les projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées.
Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Le premier dictionnaire d'électrotechnologie en ligne au
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just
monde, avec plus de 22 000 articles terminologiques en
Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues.
anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans
Disponible en ligne et une fois par mois par email.
16 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette
publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:
sales@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62485-6
Edition 1.0 2021-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs et les installations
de batteries –
Partie 6: Fonctionnement en toute sécurité des batteries ions-lithium dans
les applications de traction
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.20; 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-9126-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Protection against electric shock by the battery and charger .......................................... 10

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

4.2 Basic protection and fault protection ..................................................................... 10

4.3 Basic protection and fault protection when discharging the traction battery

on the vehicle (battery disconnected from charger/mains) ..................................... 11

4.3.1 Batteries up to and including 60 V DC ........................................................... 11

4.3.2 For batteries exceeding 60 V DC up to and including 120 V DC ..................... 11

4.3.3 Batteries exceeding 120 V DC but not exceeding 1 500 V DC ........................ 11

4.4 Basic protection and fault protection when charging the traction battery ................ 11

5 Prevention of short-circuits and protection from other effects of electric current ............. 12

5.1 Cables and connectors ......................................................................................... 12

5.2 Protective measures during maintenance .............................................................. 12

5.3 Battery insulation .................................................................................................. 13

5.3.1 Insulation resistance ...................................................................................... 13

5.3.2 Insulation resistance measurement ................................................................ 13

6 Provisions against hazards ............................................................................................ 13

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Charging modes .................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Temperature influence on the charge voltage and limiting of charge current ......... 14

6.4 Overcharging or overdischarging under fault conditions ........................................ 14

6.5 Prevention of electrostatic discharges when working with batteries ....................... 14

7 Provision against hazards by chemical substances ........................................................ 14

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

7.2 Initial actions in case of hazardous chemical release ............................................ 14

7.3 Eye or skin contact ............................................................................................... 14

7.4 Swallowing ............................................................................................................ 14

7.5 Respiratory tract ................................................................................................... 15

7.6 Burns .................................................................................................................... 15

8 Battery containers and enclosures ................................................................................. 15

9 Battery change .............................................................................................................. 15

10 Battery peripheral equipment/accessories ..................................................................... 15

10.1 Battery management system ................................................................................. 15

10.2 Thermal management systems and series installation ........................................... 16

10.3 Connectors (plugs/sockets) ................................................................................... 16

11 Charge current requirements ......................................................................................... 16

11.1 Peak voltage/current by charging .......................................................................... 16

11.2 Superimposed ripple current ................................................................................. 17

11.3 Maximum ripple current ......................................................................................... 17

12 Identification labels, warning notices and instructions for use, installation and

maintenance .................................................................................................................. 17

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 17

12.2 Warning labels ...................................................................................................... 17

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

12.3 Identification label ................................................................................................. 18

12.4 Instructions ........................................................................................................... 18

12.5 Other labels .......................................................................................................... 18

13 Transportation, storage, disposal and environmental aspects ........................................ 18

13.1 Packing and transport ........................................................................................... 18

13.2 Disassembly, disposal, and recycling of batteries.................................................. 19

13.3 Storage ................................................................................................................. 19

14 Inspection and monitoring .............................................................................................. 19

15 EMC for traction application ........................................................................................... 19

Annex A (informative) Cell behaviour inside and outside of operating region ........................ 20

Annex B (normative) Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ................................................... 21

B.1 Case 1 – EMC requirements of battery systems depending of each end-

device application ................................................................................................. 21

B.2 Case 2 – EMC requirements for testing battery system as an end-device .............. 21

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 22

Figure A.1 – An example for operating region of lithium ion cell ............................................ 20

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY
BATTERIES AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62485-6 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21/1071/FDIS 21/1077/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62485 series, published under the general title Safety requirements

for secondary batteries and battery installations, can be found on the IEC website.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY
BATTERIES AND BATTERY INSTALLATIONS –
Part 6: Safe operation of lithium ion batteries in traction applications
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62485 applies to battery installations used for electric off-road vehicles; it does

not cover the design of such vehicles.
Examples of the main applications are:
– industrial
• cleaning machines,

• trucks for material handling, for example, lift trucks, tow trucks, automatic guided

vehicles,
• electrically propulsed lifting platforms;
– other applications
• electric powered boats and ships.

This document covers the safety aspects of battery installations in such applications. This

document does not cover railway vehicles, for traction railway application, see IEC 62928.

This document does not cover batteries and battery installations for the propulsion of electric

road vehicles. In the event of there being a variation of requirements between this document

and those of a relevant product standard (e.g. goods vehicles, bicycles, wheel chairs, golf

carts), then the product standard requirements take precedence.

Lithium ion cells and batteries used in traction industrial application are intended to fulfil safety

requirements in accordance with IEC 62619.

The maximum voltages are limited to AC 1 000 V and to DC 1 500 V, and the principal measures

for protection against hazards, generally from electricity, gas emission and electrolyte to

prevent fire and explosion are described.

This document provides requirements on safety aspects associated with the installation, use,

inspection, maintenance and disposal of lithium ion batteries. Batteries containing lithium metal

are not covered by this document.

In general, the safety requirements for secondary batteries and battery installations – General

safety information and definitions are specified for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal

hybrid batteries in accordance with IEC 62485-1.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60204-1, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – Part 1: General

requirements
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

IEC 60364-4-41:2005, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 4-41: Protection for safety –

Protection against electric shock
IEC 60364-4-41:2005/AMD1:2017
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61000-1-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 1-2: General – Methodology for the

achievement of functional safety of electrical and electronic systems including equipment with

regard to electromagnetic phenomena

IEC 61000-6-1, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-1: Generic standards – Immunity

standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-2: Generic standards – Immunity

standard for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-3: Generic standards – Emission

standard for residential, commercial and light-industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-4: Generic standards – Emission

standard for industrial environments

IEC 61000-6-7, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 6-7: Generic standards – Immunity

requirements for equipment intended to perform functions in a safety-related system (functional

safety) in industrial locations

IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock – Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 62619:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in industrial

applications

IEC 62620:2014, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes –Secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications

ISO 3864 (all parts), Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs

EN 1175-1:2011, Safety of industrial trucks – Electrical requirements – Part 1: General

requirements for battery powered trucks

UN Regulation No. 100 (UN R 100):2011, Uniform provisions concerning the approval of

vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the electric power train
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
secondary lithium cell
cell

secondary cell where electrical energy is derived from the insertion/extraction reactions of

lithium ions or oxidation/reduction reaction of lithium between the negative electrode and the

positive electrode

Note 1 to entry: The cell typically has an electrolyte that consists of a lithium salt and organic solvent compound in

liquid, gel or solid form and has a metal or a laminate film casing.

Note 2 to entry: A cell is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal

arrangement and electronic control device.
3.2
lithium ion battery

secondary battery with an organic solvent electrolyte and positive and negative electrodes

which utilize an intercalation compound in which lithium is stored
Note 1 to entry: A lithium ion battery does not contain lithium metal.
[SOURCE: IEC 60500-482:2004, 482-05-07]
3.3
electrolyte

liquid or solid substance containing mobile ions which render it ionically conductive

Note 1 to entry: The electrolyte may be liquid, solid or a gel.
[SOURCE: IEC 60500-482:2004, 482-02-29]
3.4
battery management system
BMS

electronic system associated with a battery which has functions to control current in case of

overcharge, overcurrent, overdischarge, and overheating, and which monitors and/or manages

the state of the battery, calculates secondary data, reports that data and/or controls its

environment to influence the battery's safety, performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: Overdischarge cut off is not mandatory if there is an agreement on this between the cell

manufacturer and the customer.

Note 2 to entry: The function of the battery management system (BMS) can be assigned to the battery pack or to

equipment that uses the battery.

Note 3 to entry: The BMS can be divided and it can be found partially in the battery pack and partially on the

equipment that uses the battery.

Note 4 to entry: The BMS is sometimes also referred to as a BMU (battery management unit).

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
3.5
nominal voltage

suitable approximate value of the voltage used to designate or identify a cell or a battery

Note 1 to entry: The cell or battery manufacturer may provide the nominal voltage.

Note 2 to entry: The nominal voltage of a battery of n series connected cells is equal to n times the nominal voltage

of a single cell.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-482:2004, 482-03-31, modified – Omission of "electrochemical system"

from the definition, and addition of Notes 1 and 2.]
3.6
overcharge

continued charging after the full charge of a secondary cell or battery

Note 1 to entry: Overcharge is also the act of charging beyond a certain limit specified by the manufacturer.

[SOURCE: IEC 60500-482:2004, 482-05-44, modified – The domain has been added and the

wording "of a fully charged" has been replaced with "after the full charge of" in the definition.]

3.7
overdischarge

state of the battery when one or more cells of the battery are discharged below their lower limit

discharge voltage
3.8
traction battery

secondary battery which is designed to provide the propulsion energy for electric vehicles

3.9
lower limit discharging voltage

lowest discharging voltage in the cell operating region specified by the cell manufacturer

3.10
external short-circuit

abnormally high current discharge due to a conductive fault over parts at opposite polarity either

within the battery circuitry or over the external terminals
3.11
internal short-circuit

electrical conduction through insulation within the cell due to cell manufacturing defects, cell

design faults or damage due to abuse of the cell during its use
3.12
module

group of cells connected together either in a series and/or parallel configuration with or without

protective devices (e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device (PTC)) and monitoring

circuitry
3.13
battery system
battery

system which comprises one or more cells, modules or battery packs and has a battery

management system capable of controlling current in case of overcharge, overcurrent,

overdischarge and overheating

Note 1 to entry: Overdischarge cut off is not mandatory if there is an agreement on this between the cell

manufacturer and the customer.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62485-6:2021 © IEC 2021

Note 2 to entry: The battery system may have cooling or heating units. A larger battery system may comprise more

than one battery system. The battery system is sometimes also referred to as a battery.

3.14
cell block

group of cells connected together in parallel configuration with or without protective devices

(e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device (PTC)) and monitoring circuitry

Note 1 to entry: It is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal

arrangement and electronic control device.
3.15
battery pack

energy storage device comprised of one or more cells or modules electrically connected, and

has monitoring circuitry which provides information (e.g. cell voltage) to a battery system to

influence the battery's safety, performance and/or service life

Note 1 to entry: It may incorporate a protective housing and be provided with terminals or other interconnection

arrangements.
4 Protection against electric shock by the battery and charger
4.1 General

Measures should be taken for protection against direct contact (basic protection) and against

indirect contact (fault protection) with hazardous voltages while the traction batteries are

installed in the vehicle and during battery charging procedures.

These measures are described in detail in IEC 60364-4-41 and IEC 61140. The following

subclauses describe the typical measures to be taken for traction battery installations and the

resulting adaptions.

The appropriate equipment standard IEC 61140 applies to batteries and direct current

distribution circuits located inside equipment.
4.2 Basic protection and fault protection
For batteries when installed in the vehicle and in battery charging in
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.