Equipment for general lighting purposes - EMC immunity requirements - Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method

IEC TR 61547-1:2020 is available as IEC TR 61547-1:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC TR 61547-1:2020 describes an objective light flickermeter, which can be applied for the following purposes:
- measuring the intrinsic performance of all lighting equipment without the application of voltage fluctuations in terms of illuminance flicker; during this measurement, the lighting equipment is supplied with a stable mains;
- testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against (unintentional) voltage fluctuation disturbance on the AC mains in terms of illuminance flicker; during this test a set of defined voltage fluctuations are applied to the AC mains and the immunity of the lighting equipment to the disturbance is determined.
Apart from the above two purposes, the immunity performance of lighting equipment can also be tested against intentional voltage fluctuation on the AC mains arising for example from mains signalling. This is however not described in further detail in this document. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2017. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- the scope of this document has been clarified to make a distinction between flicker testing without voltage fluctuations to measure the intrinsic performance of lighting equipment and flicker testing in which a specific set of voltage fluctuations are applied in order to measure the immunity of the lighting equipment to voltage fluctuations present on the mains;
- the test procedure for flicker testing has been clarified.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
01-Jul-2020
Ref Project

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IEC TR 61547-1:2020 - Equipment for general lighting purposes - EMC immunity requirements - Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method
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IEC TR 61547-1
Edition 3.0 2020-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Equipment for general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements –

Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method

IEC TR 61547-1:2020-07
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1
Edition 3.0 2020-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Equipment for general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements –

Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity test method

INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 29.140.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-8532-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols .......................................................... 9

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 10

3.3 Symbols ................................................................................................................ 11

4 General ......................................................................................................................... 11

5 Light flickermeter ........................................................................................................... 13

6 Voltage fluctuation disturbance signal ............................................................................ 13

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Mains signal parameters ....................................................................................... 14

6.3 Disturbance signal parameters and test levels ...................................................... 15

7 Test setup and equipment ............................................................................................. 16

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 16

7.2 Test voltage .......................................................................................................... 17

7.3 Optical test environment ....................................................................................... 17

7.4 Light sensor and amplifier ..................................................................................... 18

7.5 Signals to be measured ........................................................................................ 18

7.6 Signal processing ................................................................................................. 18

7.6.1 Anti-aliasing filter ........................................................................................... 18

7.6.2 Sampling frequency ....................................................................................... 19

7.6.3 Signal resolution ............................................................................................ 19

8 Verification procedure .................................................................................................... 21

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

8.2 Light flickermeter .................................................................................................. 21

8.3 Mains voltage parameters without modulation ....................................................... 22

8.3.1 Nominal voltage level .................................................................................... 22

8.3.2 Mains frequency ............................................................................................ 22

8.4 Voltage fluctuation level ........................................................................................ 22

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

8.4.2 Option 1: measure the actual modulation frequencies and voltage levels ....... 22

8.4.3 Option 2: measure values using a flickermeter ......................................... 22

8.5 Light sensor and amplifier ..................................................................................... 23

8.6 Test environment .................................................................................................. 23

8.7 Light flicker noise .................................................................................................. 23

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................. 24

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

9.2 Measuring the intrinsic flicker performance ........................................................... 25

9.3 Testing the flicker immunity against voltage fluctuations ....................................... 26

9.4 Dimmer compatibility testing ................................................................................. 26

9.5 Controlgear testing ............................................................................................... 27

10 Conditions during testing ............................................................................................... 27

11 Evaluation of the test result ........................................................................................... 28

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IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

12 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 28

Annex A (informative) Specification of the light flickermeter ................................................. 29

A.1 Voltage flickermeter modifications ......................................................................... 29

A.2 Specification of the light flickermeter ..................................................................... 30

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

A.2.2 Block a: illuminance adapter .......................................................................... 30

A.2.3 Block b: weighting filters ................................................................................ 30

A.2.4 Block c: squaring multiplier, sliding mean filter and scaling ............................ 31

A.2.5 Block d: statistical analysis ............................................................................ 31

A.3 Verification of the light flickermeter ....................................................................... 32

LM ®

A.4 Example of implementation in MATLAB ...................................................... 33

Annex B (informative) Uncertainty considerations ................................................................ 34

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

B.2 General symbols ................................................................................................... 34

B.3 Measurand ............................................................................................................ 34

B.4 Influence quantities ............................................................................................... 34

B.5 Uncertainty budget ................................................................................................ 36

Annex C (informative) Examples of test results of lighting equipment ................................... 38

C.1 Test without voltage fluctuations ( ) ................................................................ 38

C.2 Test with (intentional) voltage fluctuations (I) ................................................ 38

C.3 Test under dimming conditions.............................................................................. 42

Annex D (informative) Guidance for testing based on test type .................................... 44

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 45

Figure 1 – Full EMC approach for mains voltage fluctuations ................................................ 12

Figure 2 – Illustration of the mains test signal including a rectangular modulated

voltage fluctuation (see Equation (1)) .................................................................................... 14

Figure 3 – Block diagram voltage-fluctuation immunity test ................................................... 17

Figure 4 – Example of a recorded mains voltage fluctuation and illuminance signal of a

60 W incandescent lamp ....................................................................................................... 21

Figure 5 – Measuring .................................................................................................... 26

Figure 6 – Measuring (I) ................................................................................................ 26

Figure 7 – Dimmer compatibility testing ................................................................................ 26

Figure 8 – Controlgear testing ............................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 –Structure of the IEC 61000-4-15 flickermeter that uses voltage as input ............ 29

Figure A.2 – Structure of the light flickermeter based on a modified voltage flickermeter ...... 29

Figure A.3 – Flickermeter response to different waveshapes ................................................. 33

Figure C.1 – Graphical P I results for three EUTs with rectangular modulation at

( )

five frequencies ( P = 1) ....................................................................................................... 39

Figure C.2 – EUT1: recorded signals (no mains voltage modulation) ..................................... 40

Figure C.3 – EUT1: recorded signals (with modulation) ......................................................... 41

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– 4 – IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020

Figure C.4 – EUT2: relative illuminance – Mains voltage modulation d = 0,407 % at

13,5 Hz ( P = 1) ................................................................................................................... 42

Figure C.5 – EUT3: relative illuminance – Mains voltage modulation d = 0,407 % at

13,5 Hz ( P = 1) ................................................................................................................... 42

Figure C.6 – Graphical (C) results for four EUTs under dimming conditions .................... 43

Table 1 – Voltage fluctuations – Test specification of voltage fluctuations applied at

input AC mains 120/230 V and 50/60 Hz ............................................................................... 16

Table 2 – Guidance for P testing ...................................................................................... 25

Table A.1 – Test specification of illuminance fluctuations for lightmeter classifier ................ 32

Table B.1 – Influence quantities and their recommended tolerances ..................................... 35

Table B.2 – Uncertainty budget of the voltage fluctuation immunity test ................................ 37

Table C.1 – Numerical results P calculations for three EUTs without voltage

modulation ............................................................................................................................ 38

Table C.2 – Numerical results P (I) calculations for three EUTs with voltage

modulation ............................................................................................................................ 38

Table C.3 – Numerical results (C) calculations for four EUTs under dimming

conditions ............................................................................................................................. 43

Table D.1 – Guidance for testing based on test conditions ............................................ 44

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IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL LIGHTING PURPOSES –
EMC IMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS –
Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation
immunity test method
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".
IEC TR 61547-1, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by IEC technical
committee 34: Lighting.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2017. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) the scope of this document has been clarified to make a distinction between flicker testing

without voltage fluctuations to measure the intrinsic performance of lighting equipment and

flicker testing in which a specific set of voltage fluctuations are applied in order to

measure the immunity of the lighting equipment to voltage fluctuations present on the

mains;
b) the test procedure for flicker testing has been clarified.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
34/668/DTR 34/701/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61547 series, published under the general title Equipment for

general lighting purposes – EMC immunity requirements, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

The fast rate at which solid state light (SSL) sources can change their intensity is one of the

main drivers behind the revolution in the lighting world and applications of lighting. Linked to

the fast rate of the intensity change is a direct transfer of the modulation of the driving

current, both intended and unintended, to a modulation of the luminous output. This light

modulation can give rise to changes in the perception of the environment. While in some very

specific entertainment, scientific or industrial applications a change of perception due to light

modulation is desired, for most everyday applications and activities the change is detrimental

and undesired. These changes in the perception of the environment are called "temporal light

artefacts" (TLAs) and can have a large influence on the judgment of the light quality.

Moreover, the visible modulation of light can lead to a decrease in performance, increased

fatigue as well as health problems like epileptic seizures and migraine episodes [17][18] .

Different terms exist to describe the different types of TLAs that may be perceived by humans.

The term "flicker" refers to light variation that may be directly perceived by an observer.

"Stroboscopic effect" is an effect which may become visible for an observer when a moving or

rotating object is illuminated (CIE TN 006:2016 [26]).

Possible causes for light modulation of lighting equipment that may give rise to flicker or

stroboscopic effect are:
– AC supply combined with light source technology and its driver topology;

– light regulation technology of externally applied light level regulators or internal light level

regulators;

– mains voltage fluctuations caused by electrical apparatus connected to the mains

(conducted electromagnetic disturbances) or intentionally applied for mains-signalling

purposes.

Lighting products that show unacceptable flicker are considered as poor-quality lighting.

This document provides a description of an objective light flickermeter and a method for

measuring the intrinsic flicker of lighting equipment as well as testing the immunity of lighting

equipment against mains voltage fluctuations caused by electrical apparatus connected to the

mains at levels that are allowed through IEC 61000-3-3.

Flicker perception, as well as IEC 61000-3-3 and IEC 61000-4-15, the associated standards

for voltage fluctuations and the flickermeter, are based on the 60 W incandescent lamp. As a

result of the phasing out of incandescent lamps and the widespread introduction of alternative

lighting equipment technologies, a new reference lamp was considered. It has been

demonstrated that new lighting technologies are in general less but sometimes also more

sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations than the current 60 W incandescent lamp. A CIGRE

working group has assessed the impact of new lighting technologies on the existing flicker

standards [16]. For the moment, the present flicker sensitivity curve of IEC 61000-3-3 remains

as the reference. However, because of the increased diversity of sensitivity of lighting

equipment to voltage fluctuations, there is a future need for a voltage-fluctuation immunity test

specifically for lighting equipment. In this way, the full EMC approach (Figure 1) is introduced

for flicker, i.e. with a view to limiting voltage fluctuations caused by equipment connected to

the grid, and in addition to establishing a minimum level of flicker immunity of lighting

equipment against these voltage fluctuations.

This document will allow the lighting industry to gain experience in flicker immunity test

methods. Results of actual tests will be reported in a separate IEC Technical Report. Based

on the experience gained on this immunity test method, the adoption of a similar test to be

applied for IEC 61547, the immunity standard for lighting equipment, will be considered.

___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020
EQUIPMENT FOR GENERAL LIGHTING PURPOSES –
EMC IMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS –
Part 1: Objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation
immunity test method
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61547 describes an objective light flickermeter, which can be applied for the

following purposes:

– measuring the intrinsic performance of all lighting equipment without the application of

voltage fluctuations in terms of illuminance flicker; during this measurement, the lighting

equipment is supplied with a stable mains;

– testing the immunity performance of lighting equipment against (unintentional) voltage

fluctuation disturbance on the AC mains in terms of illuminance flicker; during this test a

set of defined voltage fluctuations are applied to the AC mains and the immunity of the

lighting equipment to the disturbance is determined.

Apart from the above two purposes, the immunity performance of lighting equipment can also

be tested against intentional voltage fluctuation on the AC mains arising for example from

mains signalling. This is however not described in further detail in this document.

NOTE 1 IEC 61000-4-13:2015 [24] provides guidance regarding test levels and frequencies for mains signalling.

The object of this document is to establish a common and objective reference for evaluating

the performance of lighting equipment in terms of illuminance flicker. Temporal changes in the

colour of light (chromatic flicker) are not considered in this test.

This method can be applied to lighting equipment which is within the scope of IEC technical

committee 34, such as lamps and luminaires, intended for connection to a low voltage

electricity supply. Independent auxiliaries such as drivers can also be tested by application of

a representative light source to that auxiliary.

The objective light flickermeter and voltage fluctuation immunity method described in this

document are based on the IEC 61000-3-3 standard for voltage fluctuation limits and the

flickermeter standard IEC 61000-4-15.

The objective light flickermeter described in this document can be applied to objectively

assess flicker of lighting equipment that is powered from any type of source, AC mains, DC

mains, battery fed or fed through an external light level regulator. The specific voltage

fluctuation immunity test method described in this document applies to lighting equipment

rated for 120 V AC and 230 V AC, 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

NOTE 2 The principle of the method can be applied for other nominal voltages and frequency ratings.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TR 61547-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –

IEC 61000-3-3:2013, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-3: Limits – Limitation of

voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems, for

equipment with rated current ≤ 16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection

IEC 61000-4-15:2010, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-15: Testing and

measurement techniques – Flickermeter – Functional and design specifications
3 Terms, definitions, abbreviated terms and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 61000-3-3 and

IEC 61000-4-15 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
flicker

perception of visual unsteadiness induced by a light stimulus the luminance or spectral

...

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