Internet of Things (IoT) - Socialized IoT system resembling human social interaction dynamics

ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021(E) describes:
• key features of the socialized IoT systems, e.g. sensing the external physical world, resolving the uncertainties of targets, satisfying users' demand and providing quality service, etc.;
• socialized attributes, i.e. socialized network, socialized collaboration, and socialized services, which are derived from the key features; and
• guidelines on how to use or apply the socialized attributes in the design and development of IoT systems.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
04-Nov-2021
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ISO/IEC TR 30174
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Socialized IoT system resembling human social
interaction dynamics
ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021-11(en)
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ISO/IEC TR 30174
Edition 1.0 2021-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Internet of things (IoT) – Socialized IoT system resembling human social
interaction dynamics
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-1037-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ....................................................................................... 7

5 Introduction to the socialized IoT systems ....................................................................... 7

5.1 Three technological waves in ICT ........................................................................... 7

5.2 Resemblances between comprehensive IoT systems and human social

dynamics ................................................................................................................ 8

6 Key features of socialized IoT systems ............................................................................ 8

7 Socialized attributes of IoT system ................................................................................ 10

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Socialized network ................................................................................................ 10

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

7.2.2 Topology-driven network ................................................................................ 10

7.2.3 Target-driven network .................................................................................... 12

7.2.4 Task-driven network ...................................................................................... 13

7.2.5 Environment-driven network .......................................................................... 14

7.3 Socialized collaboration ........................................................................................ 15

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

7.3.2 Socialized collaborative division of labour ...................................................... 15

7.3.3 Socialized collaborative processing ............................................................... 16

7.3.4 Socialized self-learning .................................................................................. 17

7.4 Socialized service ................................................................................................. 18

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

7.4.2 Socialized service coordination ...................................................................... 19

7.4.3 Socialized service release ............................................................................. 20

7.4.4 Socialized service update .............................................................................. 21

8 Security in the socialized IoT system ............................................................................. 21

8.1 Sensing security in IoT system .............................................................................. 21

8.2 Socialized sensing security mechanism ................................................................ 22

9 Application of the socialized IoT system ........................................................................ 23

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

9.2 Key features of intrusion prevention system .......................................................... 24

9.3 System design based on the concept of the socialized IoT system ........................ 24

9.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 24

9.3.2 Socialized network ......................................................................................... 25

9.3.3 Socialized collaboration ................................................................................. 26

9.3.4 Socialized service .......................................................................................... 27

9.4 Inspiration of IoT development mode .................................................................... 27

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 29

Figure 1 – IoT promotes the third wave in information technology ........................................... 8

Figure 2 – Hierarchy of topology-driven network ................................................................... 11

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ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021 – 3 –

Figure 3 – Example of target-driven network ......................................................................... 12

Figure 4 – Node selectivity of task-driven network ................................................................ 13

Figure 5 – Socialized collaboration of IoT system ................................................................. 15

Figure 6 – Socialized self-learning similar to mobile agent .................................................... 18

Figure 7 – Socialized service release .................................................................................... 20

Figure 8 – Socialized service update..................................................................................... 21

Figure 9 – The conceptual hierarchy of the IoT security ........................................................ 22

Figure 10 – Realization mechanism of IoT sensing security based on socialized

collaborative processing ....................................................................................................... 23

Figure 11 – Network infrastructure of the intrusion prevention system ................................... 25

Figure 12 – Socialized collaborative division of labour based on SNR ................................... 26

Figure 13 – Target detection based on self-learning .............................................................. 27

Figure 14 – IoT development mode based on "Common platform + Application profiles" ....... 28

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
SOCIALIZED IoT SYSTEM RESEMBLING
HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION DYNAMICS
FOREWORD

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this ISO/IEC document may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC and ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 30174 has been prepared by subcommittee 41: Internet of Things and Digital Twin, of

ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1: Information technology. It is a Technical Report.

The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC41/227/DTR JTC1-SC41/240A/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs and www.iso.org/directives.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

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ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The Internet of Things (IoT) technology is the third wave of information industry, following the

computer, communications network and the Internet. It provides the technology tools to build

an effective interactive IoT system connecting human users and the physical world, which

causes the changes in individual's daily life and also in the operations of human society. The

innovative ideas can be implemented in IoT systems creating new markets for technology-

based but user-friendly services. The technologies in the IoT systems will keep evolving with

improving the existing technology and also the insertion of new technologies.

The communications network focuses on connection and transmission, and it realizes

transmission service. The Internet focuses on information sharing, and provides services

related to information sharing. The IoT systems focus on the objective physical world,

realizing the basic sensing service and other services for the objects of interest (i.e. targets),

events, etc., in the physical world.

In order to realize the sensing of the complex physical world, an IoT system needs to have an

organized and coordinated sensing capability. For a specific target, this capability activates

relevant sensor nodes, and division of labour and cooperation strategies are applied, which is

similar to an enterprise that organizes people with required capabilities to form a project team

and completes the project with proper division of labour and cooperation. In this perspective,

therefore, it can be stated that the IoT system has socialized attributes as IoT nodes and

terminals establish an orderly socialized system.

This document comprises five main clauses. Clause 5 introduces the background and

motivations for the study of the socialized IoT system. Clause 6 discusses the essential

differences of the IoT systems compared to the communications network and the Internet.

This comparison is summarized with the key features of the socialized IoT system. Clause 7

further analyses the socialized network, socialized collaboration and socialized service, which

are designated as the three pillars of the IoT socialized attributes. Clause 8 addresses the

sensing security issue for IoT systems. Clause 9 discusses the application methods of the

socialized IoT attributes using a use case analysis, such as the intrusion prevention system or

infrastructure protection. This document provides readers with the knowledge of the socialized

characteristics and features of the IoT system, and inspires readers to adopt them in the

design of IoT systems and provision of IoT services.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021
INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) –
SOCIALIZED IoT SYSTEM RESEMBLING
HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION DYNAMICS
1 Scope
This document describes:

• key features of the socialized IoT systems, e.g. sensing the external physical world,

resolving the uncertainties of targets, satisfying users' demand and providing quality

service, etc.;

• socialized attributes, i.e. socialized network, socialized collaboration, and socialized

services, which are derived from the key features; and

• guidelines on how to use or apply the socialized attributes in the design and development

of IoT systems.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
event

something that happens in the physical world and is observable or detectable by sensors

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-113:2011, 113-01-04, modified – In the definition, "subspace time of

space-time" is replaced with "the physical world and is observable or detectable by sensors.]

3.2
object
person or thing that is observable or detectable by sensors

Note 1 to entry: Thing can be any living one (animals, plants, etc.) or any material one (table, car, etc.).

3.3
target
object or event about which information is searched by interest to IoT system

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-713:1998, 713-04-14, modified – In the definition, "or event" is added

and "radar" is replaced with "interest to IoT system."]
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ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021 – 7 –
3.4
socialized

having organized and constructive behaviour of functions in a system or among systems built

with the attributes of the division of labour and the collaboration of tasks
3.5
socialized IoT system
system providing functionalities of IoT built on socialized (3.4) capability

Note 1 to entry: A socialized IoT system can include, but not be limited to, IoT devices, IoT gateways, sensors

and actuators.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 20924:2021, 3.2.9, modified – In the term, "socialized" is added. In the

definition, "built on socialized (3.4) capability" is added.]
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ICT information and communication technologies
IoT Internet of Things
D/I data/information
SNR signal-to-noise ratio
5 Introduction to the socialized IoT systems
5.1 Three technological waves in ICT

Information acquisition, information transmission and information processing constitute the

three pillars of information technology. The impact of IoT technology on information

technology has caused significantly positive ripples on these pillars, which are denoted as

"three waves" as described below and also shown in Figure 1.

1) The first wave: The rise of the computer brings us to the digital world, which has changed

the way of processing data/information (D/I). The first wave is labelled as "digitalization".

2) The second wave: The rapid development of communications technology and the Internet

has created a world of inter-networking, which changes the way of transmitting D/I. The

second wave is marked as "networking".

3) The third wave: IoT technology is the third revolution in information technology, which has

changed the way of acquiring D/I. The third wave is designated as "socialization".

IoT technology has been moving forward to realize comprehensive information systems by

sensing the physical world and providing sensing services, which requires the IoT physical

and virtual entities to form an organized infrastructure in order to cooperate and collaborate

with each other to accomplish given purposes or tasks similar to the teamwork by organized

human teams. Therefore, an information system with such abilities can be characterized as a

"socialized" system resembling human social dynamics.
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– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021
Figure 1 – IoT promotes the third wave in information technology
5.2 Resemblances between comprehensive IoT systems and human social dynamics

There exist many similarities between the comprehensive IoT system and human social

dynamics, which can be illustrated by the three hierarchical levels described below.

1) Various types of sensors – bio-mimetic sensors, electronic sensors, chemical sensors,

etc. – act as an extension of our sensory organs such as eyes, nose, ears, etc., to enable

us to explore the physical world.

2) After the D/I are received from sensors, they are transmitted via sensor networks and/or

data communication networks to D/I processing unit(s) for extracting and generating

hidden information, situational information, predictive information, decision-aiding

information, etc., by D/I aggregation, integration, fusion, mining, analytics, etc. This is

analogous to the D/I collected by the human sensor organs which are transmitted to the

brain through the human neural system for further processing.

3) In order to realize a comprehensive sensing and understanding of the physical world, the

cooperation and collaboration of the D/I processing units from various types of sensor

networks is required, which takes after human individuals in teams collaborating with each

other and sharing their information and knowledge to make better decisions with available

D/I.

From the observations made in the three hierarchical levels, resemblances, i.e. social

characteristics, between comprehensive IoT systems and human social dynamics do exist;

thus, comprehensive IoT systems built on socialized capability are called "socialized IoT

systems".
6 Key features of socialized IoT systems

The emergence and advancement of communications network and the Internet have greatly

transformed how human society operates. An IoT system is inextricably linked with the

communications network and Internet, and plays an irreplaceable role in realizing the

integration of "Operational Technology (OT)" and "Information Technology (IT)". In essence,

the key features of IoT are illustrated by comparing IoT with communications network and

Internet in terms of purpose, provided services and the connecting ways.

1) The communications network is a network which focuses on data transmission. It focuses

on the transmission of data itself and provides data delivery services.

The Internet focuses on the information sharing and provides the services related to

information sharing. The Internet takes information sharing as the core and promotes big

data services. The big data services involve analytics and data mining of a large number

of historical data and estimate or predict future trends.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021 – 9 –

An IoT system is a comprehensive information system with the purpose of sensing the

external physical world, and one of its major services is the sensing service. An IoT

system focuses on events occurring in the physical world that are both predictable and

unpredictable. It encapsulates data related to events (such as target, task, environment,

etc.), and it triggers decision-making process to manage the events. Thus, the IoT system

transforms "big data service" to "big event service".

2) The communications network connects people. For example, people make phone calls

and send messages through the mobile networks. As long as the network transmits voice

or text messages from one mobile phone to another, the communication between people

is completed. Communications network is concerned with the transmission of information

and network coverage. Therefore, the communications network is an information
transmission network connecting people.

The Internet connects computers. The Internet provides people with rich and constantly

updated information. People can get a plenty of electronic information by browsing news,

downloading materials and using various online multimedia services.

An IoT system connects things that exist in the complex and changing physical world. It

aims at sensing the external physical world and provides sensing services. Therefore, an

IoT system is a system providing a platform for interactions between human beings and

the objects in the physical world.

From the comparisons between the communications network and the Internet, the IoT

systems exhibit the following key features.
a) The IoT system focuses on the external physical world.

The application scenarios concerned by the IoT system come from the external physical

world. Massive sensor nodes acquire data from the physical world, and sensing nodes

form a network for the needs of information transmission and processing. In order to

achieve an effective management of the massive sensing nodes, an efficient network

organizational structure is necessary.
b) There are uncertainties for sensing targets in the IoT systems.

For the IoT system, there are many uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distributions

in target sensing. Because it is difficult for a single sensing node to achieve the all-around

coverage and continuous sensing in all-weather conditions, it is necessary to place

sensing nodes in different spatial locations, and carry out continuous real-time sensing.

Thus, the division of labour and coordination between different sensing nodes in time and

space is necessary.

Different targets have different external shapes and characteristics, and the environment

around the targets in different locations is also significantly different. A single sensing

node has limitations in functional capability and sensing ability. It is necessary to utilize a

variety of sensing nodes to realize a comprehensive sensing of the targets in order to

eliminate the negative impact of the uncertainties so that an accurate sensing of the

targets can be achieved. It facilitates the division of labour and collaboration in function

types and processing capabilities between multiple sensing nodes.
Further, changes brought by the updated information about targets, events and

environments need to be fully explored based on historical information. The prediction or

estimation of the target's future states (e.g. position, location, status, trajectory, and/or

behaviour) can be learned based on the historical trends. Therefore, a single sensing

node needs to have self-learning ability and the organized learning mechanism needs to

be established among different sensing nodes.
c) IoT system is both demand- and service-driven.

The IoT system is not driven by data, but driven by external demands. The emergence of

external targets or tasks, or changes in the environment will trigger the IoT system to

respond. The sensing approach and network topology need to be adjusted based on the

targets' current and future predicted states.
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– 10 – ISO/IEC TR 30174:2021  ISO/IEC 2021
7 Socialized attributes of IoT system
7.1 General

From the above analysis on the key features of IoT systems, the challenges faced by the IoT

systems are clearly shown, and effort is being made to find reasonable and effective solutions.

The solutions for the key points of the requirements can be summarized as follows.

1) For sensing of the real physical world better, a large number of sensing nodes are needed

and IoT system needs to be built with an effective and efficient organizational structure.

2) To minimize or remove the uncertainties associated with the target being sensed by the

IoT systems, the sensing nodes in the IoT system are facilitated to form the effective

division of labour and cooperation among them. In order to improve the capability of

sensing, the IoT system should have the ability to learn and establish a learning

mechanism.

3) Driven by the goals and tasks, the sensing mode and networking topology of the IoT

systems need to be adjusted and updated in order to provide better IoT services.

Through comparative analysis, it is not difficult to find the characteristics of the system's

reasonable organizational structure, division of labour and cooperation, and service

orientation are unique to social groups. These three characteristics, i.e. socialized network,

socialized collaboration and socialized service, reflect the sensing behaviour of the IoT

system and are the bases of the socialized attributes; therefore, these are designated as the

three pillars of IoT system socialized attributes.
7.2 Socialized network
7.2.1 General

The network is not only the basic organizational structure of the IoT systems, but also the

impo
...

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