Wind energy generation systems - Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models - Generic models

IEC 61400-27-1:2020 defines standard electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power plants. The specified models are time domain positive sequence simulation models, intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The models are applicable for dynamic simulations of short term stability in power systems. This document defines the generic terms and parameters for the electrical simulation models.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind power plant topologies / configurations currently on the market. The wind power plant models include wind turbines, wind power plant control and auxiliary equipment. The wind power plant models are described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind power plant concepts and with different wind turbine concepts.

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique - Modèles génériques

IEC 61400-27-1:2020 définit des modèles de simulation électrique normalisés pour les éoliennes et les centrales éoliennes. Il s'agit de modèles de simulation directe dans le domaine temporel, destinés à être utilisés dans des analyses de stabilité du réseau d'énergie électrique et du réseau de distribution. Ces modèles s'appliquent à des simulations dynamiques de la stabilité à court terme des réseaux d'énergie électrique.
Le présent document définit les termes et paramètres génériques pour les modèles de simulation électrique.
Il spécifie des modèles de simulation électrique pour les topologies/configurations génériques de centrales éoliennes actuellement disponibles sur le marché. Les modèles de centrales éoliennes comprennent les éoliennes, la commande de centrale éolienne et les matériels auxiliaires. Les modèles de centrales éoliennes sont décrits de manière modulaire avec différents concepts d’éoliennes et peuvent être appliqués aux futurs concepts de centrales éoliennes.
Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2015. Cette édition constitue une révision technique et une restructuration du contenu en deux parties. La nouvelle structure regroupe les modèles dans la partie 27-1 et les procédures de validation dans la partie 27-2.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente:
a. "Éoliennes" a été modifié en "Modèles génériques" en raison de l’ajout de modèles de centrales éoliennes, et du transfert de la validation du modèle dans l’IEC 61400-27-2;
b. des modèles de centrales éoliennes ont été spécifiés, y compris la commande d’installation, le modèle de système de communication et la procédure d’agrégation pour le système de collecte de puissance, en plus des modèles d’éoliennes présentés dans l’édition précédente;
c. les procédures de validation des modèles d’éoliennes de la présente édition ont été transférées dans la partie 27-2;
d. la structure modulaire qui sépare la commande d’éolienne entre commande de pas et commande de l’aérogénérateur a été précisée, et les modules de mesure du réseau ont été extraits des modules de commande. Les figures ont été révisées en conséquence;
e. un modèle pour STATCOM a été ajouté;
f. des modules de composants électriques ont été ajoutés.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jul-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-Jul-2020
Ref Project

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IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 2.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Generic models
IEC 61400-27-1:2020-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 2.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Generic models
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-8505-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 12

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 12

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 16

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 16

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 19

5 Functional specification of models ................................................................................. 23

5.1 General specifications ........................................................................................... 23

5.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 24

5.3 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 25

6 Formal specification of modular structures of models ..................................................... 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 26

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.2.2 Type 1 ........................................................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Type 2 ........................................................................................................... 28

6.2.4 Type 3 ........................................................................................................... 30

6.2.5 Type 4 ........................................................................................................... 32

6.3 Auxiliary equipment models .................................................................................. 37

6.3.1 STATCOM ..................................................................................................... 37

6.3.2 Other auxiliary equipment .............................................................................. 38

6.4 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 38

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

6.4.2 Wind power plant control and communication ................................................ 39

6.4.3 Basic wind power plant .................................................................................. 40

6.4.4 Wind power plant with reactive power compensation ..................................... 41

7 Formal specification of modules .................................................................................... 42

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 42

7.2 Aerodynamic modules ........................................................................................... 43

7.2.1 Constant aerodynamic torque module ............................................................ 43

7.2.2 One-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.2.3 Two-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.3 Mechanical modules ............................................................................................. 46

7.3.1 Two mass module .......................................................................................... 46

7.3.2 Other mechanical modules ............................................................................ 46

7.4 Generator and converter system modules ............................................................. 46

7.4.1 Asynchronous generator module .................................................................... 46

7.4.2 Type 3A generator system module ................................................................. 47

7.4.3 Type 3B generator system module ................................................................. 48

7.4.4 Type 4 generator system module ................................................................... 49

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

7.4.5 Reference frame rotation module ................................................................... 50

7.5 Electrical systems modules ................................................................................... 51

7.5.1 Electrical systems gamma module ................................................................. 51

7.5.2 Other electrical systems modules .................................................................. 52

7.6 Pitch control modules ............................................................................................ 52

7.6.1 Pitch control power module ............................................................................ 52

7.6.2 Pitch angle control module............................................................................. 53

7.7 Generator and converter control modules ............................................................. 54

7.7.1 Rotor resistance control module .................................................................... 54

7.7.2 P control module type 3 ................................................................................. 55

7.7.3 P control module type 4A ............................................................................... 58

7.7.4 P control module type 4B ............................................................................... 59

7.7.5 Q control module ........................................................................................... 60

7.7.6 Current limitation module ............................................................................... 63

7.7.7 Constant Q limitation module ......................................................................... 64

7.7.8 QP and QU limitation module ......................................................................... 65

7.8 Grid interfacing modules ....................................................................................... 66

7.8.1 Grid protection module .................................................................................. 66

7.8.2 Grid measurement module ............................................................................. 67

7.9 Wind power plant control modules......................................................................... 68

7.9.1 WP P control module ..................................................................................... 68

7.9.2 WP Q control module ..................................................................................... 69

7.10 Communication modules ....................................................................................... 71

7.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 71

7.10.2 Communication delay module ........................................................................ 71

7.10.3 Linear communication module ....................................................................... 71

7.11 Electrical components modules ............................................................................. 72

7.11.1 Line module ................................................................................................... 72

7.11.2 Transformer module ...................................................................................... 72

7.11.3 Other electrical components modules ............................................................ 72

Annex A (informative) Estimation of parameters for single branch power collection

system model........................................................................................................................ 73

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

A.2 Description of method ........................................................................................... 73

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

A.2.2 Lines aggregation .......................................................................................... 73

A.2.3 Wind turbine transformers aggregation .......................................................... 74

A.3 Numerical example ............................................................................................... 75

Annex B (informative) Two-dimensional aerodynamic model ................................................ 78

B.1 Objective .............................................................................................................. 78

B.2 Wind speed input model ........................................................................................ 78

B.3 Parameters for power input module ....................................................................... 80

Annex C (informative) Implementation of generator systems modules with external

impedance ............................................................................................................................ 81

Annex D (normative) Block symbol library ............................................................................ 84

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

D.2 Switch ................................................................................................................... 84

D.3 Time step delay .................................................................................................... 84

D.4 Stand-alone ramp rate limiter ................................................................................ 85

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020

D.5 First order filter ..................................................................................................... 85

D.6 Lookup table ......................................................................................................... 86

D.7 Comparator ........................................................................................................... 86

D.8 Timer .................................................................................................................... 87

D.9 Anti windup integrator ........................................................................................... 88

D.10 Integrator with reset .............................................................................................. 88

D.11 First order filter with limitation detection ................................................................ 89

D.12 Rising edge detection ........................................................................................... 89

D.13 Falling edge detection ........................................................................................... 90

D.14 Delay flag ............................................................................................................. 90

D.15 Variable delay flag ................................................................................................ 91

D.16 Dead band ............................................................................................................ 92

D.17 Circuit breaker ...................................................................................................... 92

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 93

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [9] .......................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Generic structure of WT models ........................................................................... 26

Figure 3 – Modular structure of the type 1A WT model .......................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Modular structure of the type 1B WT model .......................................................... 28

Figure 5 – Modular structure of the type 2 WT model ............................................................ 29

Figure 6 – Modular structure of the type 3A and type 3B WT models .................................... 30

Figure 7 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 3A and type 3B models......... 31

Figure 8 – Modular structure of the type 4A WT model .......................................................... 33

Figure 9 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4A model .............................. 34

Figure 10 – Modular structure of the type 4B WT model ........................................................ 35

Figure 11 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4B model ............................ 36

Figure 12 – Modular structure of STATCOM model ............................................................... 37

Figure 13 – Modular structure of the STATCOM control model .............................................. 37

Figure 14 – General structure of WP model .......................................................................... 38

Figure 15 – General modular structure of WP control and communication block .................... 39

Figure 16 – Single line diagram for basic WP model ............................................................. 40

Figure 17 – Single line diagram for WP model with reactive power compensation ................. 41

Figure 18 – Block diagram for constant aerodynamic torque module ..................................... 44

Figure 19 – Block diagram for one-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 44

Figure 20 – Block diagram for two-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 45

Figure 21 – Block diagram for two mass module ................................................................... 46

Figure 22 – Block diagram for type 3A generator system module .......................................... 47

Figure 23 – Block diagram for type 3B generator system module .......................................... 49

Figure 24 – Block diagram for type 4 generator system module ............................................ 50

Figure 25 – Block diagram for the reference frame rotation module ....................................... 51

Figure 26 – Single line diagram for electrical systems gamma module .................................. 52

Figure 27 – Block diagram for pitch control power module .................................................... 53

Figure 28 – Block diagram for pitch angle control module ..................................................... 54

Figure 29 – Block diagram for rotor resistance control module .............................................. 55

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

Figure 30 – Block diagram for type 3 P control module ......................................................... 57

Figure 31 – Block diagram for type 3 torque PI ..................................................................... 58

Figure 32 – Block diagram for type 4A P control module ....................................................... 59

Figure 33 – Block diagram for type 4B P control module ....................................................... 60

Figure 34 – Block diagram for Q control module .................................................................... 62

Figure 35 – Block diagram for current limiter ......................................................................... 64

Figure 36 – Block diagram for constant Q limitation module .................................................. 65

Figure 37 – Block diagram for QP and QU limitation module ................................................. 65

Figure 38 – Block diagram for grid protection system ............................................................ 67

Figure 39 – Block diagram for u-f measurement .................................................................... 68

Figure 40 – Block diagram for WP power/frequency control module ...................................... 69

Figure 41 – Block diagram for WP reactive power/voltage control module ............................. 70

Figure 42 – Block diagram for communication delay module ................................................. 71

Figure 43 – Block diagram for linear communication module for an example with N

communication variables ....................................................................................................... 72

Figure A.1 – WP power collection system example ............................................................... 75

Figure B.1 – Turbine aerodynamics model proposed by Fortmann (2014) ............................. 78

Figure C.1 – Type 3A generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 81

Figure C.2 – Type 3B generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 82

Figure C.3 – Type 4 generator system module with parallel reactance .................................. 83

Figure D.1 – Block symbol for switch with a) a variable flag input and b) a constant

mode .................................................................................................................................... 84

Figure D.2 – Block symbol for single integration time step delay ........................................... 84

Figure D.3 – Block symbol for stand-alone ramp rate limiter .................................................. 85

Figure D.4 – Block diagram for implementation of the stand-alone ramp rate limiter .............. 85

Figure D.5 – Block symbol for first order filter with absolute limits, rate limits and

freeze flag ............................................................................................................................ 85

Figure D.6 – Block diagram for implementation of the first order filter with absolute

limits, rate limits and freeze state.......................................................................................... 86

Figure D.7 – Block diagram for implementation of the freeze state without filter (T = 0) ......... 86

Figure D.8 – Block symbol for lookup table ........................................................................... 86

Figure D.9 – Block symbols for comparators ......................................................................... 87

Figure D.10 – Block symbol for timer .................................................................................... 87

Figure D.11 – Function of timer ............................................................................................. 87

Figure D.12 – Block symbol for anti windup integrator ........................................................... 88

Figure D.13 – Block diagram for implementation of anti windup integrator ............................. 88

Figure D.14 – Block symbol for integrator with reset ............................................................. 88

Figure D.15 – Block symbol for first order filter with limitation detection ................................ 89

Figure D.16 – Block diagram for implementation of first order filter with limitation

detection ............................................................................................................................... 89

Figure D.17 – Block symbol rising edge detection ................................................................. 89

Figure D.18 – Block diagram for rising edge detection .......................................................... 90

Figure D.19 – Block symbol falling edge detection ................................................................ 90

Figure D.20 – Block diagram for falling edge detection ......................................................... 90

Figure D.21 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 90

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020

Figure D.22 – Block diagram for implementation of delay flag ............................................... 91

Figure D.23 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 91

Figure D.24 – Block diagram for implementation of variable delay flag .................................. 92

Figure D.25 – Block symbol dead band ................................................................................. 92

Figure D.26 – Block symbol for circuit breaker ...................................................................... 92

Table 1 – Modules used in type 1A model ............................................................................. 27

Table 2 – Modules used in type 1B model ............................................................................. 28

Table 3 – Modules used in type 2 model ............................................................................... 29

Table 4 – Modules used in type 3A model ............................................................................. 31

Table 5 – Modules used in type 3B model ............................................................................. 32

Table 6 – Modules used in type 4A model ............................................................................. 34

Table 7 – Modules used in type 4B model ............................................................................. 36

Table 8 – Modules used in STATCOM model ........................................................................ 38

Table 9 – Modules used in WP control and communication model ......................................... 40

Table 10 – Models and additional modules used in the basic WP model ............................... 41

Table 11 – Models and modules used in the WP model with reactive power

compensation ....................................................................................................................... 42

Table 12 – Global model parameters .................................................................................... 42

Table 13 – Initialisation variable used in module block diagrams ........................................... 43

Table 14 – Parameter list for one-dimensional aerodynamic module ..................................... 44

Table 15 – Parameter list for two-dimensional aerodynamic module...................................... 45

Table 16 – Parameter list for two-mass module ..................................................................... 46

Table 17 – Parameter list for type 3A generator system module ............................................ 47

Table 18 – Parameter list for type 3B generator system module ............................................ 48

Table 19 – Parameter list for type 4 generator system module .............................................. 50

Table 20 – Parameter list for reference frame rotation module .............................................. 50

Table 21 – Parameter list for electrical systems gamma module ........................................... 51

Table 22 – Parameter list for pitch control power module ...................................................... 52

Table 23 – Parameter list for pitch angle control module ....................................................... 53

Table 24 – Parameter list for rotor resistance control module ................................................ 54

Table 25 – Parameter list for P control module type 3 ........................................................... 55

Table 26 – Parameter list for P control module type 4A ......................................................... 58

Table 27 – Parameter list for P control module type 4B ......................................................... 59

Table 28 – General WT Q control modes M ...................................................................... 60

Table 29 – Reactive current injection for each FRT Q control modes M ........................ 60

qFRT

Table 30 – Parameter list for Q control module ..................................................................... 61

Table 31 – Description of F flag values........................................................................... 63

FRT

Table 32 – Parameter list for current limiter module .............................................................. 63

Table 33 – Parameter list for constant Q limitation module .................................................... 64

Table 34 – Parameter list for QP and QU limitation module ................................................... 65

Table 35 – Parameter list for grid protection module ............................................................. 66

Table 36 – Parameter l
...

IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 2.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Generic models
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne –
Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique – Modèles génériques
IEC 61400-27-1:2020-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 61400-27-1
Edition 2.0 2020-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 27-1: Electrical simulation models – Generic models
Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne –
Partie 27-1: Modèles de simulation électrique – Modèles génériques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-1008-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61400-27-1:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 8

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 10

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms, definitions, abbreviations and subscripts ............................................................ 12

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 12

3.2 Abbreviations and subscripts ................................................................................ 16

3.2.1 Abbreviations ................................................................................................. 16

3.2.2 Subscripts ..................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 19

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

4.2 Symbols (units) ..................................................................................................... 19

5 Functional specification of models ................................................................................. 23

5.1 General specifications ........................................................................................... 23

5.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 24

5.3 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 25

6 Formal specification of modular structures of models ..................................................... 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Wind turbine models ............................................................................................. 26

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.2.2 Type 1 ........................................................................................................... 26

6.2.3 Type 2 ........................................................................................................... 28

6.2.4 Type 3 ........................................................................................................... 30

6.2.5 Type 4 ........................................................................................................... 32

6.3 Auxiliary equipment models .................................................................................. 37

6.3.1 STATCOM ..................................................................................................... 37

6.3.2 Other auxiliary equipment .............................................................................. 38

6.4 Wind power plant models ...................................................................................... 38

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 38

6.4.2 Wind power plant control and communication ................................................ 39

6.4.3 Basic wind power plant .................................................................................. 40

6.4.4 Wind power plant with reactive power compensation ..................................... 41

7 Formal specification of modules .................................................................................... 42

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 42

7.2 Aerodynamic modules ........................................................................................... 43

7.2.1 Constant aerodynamic torque module ............................................................ 43

7.2.2 One-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.2.3 Two-dimensional aerodynamic module .......................................................... 44

7.3 Mechanical modules ............................................................................................. 46

7.3.1 Two mass module .......................................................................................... 46

7.3.2 Other mechanical modules ............................................................................ 46

7.4 Generator and converter system modules ............................................................. 46

7.4.1 Asynchronous generator module .................................................................... 46

7.4.2 Type 3A generator system module ................................................................. 47

7.4.3 Type 3B generator system module ................................................................. 48

7.4.4 Type 4 generator system module ................................................................... 49

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7.4.5 Reference frame rotation module ................................................................... 50

7.5 Electrical systems modules ................................................................................... 51

7.5.1 Electrical systems gamma module ................................................................. 51

7.5.2 Other electrical systems modules .................................................................. 52

7.6 Pitch control modules ............................................................................................ 52

7.6.1 Pitch control power module ............................................................................ 52

7.6.2 Pitch angle control module............................................................................. 53

7.7 Generator and converter control modules ............................................................. 54

7.7.1 Rotor resistance control module .................................................................... 54

7.7.2 P control module type 3 ................................................................................. 55

7.7.3 P control module type 4A ............................................................................... 58

7.7.4 P control module type 4B ............................................................................... 59

7.7.5 Q control module ........................................................................................... 60

7.7.6 Current limitation module ............................................................................... 63

7.7.7 Constant Q limitation module ......................................................................... 64

7.7.8 QP and QU limitation module ......................................................................... 65

7.8 Grid interfacing modules ....................................................................................... 66

7.8.1 Grid protection module .................................................................................. 66

7.8.2 Grid measurement module ............................................................................. 67

7.9 Wind power plant control modules......................................................................... 68

7.9.1 WP P control module ..................................................................................... 68

7.9.2 WP Q control module ..................................................................................... 69

7.10 Communication modules ....................................................................................... 71

7.10.1 General ......................................................................................................... 71

7.10.2 Communication delay module ........................................................................ 71

7.10.3 Linear communication module ....................................................................... 71

7.11 Electrical components modules ............................................................................. 72

7.11.1 Line module ................................................................................................... 72

7.11.2 Transformer module ...................................................................................... 72

7.11.3 Other electrical components modules ............................................................ 72

Annex A (informative) Estimation of parameters for single branch power collection

system model........................................................................................................................ 73

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

A.2 Description of method ........................................................................................... 73

A.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

A.2.2 Lines aggregation .......................................................................................... 73

A.2.3 Wind turbine transformers aggregation .......................................................... 74

A.3 Numerical example ............................................................................................... 75

Annex B (informative) Two-dimensional aerodynamic model ................................................ 78

B.1 Objective .............................................................................................................. 78

B.2 Wind speed input model ........................................................................................ 78

B.3 Parameters for power input module ....................................................................... 80

Annex C (informative) Implementation of generator systems modules with external

impedance ............................................................................................................................ 81

Annex D (normative) Block symbol library ............................................................................ 84

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

D.2 Switch ................................................................................................................... 84

D.3 Time step delay .................................................................................................... 84

D.4 Stand-alone ramp rate limiter ................................................................................ 85

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D.5 First order filter ..................................................................................................... 85

D.6 Lookup table ......................................................................................................... 86

D.7 Comparator ........................................................................................................... 86

D.8 Timer .................................................................................................................... 87

D.9 Anti windup integrator ........................................................................................... 88

D.10 Integrator with reset .............................................................................................. 88

D.11 First order filter with limitation detection ................................................................ 89

D.12 Rising edge detection ........................................................................................... 89

D.13 Falling edge detection ........................................................................................... 90

D.14 Delay flag ............................................................................................................. 90

D.15 Variable delay flag ................................................................................................ 91

D.16 Dead band ............................................................................................................ 92

D.17 Circuit breaker ...................................................................................................... 92

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 93

Figure 1 – Classification of power system stability according to IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task

Force on Stability Terms and Definitions [9] .......................................................................... 10

Figure 2 – Generic structure of WT models ........................................................................... 26

Figure 3 – Modular structure of the type 1A WT model .......................................................... 27

Figure 4 – Modular structure of the type 1B WT model .......................................................... 28

Figure 5 – Modular structure of the type 2 WT model ............................................................ 29

Figure 6 – Modular structure of the type 3A and type 3B WT models .................................... 30

Figure 7 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 3A and type 3B models......... 31

Figure 8 – Modular structure of the type 4A WT model .......................................................... 33

Figure 9 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4A model .............................. 34

Figure 10 – Modular structure of the type 4B WT model ........................................................ 35

Figure 11 – Modular generator control sub-structure of the type 4B model ............................ 36

Figure 12 – Modular structure of STATCOM model ............................................................... 37

Figure 13 – Modular structure of the STATCOM control model .............................................. 37

Figure 14 – General structure of WP model .......................................................................... 38

Figure 15 – General modular structure of WP control and communication block .................... 39

Figure 16 – Single line diagram for basic WP model ............................................................. 40

Figure 17 – Single line diagram for WP model with reactive power compensation ................. 41

Figure 18 – Block diagram for constant aerodynamic torque module ..................................... 44

Figure 19 – Block diagram for one-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 44

Figure 20 – Block diagram for two-dimensional aerodynamic module .................................... 45

Figure 21 – Block diagram for two mass module ................................................................... 46

Figure 22 – Block diagram for type 3A generator system module .......................................... 47

Figure 23 – Block diagram for type 3B generator system module .......................................... 49

Figure 24 – Block diagram for type 4 generator system module ............................................ 50

Figure 25 – Block diagram for the reference frame rotation module ....................................... 51

Figure 26 – Single line diagram for electrical systems gamma module .................................. 52

Figure 27 – Block diagram for pitch control power module .................................................... 53

Figure 28 – Block diagram for pitch angle control module ..................................................... 54

Figure 29 – Block diagram for rotor resistance control module .............................................. 55

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Figure 30 – Block diagram for type 3 P control module ......................................................... 57

Figure 31 – Block diagram for type 3 torque PI ..................................................................... 58

Figure 32 – Block diagram for type 4A P control module ....................................................... 59

Figure 33 – Block diagram for type 4B P control module ....................................................... 60

Figure 34 – Block diagram for Q control module .................................................................... 62

Figure 35 – Block diagram for current limiter ......................................................................... 64

Figure 36 – Block diagram for constant Q limitation module .................................................. 65

Figure 37 – Block diagram for QP and QU limitation module ................................................. 65

Figure 38 – Block diagram for grid protection system ............................................................ 67

Figure 39 – Block diagram for u-f measurement .................................................................... 68

Figure 40 – Block diagram for WP power/frequency control module ...................................... 69

Figure 41 – Block diagram for WP reactive power/voltage control module ............................. 70

Figure 42 – Block diagram for communication delay module ................................................. 71

Figure 43 – Block diagram for linear communication module for an example with N

communication variables ....................................................................................................... 72

Figure A.1 – WP power collection system example ............................................................... 75

Figure B.1 – Turbine aerodynamics model proposed by Fortmann (2014) ............................. 78

Figure C.1 – Type 3A generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 81

Figure C.2 – Type 3B generator system module with parallel reactance ................................ 82

Figure C.3 – Type 4 generator system module with parallel reactance .................................. 83

Figure D.1 – Block symbol for switch with a) a variable flag input and b) a constant

mode .................................................................................................................................... 84

Figure D.2 – Block symbol for single integration time step delay ........................................... 84

Figure D.3 – Block symbol for stand-alone ramp rate limiter .................................................. 85

Figure D.4 – Block diagram for implementation of the stand-alone ramp rate limiter .............. 85

Figure D.5 – Block symbol for first order filter with absolute limits, rate limits and

freeze flag ............................................................................................................................ 85

Figure D.6 – Block diagram for implementation of the first order filter with absolute

limits, rate limits and freeze state.......................................................................................... 86

Figure D.7 – Block diagram for implementation of the freeze state without filter (T = 0) ......... 86

Figure D.8 – Block symbol for lookup table ........................................................................... 86

Figure D.9 – Block symbols for comparators ......................................................................... 87

Figure D.10 – Block symbol for timer .................................................................................... 87

Figure D.11 – Function of timer ............................................................................................. 87

Figure D.12 – Block symbol for anti windup integrator ........................................................... 88

Figure D.13 – Block diagram for implementation of anti windup integrator ............................. 88

Figure D.14 – Block symbol for integrator with reset ............................................................. 88

Figure D.15 – Block symbol for first order filter with limitation detection ................................ 89

Figure D.16 – Block diagram for implementation of first order filter with limitation

detection ............................................................................................................................... 89

Figure D.17 – Block symbol rising edge detection ................................................................. 89

Figure D.18 – Block diagram for rising edge detection .......................................................... 90

Figure D.19 – Block symbol falling edge detection ................................................................ 90

Figure D.20 – Block diagram for falling edge detection ......................................................... 90

Figure D.21 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 90

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Figure D.22 – Block diagram for implementation of delay flag ............................................... 91

Figure D.23 – Block symbol for delay flag ............................................................................. 91

Figure D.24 – Block diagram for implementation of variable delay flag .................................. 92

Figure D.25 – Block symbol dead band ................................................................................. 92

Figure D.26 – Block symbol for circuit breaker ...................................................................... 92

Table 1 – Modules used in type 1A model ............................................................................. 27

Table 2 – Modules used in type 1B model ............................................................................. 28

Table 3 – Modules used in type 2 model ............................................................................... 29

Table 4 – Modules used in type 3A model ............................................................................. 31

Table 5 – Modules used in type 3B model ............................................................................. 32

Table 6 – Modules used in type 4A model ............................................................................. 34

Table 7 – Modules used in type 4B model ............................................................................. 36

Table 8 – Modules used in STATCOM model ........................................................................ 38

Table 9 – Modules used in WP control and communication model ......................................... 40

Table 10 – Models and additional modules used in the basic WP model ............................... 41

Table 11 – Models and modules used in the WP model with reactive power

compensation ....................................................................................................................... 42

Table 12 – Global model parameters ......................................
...

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