Nanomanufacturing - Key control characteristics - Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials - Test methods for determination of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes

IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 specifies the test method for determining the resistivity and the contact resistance of an individual CNT and the dependability of the measurement.
This document includes:
– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure resistance of carbon nanotubes,
– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Apr-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Apr-2020
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IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 - Nanomanufacturing - Key control characteristics - Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials - Test methods for determination of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes
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IEC TS 62607-2-4
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics –
Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials – Test methods for determination
of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes
IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020-04(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62607-2-4
Edition 1.0 2020-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
colour
inside
Nanomanufacturing – Key control characteristics –
Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials – Test methods for determination
of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 07.030; 07.120 ISBN 978-2-8322-7968-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ....................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 8

4 Measurement of resistance .............................................................................................. 8

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Method for processing and fabrication of DUT ......................................................... 8

4.3 4-probe measurement ............................................................................................. 8

5 Reporting data ................................................................................................................. 9

6 Data analysis / interpretation of results (Annex A) ......................................................... 10

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Measurement error ............................................................................................... 10

6.3 Need to prepare the proper electric probing circuit ................................................ 11

6.4 Need to prepare the proper substrate and electric contact .................................... 11

6.5 Dynamic range ...................................................................................................... 11

6.6 Current density ..................................................................................................... 11

6.7 Voltage bias of the substrate ................................................................................. 11

6.8 Measurement in vacuum ....................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Case study ........................................................................................ 12

A.1 4-probe measurement of MWCNT ......................................................................... 12

A.1.1 I-V measurements of MWCNT........................................................................ 12

A.1.2 Fabrication process information of MWCNT and DUT .................................... 14

A.2 4-probe measurement of SWCNT .......................................................................... 15

A.2.1 I-V measurements of SWCNT ........................................................................ 15

A.2.2 Fabrication process information of SWCNT and DUT ..................................... 18

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – 4-probe measurement in a SEM chamber ............................................................... 9

Figure 2 – A crooked/curved CNT under measurement ......................................................... 10

Figure 3 – I-V measurement of a sufficiently straight CNT ..................................................... 11

Figure A.1 – I-V measurements of a CNT with different lengths, L......................................... 12

Figure A.2 – I-V relationships for different CNT lengths – 2-probe measurement ................... 13

Figure A.3 – I-V relationships for different CNT lengths – 2-probe measurement (0 to 0,5 V) 13

Figure A.4 – I-V relationships for different CNT lengths – 4-probe measurement ................... 14

Figure A.5 – Resistance vs. CNT length ................................................................................ 14

Figure A.6 – I-V relationships of SWCNT .............................................................................. 15

Figure A.7 – Resistance vs. SWCNT length .......................................................................... 16

Figure A.8 – I-V relationships of SWCNT under the electron-beam exposure ........................ 17

Figure A.9 – Breakdown characteristics of SWCNT ............................................................... 18

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IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
NANOMANUFACTURING –
KEY CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS –
Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials – Test methods for determination
of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes
FOREWORD

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Technical Specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide whether

they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 62607-2-4, which is a Technical Specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 113: Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 © IEC 2020
The text of this Technical Specification is based on the following documents:
DTS Report on voting
113/492/DTS 113/509/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Specification can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62607 series, published under the general title Nanomanufacturing –

Key control characteristics, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the

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• reconfirmed,
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---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one-dimensional conductors that exhibit a rich variety of

low-dimensional electric transport phenomena. Ballistic conduction is the typical nano-enabled

characteristic that possesses the largest potential for industrial application. In the field of

nanoelectronics, for example, CNT-based interconnects are a promising alternative to conventional

Cu interconnects. However, even in the academic research society, the resistive characteristics

have not yet been systematically investigated. This is because these characteristics are very

sensitive to the protocol and the measurement conditions. Furthermore, since the individual CNT

reaches the nanometre dimension, the contact resistance has a larger relative impact on the

measurement. These bottlenecks impede not only the above-mentioned interconnect application but

also developments of various electrotechnical applications, such as thermoelectric devices in which

the electrical resistance is required to evaluate the figure of merit.

This document offers the accurate and reproducible test method for determining the resistance of

CNT and the dependability of the measurement.
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– 6 – IEC TS 62607-2-4:2020 © IEC 2020
NANOMANUFACTURING –
KEY CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS –
Part 2-4: Carbon nanotube materials – Test methods for determination
of resistance of individual carbon nanotubes
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62607 specifies the test method for determining the resistivity and the contact

resistance of an individual CNT and the dependability of the measurement.
This document includes:

– outlines of the experimental procedures used to measure resistance of carbon nanotubes,

– methods of interpretation of results and discussion of data analysis, and
– case studies.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

IEC 62624, Test methods for measurement of electrical properties of carbon nanotubes

ISO/TS 80004-1, Nanotechnologies – Vocabulary – Part 1: Core terms

NOTE IEC 62624 describes the general procedures for characterization of CNT. For example, no environmental condition

is specifically required. On the other hand, this document focuses not only on the characterization of the individual CNT

but also the reproducibility. To obtain the intrinsic nano-originated result and to measure up to the dependable

measurement, in-vacuum non-destructive measurements are indispensable, and therefore this document

(IEC TS 62607-2-4) is required.
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TS 80004-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.
...

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