Optical amplifiers - Part 8: High-power amplifiers

IEC TR 61292-8:2019, which is a technical report, deals with high-power optical amplifiers. It provides general information relating to high-power optical amplifiers with an output power greater than 500 mW for the fibre communication field. It covers the following aspects:
- general information;
- example of the optical amplifier's configuration realizing high optical output power;
- test method for optical output power and gain;
- considerations on high-power optical amplifiers.
Potential applications of high-power optical amplifiers are briefly reviewed in Annex A.
Informative IEC documents related to high optical power are listed in Annex B.
Keywords: high-power amplifiers

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jan-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Jan-2019
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IEC TR 61292-8
Edition 1.0 2019-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Optical amplifiers –
Part 8: High-power amplifiers
IEC TR 61292-8:2019-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 61292-8
Edition 1.0 2019-01
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Optical amplifiers –
Part 8: High-power amplifiers
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.10, 33.180.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-6421-8

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms ....................................................................... 6

3.1 Terms and definitions .............................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................... 6

4 General ........................................................................................................................... 7

5 Configuration ................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 EDFAs using combined single-mode pump laser diodes .......................................... 7

5.2 Cladding pumped fibre amplifier .............................................................................. 9

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 9

5.2.2 Cladding-pumped methodology ........................................................................ 9

6 Test method .................................................................................................................. 13

7 Special considerations for high-power optical amplifiers ................................................ 14

7.1 Design considerations ........................................................................................... 14

7.2 Handling and safety consideration ........................................................................ 14

Annex A (informative) Application of high-power OAs ......................................................... 15

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 15

A.2 Power amplifier for FTTH PON systems ................................................................ 15

A.3 Ultra-long-haul DWDM transport system ............................................................... 15

Annex B (informative) IEC documents on high optical power ................................................ 16

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of EDFA using multiplexed single-mode pump lasers ............... 7

Figure 2 – Output characteristics of a high-power EDFA ......................................................... 8

Figure 3 – Schematic diagram of an EDFA using a cascaded Raman resonator ...................... 8

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of a cladding-pumped fibre amplifier ........................................ 9

Figure 5 – Schematic of cladding pumping .............................................................................. 9

Figure 6 – Schematic structure of end-pumping .................................................................... 10

Figure 7 – Schematic structure of a fibre bundle power combiner.......................................... 10

Figure 8 – V-groove side pumping arrangement .................................................................... 11

Figure 9 – Schematic diagram of a cross section of an example of double-

cladding fibre ........................................................................................................................ 11

Figure 10 – Cross-section of the hole-assisted double cladding fibre .................................... 12

Figure 11 – Typical optical output power vs drive current on 980-nm multimode pump

laser modules ....................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 12 – Configuration of double-cladding pumped amplifier ............................................ 13

Figure 13 – Typical power conversion efficiency (PCE) of erbium - ytterbium co-doped

double-clad (DC) fibre amplifier ............................................................................................ 13

Figure 14 –Test setup to measure optical output power and gain .......................................... 14

Figure A.1 – Schematic diagram of FTTH system adapted high-power OA ............................ 15

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IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 8: High-power amplifiers
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 61292-8, which is a technical report, has been prepared by subcommittee 86C: Fibre

optic systems and active devices, of IEC technical committee 86: Fibre optics.

Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association (OITDA), Technical Paper

OITDA/TP 26/AM, General information for high power optical amplifier has served as the

basis for the elaboration of this Technical Report.
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– 4 – IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Draft TR Report on voting
86C/1534/DTR 86C/1549/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 61292 series, published under the general title Optical amplifiers,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Optical amplifiers (OAs) are necessary components as booster, line and pre-amplifiers for

current optical network systems. IEC TC 86/SC 86C, therefore, has published many standards

for OAs. Since the mid-2000s, high optical output power amplifiers have been used for

applications in passive optical network (PON) and community access television (CATV)

systems.

Although OAs with optical power greater than 500 mW are deployed in the field, there are

very few documents addressing high optical power applications.

This document provides a better understanding of high-power amplifiers, especially those

based on cladding pump technology, and addresses the handling of high optical power.

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– 6 – IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS –
Part 8: High-power amplifiers
1 Scope

This document deals with high-power optical amplifiers. It provides general information

relating to high-power optical amplifiers with an output power greater than 500 mW for the

fibre communication field. It covers the following aspects:
– general information;

– example of the optical amplifier's configuration realizing high optical output power;

– test method for optical output power and gain;
– considerations on high-power optical amplifiers.

Potential applications of high-power optical amplifiers are briefly reviewed in Annex A.

Informative IEC documents related to high optical power are listed in Annex B.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 61291-1, Optical amplifiers – Part 1: Generic specification
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.2 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in IEC 61291-1 and the

following apply.
ASE amplified spontaneous emission
CO central office
DC double-clad
DWDM dense wavelength division multiplexing
EDF erbium-doped fibre
EDFA erbium-doped fibre amplifier
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IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019 – 7 –
FTTH fibre to the home
HP-EDFA high-power erbium-doped fibre amplifier
MLFL mode-locked fibre laser
MM multi-mode
MUX multiplexer
NA numerical aperture
OA optical amplifier
OFA optical fibre amplifier
OLT optical line termination
ONU optical network unit
OSNR optical signal-to-noise ratio
PCE power conversion efficiency
PON passive optical network
SM single-mode
TV television
V-OLT video optical line termination
V-ONU video optical network unit
WDM wavelength division multiplexing
4 General

This document provides typical configuration and performance of high-power optical amplifiers

and guidance of test method and special consideration. Potential applications of high-power

optical amplifiers are also briefly reviewed in Annex A. Informative IEC documents related to

high optical power are listed in Annex B.
5 Configuration
5.1 EDFAs using combined single-mode pump laser diodes

Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of an erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) using multiple

single-mode pump lasers. Multiplexing many single-mode pump lasers within the 1 4xx-nm

band is commonly used to obtain high power output, since EDF has a wide absorption

spectrum in the 1 480-nm band compared to the 980-nm band. The closeness of 1 480-nm

pumping and signal wavelengths also benefits power conversion efficiency and thus mean

1 480-nm pumps are used for high power.
Figure 1 – Schematic diagram of EDFA using multiplexed single-mode pump lasers
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– 8 – IEC TR 61292-8:2019  IEC 2019
Figure 2 shows an example of the output characteristics of a high-power EDFA.
Figure 2 – Output characteristics of a high-power EDFA

In addition to the design of wavelength multiplexing, the concept of polarization multiplexing

technologies, which combines two input pump light sources in orthogonal polarizations into

one output, is also applicable to realize higher output power. By using a number of

wavelengths in wavelength division multiplexing, it is possible to obtain high pump power

although it is necessary to stabilize the wavelength. As the number of wavelengths increases,

the insertion loss of the multiplexer increases. Thus, the optical power conversion efficiency

gets worse. On the other hand, polarization multiplexing does not need to stabilize the

wavelength, so it is useful way when there are a few pumping lasers to be multiplexed. If

signals into EDF are polarized, polarization multiplexing can suffer from needing to balance

the powers into the mult
...

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