Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-worn wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation and procedures (Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)

IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 specifies protocols and test procedures for the reproducible and repeatable measurement of the conservative exposure peak spatial average SAR (psSAR) induced inside a simplified model of the head and the body by radio-frequency (RF) transmitting devices, with a defined measurement uncertainty. These protocols and procedures apply to a significant majority of the population, including children, during the use of hand-held and body-worn wireless communication devices. These devices include single or multiple transmitters or antennas, and are operated with their radiating structure(s) at distances up to 200 mm from a human head or body. This document is employed to evaluate SAR compliance of different types of wireless communication devices used next to the ear, in front of the face, mounted on the body, operating in conjunction with other RF-transmitting, non-transmitting devices or accessories (e.g. belt-clips), or embedded in garments. The applicable frequency range is from 4 MHz to 10 GHz. Devices operating in the applicable frequency range can be tested using the phantoms and other requirements defined in this document.
The device categories covered include, but are not limited to, mobile telephones, cordless microphones, and radio transmitters in personal, desktop and laptop computers, for multi band operations using single or multiple antennas, including push-to-talk devices. This document can also be applied for wireless power transfer devices operating above 4 MHz.
This document does not apply to implanted medical devices.
This first edition of IEC/IEEE 62209-1528 cancels and replaces IEC 62209-1:2016, IEC 62209-2:2010, IEC 62209 2:2010/AMD1:2019 and IEEE Std 1528:2013. This edition constitutes a technical revision.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) extension of the frequency range down to 4 MHz and up to 10 GHz;
b) testing of devices with proximity sensors;
c) application specific phantoms;
d) device holder specifications;
e) fast SAR testing procedures;
f) test reduction procedures;
g) LTE assessment procedure;
h) revision of validation clause, including validation antennas;
i) revision of SAR assessment procedure;
j) time-average SAR measurement procedure;
k) uncertainty analysis;
This publication is published as an IEC/IEEE Dual Logo standard.

Procédure de mesure pour l'évaluation du débit d'absorption spécifique de l'exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs de communications sans fil tenus à la main ou portés près du corps - Partie 1528: Modèles humains, instrumentation et procédures (plage de fréquences comprise entre 4 MHz et 10 GHz)

L’IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 précise les protocoles et procédures d’essai pour la mesure reproductible et reproductible du pic d’exposition conservateur sar moyenne spatiale (PSSAR) induit à l’intérieur d’un modèle simplifié de la tête et du corps par radiofréquence (RF) dispositifs de transmission, avec une incertitude de mesure définie. Ces protocoles et procédures s’appliquent à une grande majorité de la population, y compris les enfants, lors de l’utilisation d’appareils de communication sans fil portables et portés par le corps. Ces dispositifs comprennent des émetteurs ou antennes simples ou multiples, et sont actionnés avec leur structure rayonnante (s) à des distances allant jusqu’à 200 mm d’une tête ou d’un corps humain. Ce document est utilisé pour évaluer la conformité SAR des différents types d’appareils de communication sans fil utilisés à côté de l’oreille, devant le visage, montés sur le corps, fonctionnant conjointement avec d’autres appareils ou accessoires de transmission RF et non transmissibles (p. ex. pinces à courroie), ou intégrés dans des vêtements. La plage de fréquence applicable est de 4 MHz à 10 GHz. Les appareils fonctionnant dans la plage de fréquences applicable peuvent être testés à l’aide des fantômes et d’autres exigences définies dans ce document.
Les catégories d’appareils couvertes comprennent, sans s’y limiter, les téléphones mobiles, les microphones sans fil et les émetteurs radio dans les ordinateurs personnels, de bureau et les ordinateurs portables, pour les opérations multi-bandes utilisant des antennes simples ou multiples, y compris les appareils push-to-talk. Ce document peut également être appliqué pour les appareils de transfert d’énergie sans fil fonctionnant au-dessus de 4 MHz.
Ce document ne s’applique pas aux dispositifs médicaux implantés.
Cette première édition de l’IEC/IEEE 62209-1528 annule et remplace iEC 62209-1:2016, IEC 62209-2:2010, IEC 62209 2:2010/AMD1:2019 et IEEE Std 1528:2013. Cette édition constitue une révision technique.
Cette édition comprend les changements techniques importants suivants par rapport à l’édition précédente :
a) l’extension de la plage de fréquences jusqu’à 4 MHz et jusqu’à 10 GHz;
b) l’essai d’appareils à capteurs de proximité;
c) l’application de fantômes spécifiques;
d) spécifications du support de l’appareil;
e) des procédures d’essai sar rapides;
f) les procédures de réduction des tests;
g) procédure d’évaluation du LTE;
h) révision de la clause de validation, y compris les antennes de validation;
i) révision de la procédure d’évaluation sar;
j) procédure de mesure SAR moyenne dans le temps;
k) l’analyse de l’incertitude;
Cette publication est publiée sous la forme d’une norme IEC/IEEE Dual Logo.

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Publication Date
18-Oct-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
19-Oct-2020
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IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 - Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-worn wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation and procedures (Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)
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IEC/IEEE 62209-1528
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of
human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices –
Part 1528: Human models, instrumentation, and procedures
(Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)
IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020-10(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland
Copyright © 2020 IEEE

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62209-1528
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of
human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices –
Part 1528: Human models, instrumentation, and procedures
(Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-8533-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020
© IEC/IEEE 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 14

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 17

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 18

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 18

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 26

4.1 Physical quantities ................................................................................................ 26

4.2 Constants ............................................................................................................. 26

4.3 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 27

5 Quick start guide and evaluation plan checklist .............................................................. 28

6 Measurement system specifications ............................................................................... 30

6.1 General requirements for full SAR testing ............................................................. 30

6.2 Phantom specifications ......................................................................................... 31

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

6.2.2 Basic phantom parameters ............................................................................ 31

6.2.3 Head phantom ............................................................................................... 33

6.2.4 Flat phantom ................................................................................................. 34

6.2.5 Device-specific phantoms .............................................................................. 35

6.3 Influence of hand on SAR in head ......................................................................... 35

6.4 Scanning system requirements ............................................................................. 36

6.5 Device holder specifications .................................................................................. 36

6.6 Characteristics of the readout electronics ............................................................. 37

7 Protocol for SAR assessment ........................................................................................ 37

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

7.2 Measurement preparation ..................................................................................... 37

7.2.1 Preparation of tissue-equivalent medium and system check........................... 37

7.2.2 Preparation of the wireless communication DUT ............................................ 38

7.2.3 DUT operating mode requirements ................................................................ 38

7.2.4 Positioning of the DUT relative to the phantom .............................................. 40

7.2.5 Antenna configurations .................................................................................. 57

7.2.6 Options and accessories ................................................................................ 57

7.2.7 DUTs with alternative form factor ................................................................... 57

7.2.8 Test frequencies for DUTs ............................................................................. 58

7.3 Tests to be performed for DUTs ............................................................................ 58

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 58

7.3.2 Basic approach for DUT testing ..................................................................... 59

7.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 60

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

7.4.2 Full SAR testing procedure ............................................................................ 60

7.4.3 Drift ............................................................................................................... 64

7.4.4 SAR measurements of DUTs with multiple antennas or multiple

transmitters ................................................................................................... 66

7.5 Post-processing of SAR measurement data .......................................................... 72

7.5.1 Interpolation .................................................................................................. 72

7.5.2 Extrapolation ................................................................................................. 72

7.5.3 Definition of the averaging volume ................................................................. 72

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IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 – 3 –
© IEC/IEEE 2020

7.5.4 Searching for the maxima .............................................................................. 73

7.6 Time-period averaged SAR considerations............................................................ 73

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

7.6.2 RF conducted power ...................................................................................... 73

7.6.3 Time-period averaged SAR measurement settings for SAR

measurement methods .................................................................................. 73

7.6.4 Exposure condition and test position considerations ...................................... 74

7.6.5 Time-period averaged SAR for simultaneous transmission ............................. 74

7.6.6 TX factor assessment .................................................................................... 74

7.6.7 SAR measurements ....................................................................................... 75

7.6.8 Uncertainty in TPAS evaluations .................................................................... 75

7.7 Proximity sensors considerations .......................................................................... 76

7.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 76

7.7.2 Procedures for determining proximity sensor triggering distances .................. 77

7.7.3 Procedure for determining proximity sensor coverage area ............................ 80

7.7.4 SAR measurement procedure involving proximity sensors ............................. 81

7.8 SAR correction for deviations of complex permittivity from targets ........................ 81

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 81

7.8.2 SAR correction formula .................................................................................. 82

7.8.3 Uncertainty of the correction formula ............................................................. 83

7.9 Minimization of testing time ................................................................................... 83

7.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 83

7.9.2 Fast SAR testing............................................................................................ 84

7.9.3 SAR test reductions ....................................................................................... 89

8 Measurement uncertainty estimation............................................................................ 100

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 100

8.2 Requirements on the uncertainty evaluation ........................................................ 101

8.3 Description of uncertainty models ....................................................................... 102

8.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 102

8.3.2 SAR measurement of a DUT ........................................................................ 102

8.3.3 System validation and system check measurement ...................................... 102

8.3.4 System check repeatability and reproducibility ............................................. 102

8.3.5 Fast SAR testing (relative measurement) ..................................................... 102

8.4 Parameters contributing to uncertainty ................................................................ 104

8.4.1 Measurement system errors......................................................................... 104

8.4.2 Phantom and device (DUT or validation antenna) errors .............................. 105

8.4.3 Corrections to the SAR result (if applied) ..................................................... 107

9 Measurement report .................................................................................................... 108

9.1 General ............................................................................................................... 108

9.2 Items to be recorded in the measurement report ................................................. 108

Annex A (normative) SAR measurement system verification .............................................. 112

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 112

A.2 System check ..................................................................................................... 112

A.2.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................... 112

A.2.2 Phantom set-up ........................................................................................... 113

A.2.3 System check antenna ................................................................................. 113

A.2.4 System check antenna input power measurement ........................................ 114

A.2.5 System check procedure .............................................................................. 115

A.2.6 System check acceptance criteria ................................................................ 116

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020
© IEC/IEEE 2020

A.3 System validation ................................................................................................ 116

A.3.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................... 116

A.3.2 Phantom set-up ........................................................................................... 116

A.3.3 System validation antennas ......................................................................... 116

A.3.4 Input power measurement ........................................................................... 117

A.3.5 System validation procedure ........................................................................ 117

A.4 Fast SAR testing system validation and system check ........................................ 119

A.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 119

A.4.2 Fast SAR testing system validation .............................................................. 119

A.4.3 Fast SAR testing system check .................................................................... 120

Annex B (informative) SAR test reduction supporting information ....................................... 122

B.1 General ............................................................................................................... 122

B.2 Test reduction based on characteristics of DUT design ....................................... 122

B.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 122

B.2.2 Statistical analysis overview ........................................................................ 122

B.2.3 Analysis results ........................................................................................... 123

B.2.4 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 126

B.2.5 Expansion to multi-transmission antennas ................................................... 126

B.3 Test reduction based on analysis of SAR results on other signal modulations ..... 126

B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 126

B.3.2 Analysis results ........................................................................................... 127

B.4 Test reduction based on SAR level analysis ........................................................ 128

B.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 128

B.4.2 Statistical analysis ....................................................................................... 129

B.4.3 Test reduction applicability example ............................................................ 132

B.5 Other statistical approaches to search for the high SAR test configurations ........ 134

B.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 134

B.5.2 Test reductions based on a DOE ................................................................. 134

B.5.3 One factor at a time (OFAT) search ............................................................. 134

B.5.4 Analysis of unstructured data ....................................................................... 134

Annex C (informative) Measurement uncertainty of results obtained from specific fast

SAR testing methods .......................................................................................................... 135

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 135

C.2 Measurement uncertainty evaluation – contributing parameters .......................... 135

C.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 135

C.2.2 Probe calibration and system calibration drift ............................................... 136

C.2.3 Isotropy ....................................................................................................... 136

C.2.4 Probe positioning ......................................................................................... 137

C.2.5 Mutual sensor coupling ................................................................................ 138

C.2.6 Scattering within the probe array ................................................................. 139

C.2.7 Sampling error ............................................................................................. 139

C.2.8 Array boundaries ......................................................................................... 139

C.2.9 Probe or probe array coupling with the DUT ................................................ 139

C.2.10 Measurement system immunity / secondary reception ................................. 139

C.2.11 Deviations in phantom shape ....................................................................... 140

C.2.12 Spatial variation in dielectric properties ....................................................... 140

C.2.13 Reconstruction ............................................................................................ 140

C.3 Uncertainty budget .............................................................................................. 140

Annex D (normative) SAR system validation antennas ....................................................... 143

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020 – 5 –
© IEC/IEEE 2020

D.1 General antenna requirements ............................................................................ 143

D.2 Standard dipole antenna ..................................................................................... 143

D.2.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 143

D.2.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 146

D.3 Standard waveguide ........................................................................................... 148

D.3.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 148

D.3.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 149

D.4 System validation antennas for below 150 MHz .................................................. 149

D.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 149

D.4.2 Confined loop antenna ................................................................................. 150

D.4.3 Meander dipole antenna .............................................................................. 152

D.5 Orthogonal E-field source – VPIFA ..................................................................... 153

D.5.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 153

D.5.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 156

Annex E (normative) Calibration and characterization of dosimetric (SAR) probes ............. 157

E.1 Introductory remarks ........................................................................................... 157

E.2 Linearity .............................................................................................................. 158

E.3 Assessment of the sensitivity of the dipole sensors ............................................. 158

E.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 158

E.3.2 Two-step calibration procedures .................................................................. 158

E.3.3 One-step calibration procedure – reference antenna method ....................... 164

E.3.4 One-step calibration procedure – coaxial calorimeter method ...................... 168

E.4 Isotropy .............................................................................................................. 170

E.4.1 Axial isotropy ............................................................................................... 170

E.4.2 Hemispherical isotropy ................................................................................ 170

E.5 Lower detection limit ........................................................................................... 175

E.6 Boundary effect................................................................................................... 176

E.7 Response time .................................................................................................... 176

Annex F (informative) Example recipes for phantom tissue-equivalent media ..................... 177

F.1 General ............................................................................................................... 177

F.2 Ingredients .......................................................................................................... 177

F.3 Tissue-equivalent medium liquid formulas (permittivity/conductivity) ................... 178

Annex G (normative) Phantom specifications ..................................................................... 180

G.1 Rationale for the phantom characteristics ........................................................... 180

G.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 180

G.1.2 Rationale for the SAM phantom ................................................................... 180

G.1.3 Rationale for the flat phantom ...................................................................... 180

G.2 SAM phantom specifications ............................................................................... 181

G.2.1 General SAM phantom specifications........................................................... 181

G.2.2 SAM phantom shell specification ................................................................. 185

G.3 Flat phantom specifications ................................................................................. 187

G.4 Justification of flat phantom dimensions .............................................................. 188

G.5 Rationale for tissue-equivalent media ................................................................. 191

G.6 Definition of a phantom coordinate system and a DUT coordinate system ........... 193

Annex H (informative) Measurement of the dielectric properties of tissue-equivalent

media and uncertainty estimation ........................................................................................ 195

H.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 195

H.2 Measurement techniques .................................................................................... 195

H.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 195

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020
© IEC/IEEE 2020

H.2.2 Instrumentation ............................................................................................ 195

H.2.3 General principles ....................................................................................... 195

H.3 Slotted coaxial transmission line ......................................................................... 196

H.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 196

H.3.2 Equipment set-up ........................................................................................ 196

H.3.3 Measurement procedure .............................................................................. 197

H.4 Contact coaxial probe ......................................................................................... 197

H.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 197

H.4.2 Equipment set-up ........................................................................................ 198

H.4.3 Measurement procedure .............................................................................. 199

H.5 TEM transmission line ......................................................................................... 199

H.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 199

H.5.2 Equipment set-up ........................................................................................ 200

H.5.3 Measurement procedure .............................................................................. 200

H.6 Dielectric properties of reference liquids ............................................................. 201

Annex I (informative) Studies for potential hand effects on head SAR ................................ 204

I.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 204

I.2 Background......................................................................................................... 204

I.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 204

I.2.2 Hand phantoms ........................................................................................... 205

I.3 Summary of experimental studies ....................................................................... 205

I.3.1 Experimental studies using fully compliant SAR measurement systems ....... 205

I.3.2 Experimental studies using other SAR measurement systems ..................... 205

I.4 Summary of computational studies ...................................................................... 206

I.5 Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 206

Annex J (informative) Skin enhancement factor ................................................................. 207

J.1 Background......................................................................................................... 207

J.2 Rationale ............................................................................................................ 208

J.3 Simulations .............................
...

IEC/IEEE 62209-1528
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of
human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices –
Part 1528: Human models, instrumentation, and procedures
(Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)
Procédure de mesure pour l'évaluation du débit d'absorption spécifique de
l'exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs
de communications sans fil tenus à la main ou portés près du corps –
Partie 1528: Modèles humains, instrumentation et procédures
(Plage de fréquences comprise entre 4 MHz et 10 GHz)
IEC/IEEE 62209-1528:2020-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2020 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland
Copyright © 2020 IEEE

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing being

secured. Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either IEC at the address below or IEC’s

member National Committee in the country of the requester or from IEEE.
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3, rue de Varembé 3 Park Avenue
CH-1211 Geneva 20 New York, NY 10016-5997
Switzerland United States of America
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11 stds.ipr@ieee.org
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IEC/IEEE 62209-1528
Edition 1.0 2020-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Measurement procedure for the assessment of specific absorption rate of
human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices –
Part 1528: Human models, instrumentation, and procedures
(Frequency range of 4 MHz to 10 GHz)
Procédure de mesure pour l'évaluation du débit d'absorption spécifique de
l'exposition humaine aux champs radiofréquence produits par les dispositifs
de communications sans fil tenus à la main ou portés près du corps –
Partie 1528: Modèles humains, instrumentation et procédures
(Plage de fréquences comprise entre 4 MHz et 10 GHz)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-9562-5

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CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 14

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 17

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 18

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 18

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 18

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ..................................................................................... 26

4.1 Physical quantities ................................................................................................ 26

4.2 Constants ............................................................................................................. 26

4.3 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 27

5 Quick start guide and evaluation plan checklist .............................................................. 28

6 Measurement system specifications ............................................................................... 30

6.1 General requirements for full SAR testing ............................................................. 30

6.2 Phantom specifications ......................................................................................... 31

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

6.2.2 Basic phantom parameters ............................................................................ 31

6.2.3 Head phantom ............................................................................................... 33

6.2.4 Flat phantom ................................................................................................. 34

6.2.5 Device-specific phantoms .............................................................................. 35

6.3 Influence of hand on SAR in head ......................................................................... 35

6.4 Scanning system requirements ............................................................................. 36

6.5 Device holder specifications .................................................................................. 36

6.6 Characteristics of the readout electronics ............................................................. 37

7 Protocol for SAR assessment ........................................................................................ 37

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 37

7.2 Measurement preparation ..................................................................................... 37

7.2.1 Preparation of tissue-equivalent medium and system check........................... 37

7.2.2 Preparation of the wireless communication DUT ............................................ 38

7.2.3 DUT operating mode requirements ................................................................ 38

7.2.4 Positioning of the DUT relative to the phantom .............................................. 40

7.2.5 Antenna configurations .................................................................................. 57

7.2.6 Options and accessories ................................................................................ 57

7.2.7 DUTs with alternative form factor ................................................................... 57

7.2.8 Test frequencies for DUTs ............................................................................. 58

7.3 Tests to be performed for DUTs ............................................................................ 58

7.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 58

7.3.2 Basic approach for DUT testing ..................................................................... 59

7.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 60

7.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

7.4.2 Full SAR testing procedure ............................................................................ 60

7.4.3 Drift ............................................................................................................... 64

7.4.4 SAR measurements of DUTs with multiple antennas or multiple

transmitters ................................................................................................... 66

7.5 Post-processing of SAR measurement data .......................................................... 72

7.5.1 Interpolation .................................................................................................. 72

7.5.2 Extrapolation ................................................................................................. 72

7.5.3 Definition of the averaging volume ................................................................. 72

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7.5.4 Searching for the maxima .............................................................................. 73

7.6 Time-period averaged SAR considerations............................................................ 73

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 73

7.6.2 RF conducted power ...................................................................................... 73

7.6.3 Time-period averaged SAR measurement settings for SAR

measurement methods .................................................................................. 73

7.6.4 Exposure condition and test position considerations ...................................... 74

7.6.5 Time-period averaged SAR for simultaneous transmission ............................. 74

7.6.6 TX factor assessment .................................................................................... 74

7.6.7 SAR measurements ....................................................................................... 75

7.6.8 Uncertainty in TPAS evaluations .................................................................... 75

7.7 Proximity sensors considerations .......................................................................... 76

7.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 76

7.7.2 Procedures for determining proximity sensor triggering distances .................. 77

7.7.3 Procedure for determining proximity sensor coverage area ............................ 80

7.7.4 SAR measurement procedure involving proximity sensors ............................. 81

7.8 SAR correction for deviations of complex permittivity from targets ........................ 81

7.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 81

7.8.2 SAR correction formula .................................................................................. 82

7.8.3 Uncertainty of the correction formula ............................................................. 83

7.9 Minimization of testing time ................................................................................... 83

7.9.1 General ......................................................................................................... 83

7.9.2 Fast SAR testing............................................................................................ 84

7.9.3 SAR test reductions ....................................................................................... 89

8 Measurement uncertainty estimation............................................................................ 100

8.1 General ............................................................................................................... 100

8.2 Requirements on the uncertainty evaluation ........................................................ 101

8.3 Description of uncertainty models ....................................................................... 102

8.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 102

8.3.2 SAR measurement of a DUT ........................................................................ 102

8.3.3 System validation and system check measurement ...................................... 102

8.3.4 System check repeatability and reproducibility ............................................. 102

8.3.5 Fast SAR testing (relative measurement) ..................................................... 102

8.4 Parameters contributing to uncertainty ................................................................ 104

8.4.1 Measurement system errors......................................................................... 104

8.4.2 Phantom and device (DUT or validation antenna) errors .............................. 105

8.4.3 Corrections to the SAR result (if applied) ..................................................... 107

9 Measurement report .................................................................................................... 108

9.1 General ............................................................................................................... 108

9.2 Items to be recorded in the measurement report ................................................. 108

Annex A (normative) SAR measurement system verification .............................................. 112

A.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 112

A.2 System check ..................................................................................................... 112

A.2.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................... 112

A.2.2 Phantom set-up ........................................................................................... 113

A.2.3 System check antenna ................................................................................. 113

A.2.4 System check antenna input power measurement ........................................ 114

A.2.5 System check procedure .............................................................................. 115

A.2.6 System check acceptance criteria ................................................................ 116

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A.3 System validation ................................................................................................ 116

A.3.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................... 116

A.3.2 Phantom set-up ........................................................................................... 116

A.3.3 System validation antennas ......................................................................... 116

A.3.4 Input power measurement ........................................................................... 117

A.3.5 System validation procedure ........................................................................ 117

A.4 Fast SAR testing system validation and system check ........................................ 119

A.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 119

A.4.2 Fast SAR testing system validation .............................................................. 119

A.4.3 Fast SAR testing system check .................................................................... 120

Annex B (informative) SAR test reduction supporting information ....................................... 122

B.1 General ............................................................................................................... 122

B.2 Test reduction based on characteristics of DUT design ....................................... 122

B.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 122

B.2.2 Statistical analysis overview ........................................................................ 122

B.2.3 Analysis results ........................................................................................... 123

B.2.4 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 126

B.2.5 Expansion to multi-transmission antennas ................................................... 126

B.3 Test reduction based on analysis of SAR results on other signal modulations ..... 126

B.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 126

B.3.2 Analysis results ........................................................................................... 127

B.4 Test reduction based on SAR level analysis ........................................................ 128

B.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 128

B.4.2 Statistical analysis ....................................................................................... 129

B.4.3 Test reduction applicability example ............................................................ 132

B.5 Other statistical approaches to search for the high SAR test configurations ........ 134

B.5.1 General ....................................................................................................... 134

B.5.2 Test reductions based on a DOE ................................................................. 134

B.5.3 One factor at a time (OFAT) search ............................................................. 134

B.5.4 Analysis of unstructured data ....................................................................... 134

Annex C (informative) Measurement uncertainty of results obtained from specific fast

SAR testing methods .......................................................................................................... 135

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 135

C.2 Measurement uncertainty evaluation – contributing parameters .......................... 135

C.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 135

C.2.2 Probe calibration and system calibration drift ............................................... 136

C.2.3 Isotropy ....................................................................................................... 136

C.2.4 Probe positioning ......................................................................................... 137

C.2.5 Mutual sensor coupling ................................................................................ 138

C.2.6 Scattering within the probe array ................................................................. 139

C.2.7 Sampling error ............................................................................................. 139

C.2.8 Array boundaries ......................................................................................... 139

C.2.9 Probe or probe array coupling with the DUT ................................................ 139

C.2.10 Measurement system immunity / secondary reception ................................. 139

C.2.11 Deviations in phantom shape ....................................................................... 140

C.2.12 Spatial variation in dielectric properties ....................................................... 140

C.2.13 Reconstruction ............................................................................................ 140

C.3 Uncertainty budget .............................................................................................. 140

Annex D (normative) SAR system validation antennas ....................................................... 143

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D.1 General antenna requirements ............................................................................ 143

D.2 Standard dipole antenna ..................................................................................... 143

D.2.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 143

D.2.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 146

D.3 Standard waveguide ........................................................................................... 148

D.3.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 148

D.3.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 149

D.4 System validation antennas for below 150 MHz .................................................. 149

D.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 149

D.4.2 Confined loop antenna ................................................................................. 150

D.4.3 Meander dipole antenna .............................................................................. 152

D.5 Orthogonal E-field source – VPIFA ..................................................................... 153

D.5.1 Mechanical description ................................................................................ 153

D.5.2 Numerical target SAR values ....................................................................... 156

Annex E (normative) Calibration and characterization of dosimetric (SAR) probes ............. 157

E.1 Introductory remarks ........................................................................................... 157

E.2 Linearity .............................................................................................................. 158

E.3 Assessment of the sensitivity of the dipole sensors ............................................. 158

E.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 158

E.3.2 Two-step calibration procedures .................................................................. 158

E.3.3 One-step calibration procedure – reference antenna method ....................... 164

E.3.4 One-step calibration procedure – coaxial calorimeter method ...................... 168

E.4 Isotropy .............................................................................................................. 170

E.4.1 Axial isotropy ............................................................................................... 170

E.4.2 Hemispherical isotropy ................................................................................ 170

E.5 Lower detection limit ........................................................................................... 175

E.6 Boundary effect................................................................................................... 176

E.7 Response time .................................................................................................... 176

Annex F (informative) Example recipes for phantom tissue-equivalent media ..................... 177

F.1 General ............................................................................................................... 177

F.2 Ingredients .......................................................................................................... 177

F.3 Tissue-equivalent medium liquid formulas (permittivity/conductivity) ................... 178

Annex G (normative) Phantom specifications ..................................................................... 180

G.1 Rationale for the phantom characteristics ........................................................... 180

G.1.1 General ....................................................................................................... 180

G.1.2 Rationale for the SAM phantom ................................................................... 180

G.1.3 Rationale for the flat phantom ...................................................................... 180

G.2 SAM phantom specifications ............................................................................... 181

G.2.1 General SAM phantom specifications........................................................... 181

G.2.2 SAM phantom shell specification ................................................................. 185

G.3 Flat phantom specifications ................................................................................. 187

G.4 Justification of flat phantom dimensions .............................................................. 188

G.5 Rationale for tissue-equivalent media ................................................................. 191

G.6 Definition of a phantom coordinate system and a DUT coordinate system ........... 193

Annex H (informative) Measurement of the dielectric properties of tissue-equivalent

media and uncertainty estimation ........................................................................................ 195

H.1 Overview............................................................................................................. 195

H.2 Measurement techniques .................................................................................... 195

H.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 195

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H.2.2 Instrumentation ............................................................................................ 195

H.2.3 General principles ....................................................................................... 195

H.3 Slotted coaxial transmission line ......................................................................... 196

H.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 196

H.3.2 Equipment set-up ........................................................................................ 196

H.3.3 Measurement procedure .............................................................................. 197

H.4 Contact coaxial probe ......................................................................................... 197

H.4.1 General ....................................................................................................... 197

H.4.2 Equipment set-up ........................................................................................ 198

H.4.3 Measuremen
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