Semiconductor converters - General requirements and line commutated converters - Part 1-1: Specification of basic requirements

IEC 60146-1-1:2009 specifies the requirements for the performance of all semiconductor power converters and semiconductor power switches using controllable and/or non-controllable electronic valve devices. It is primarily intended to specify the basic requirements for converters in general and the requirements applicable to line commutated converters for conversion of a.c. power to d.c. power or vice versa. Parts of this standard are also applicable to other types of electronic power converter provided that they do not have their own product standards. This fourth edition constitutes a technical revision and introduces five main changes:
- re-edition of the whole standard according to the current directives;
- correction of definitions and addition of new terms, especially terms concerning EMC, harmonic distortion and insulation co-ordination;
- the service condition tolerances have been revised according to the IEC 61000 series;
- the insulation tests have been revised considering the insulation co-ordination;
- addition of three annexes.

Convertisseurs à semiconducteurs - Exigences générales et convertisseurs commutés par le réseau - Partie 1-1: Spécification des exigences de base

La CEI 60146-1-1:2009 spécifie les exigences relatives aux caractéristiques de fonctionnement de tous les convertisseurs électroniques de puissance à semiconducteurs, ainsi que des commutateurs électroniques de puissance à semiconducteurs utilisant des valves électroniques, commandables et/ou non commandables. Elle est prévue en premier lieu pour spécifier les exigences de base applicables aux convertisseurs en général, ainsi que les exigences applicables aux convertisseurs à commutation par le réseau, pour la conversion puissance alternative-continue ou vice versa. Certaines parties de la présente norme sont également applicables à d'autres types de convertisseur électronique de puissance sous réserve qu'il n'existe pas de normes de produits qui leur soient propres. Cette quatrième édition constitue une révision technique et introduit cinq modifications principales:
- réédition de l'ensemble de la norme conformément au directives en vigueur;
- corrections de définitions et ajouts de nouveaux termes, en particulier des termes concernant la CEM, la distorsion harmonique et la coordination de l'isolement;
- les tolérances relatives aux conditions de service ont été revues conformément à la série CEI 61000;
- les essais d'isolement ont été revus, en tenant compte de la coordination de l'isolement;
- ajout de trois annexes.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Jun-2009
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
29-Jun-2009
Completion Date
29-Jun-2009
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IEC 60146-1-1
Edition 4.0 2009-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor converters – General requirements and line commutated
converters –
Part 1-1: Specification of basic requirements
Convertisseurs à semiconducteurs – Exigences générales et convertisseurs
commutés par le réseau –
Partie 1-1: Spécification des exigences de base
IEC 60146-1-1:2009
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60146-1-1
Edition 4.0 2009-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Semiconductor converters – General requirements and line commutated
converters –
Part 1-1: Specification of basic requirements
Convertisseurs à semiconducteurs – Exigences générales et convertisseurs
commutés par le réseau –
Partie 1-1: Spécification des exigences de base
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 29.200; 29.045 ISBN 978-2-88910-061-3
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60146-1-1 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

1 Scope and object..............................................................................................................7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................9

3.1 Semiconductor devices and combinations .............................................................10

3.2 Arms and connections ...........................................................................................13

3.3 Controllability of converter arms and quadrants of operation (on d.c. side) ............15

3.4 Commutation, quenching and commutation circuitry ..............................................16

3.5 Commutation characteristics .................................................................................18

3.6 Rated values .........................................................................................................20

3.7 Specific voltages, currents and factors ..................................................................22

3.8 Cooling..................................................................................................................25

3.9 Service conditions tolerances and electromagnetic compatibility ...........................26

3.10 Harmonic distortion ...............................................................................................27

3.11 Definitions related to insulation co-ordination ........................................................31

4 Operation of semiconductor power equipment and valve devices....................................34

4.1 Classification.........................................................................................................34

4.1.1 Semiconductor converter ...........................................................................34

4.1.2 Semiconductor valve devices.....................................................................35

4.2 Principal letter symbols and subscripts..................................................................36

4.3 Basic operation of semiconductor converters.........................................................38

4.3.1 Commutation .............................................................................................38

4.3.2 Basic calculation factors for line commutated converters ...........................40

4.3.3 Disturbances and fault conditions ..............................................................42

5 Service conditions ..........................................................................................................43

5.1 Code of identification for cooling method...............................................................43

5.2 Environmental conditions ......................................................................................44

5.2.1 Ambient air circulation ...............................................................................44

5.2.2 Normal service conditions – Temperatures ................................................44

5.2.3 Other normal service conditions ................................................................45

5.2.4 Unusual service conditions ........................................................................45

5.3 Characteristics of the load.....................................................................................46

5.4 Service condition tolerances..................................................................................46

5.4.1 Steady state and short time conditions ......................................................46

5.4.2 Repetitive and non-repetitive transients.....................................................49

6 Power conversion equipment and assemblies.................................................................49

6.1 Electrical connections............................................................................................49

6.2 Calculation factors.................................................................................................50

6.2.1 Essential variables ....................................................................................50

6.2.2 Losses and efficiency ................................................................................53

6.2.3 Power factor ..............................................................................................54

6.2.4 Voltage regulation .....................................................................................54

6.3 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................56

6.3.1 Harmonics .................................................................................................56

6.3.2 Other EMC aspects ...................................................................................57

6.4 Rated values .........................................................................................................57

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60146-1-1 © IEC:2009 – 3 –

6.4.1 General .....................................................................................................57

6.4.2 Rated output voltage .................................................................................58

6.4.3 Rated current values .................................................................................58

6.5 Duty classes..........................................................................................................59

6.5.1 Principles ..................................................................................................59

6.5.2 Selection of duty class and rated current value..........................................60

6.5.3 Particular remarks for double converters ...................................................61

6.6 Markings ...............................................................................................................62

6.6.1 General .....................................................................................................62

6.6.2 Rating plate...............................................................................................62

7 Tests for valve device assemblies and power conversion equipment ..............................63

7.1 General .................................................................................................................63

7.1.1 Methods of testing .....................................................................................63

7.1.2 Kinds of tests ............................................................................................63

7.1.3 Performance of tests .................................................................................63

7.2 Insulation tests ......................................................................................................64

7.2.1 General .....................................................................................................64

7.2.2 Insulation routine tests of power conversion equipment .............................65

7.2.3 Additional tests..........................................................................................68

7.3 Functional test.......................................................................................................68

7.3.1 Light load test and functional test ..............................................................68

7.3.2 Rated current test......................................................................................69

7.3.3 Over-current capability test........................................................................69

7.3.4 Measurement of the inherent voltage regulation ........................................69

7.3.5 Measurement of ripple voltage and current ................................................69

7.3.6 Measurement of harmonic currents............................................................69

7.4 Losses, temperature and power factor...................................................................70

7.4.1 Power loss determination for assemblies and equipment ...........................70

7.4.2 Temperature rise test ................................................................................71

7.4.3 Power factor measurements ......................................................................72

7.5 Auxiliaries and control ...........................................................................................72

7.5.1 Checking of auxiliary devices ....................................................................72

7.5.2 Checking the properties of the control equipment ......................................72

7.5.3 Checking the protective devices ................................................................72

7.6 EMC tests .............................................................................................................73

7.7 Measurement of audible noise and additional tests................................................73

7.8 Tolerances ............................................................................................................73

Annex A (normative) Harmonics and interhamonics .............................................................75

Annex B (informative) Electrical environment – Short-circuit ratio ........................................79

Annex C (normative) Protection against electric shock and energy hazards .........................83

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................86

Index of definitions ...............................................................................................................89

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60146-1-1 © IEC:2009

Figure 1 – Types of commutation ..........................................................................................39

Figure 2 – Illustration of angles.............................................................................................40

Figure 3 – Voltage regulation ................................................................................................41

Figure 4 – A.C. voltage waveform .........................................................................................49

Figure B.1 – PCC, IPC, installation current ratio and R ......................................................81

Figure B.2 – PCC, IPC, installation current ratio and R .....................................................82

Table 1 – List of major subscripts .........................................................................................36

Table 2 – Symbols ................................................................................................................36

Table 3 – Performance criteria..............................................................................................42

Table 4 – Cooling medium or heat transfer agent..................................................................44

Table 5 – Method of circulation .............................................................................................44

Table 6 – Limit of temperature of the cooling medium for indoor equipment ..........................45

Table 7 – Immunity levels to frequency and voltage amplitude for stiff a.c. voltage

connections ..........................................................................................................................47

Table 8 – Immunity levels to voltage unbalance for stiff a.c. voltage connections..................48

Table 9 – Immunity levels to voltage waveform for stiff a.c. voltage connections ...................48

Table 10 – Connections and calculation factors ....................................................................52

Table 11 – Standard duty classes .........................................................................................60

Table 12 – Examples of load cycles as guidance for selection of duty class..........................61

Table 13 – Summary of tests ................................................................................................64

Table 14 – AC or d.c. test voltages for equipment directly connected to low voltage

mains....................................................................................................................................67

Table 15 – AC or d.c. test voltages for equipment directly connected to high voltage

mains....................................................................................................................................67

Table 16 – Tolerances ..........................................................................................................74

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60146-1-1 © IEC:2009 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS –
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND LINE COMMUTATED CONVERTERS –
Part 1-1: Specification of basic requirements
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

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Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60146-1-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 22:

Power electronic systems and equipment.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 1991, Corrigendum 1

(1993) and Amendment 1 (1996). This fourth edition constitutes a technical revision.

This fourth edition introduces five main changes:
a) re-edition of the whole standard according to the current directives;

b) correction of definitions and addition of new terms, especially terms concerning EMC,

harmonic distortion and insulation co-ordination;

c) the service condition tolerances have been revised according to the IEC 61000 series;

d) the insulation tests have been revised considering the insulation co-ordination;

e) addition of three annexes.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60146-1-1 © IEC:2009
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
22/146/FDIS 22/149/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main purposes of the IEC 60146-1 series are as follows.
Part 1-1, IEC 60146-1-1, Specification of basic requirements:
– to establish basic terms and definitions;
– to specify service conditions which influence the basis of rating;

– to specify test requirements for electronic power converters and assemblies, standard

design, (for special design, see IEC/TR 60146-1-2);
– to specify basic performance requirements;
– to give application oriented requirements for semiconductor power converters.
Part 1-2, IEC/TR 60146-1-2, Application guide:
– to give additional information on test conditions and components (for example:
semiconductor valve devices), when required for their use in semiconductor power
converters, in addition to or as a modification on existing standards;

– to provide useful reference, calculation factors, formulae and diagrams pertaining to

power converter practice.
Part 1-3, IEC 60146-1-3, Transformers and reactors:

– to give additional information on characteristics wherein converter transformers differ

from ordinary power transformers. In all other respects, the rules specified in
IEC 60076 shall apply to converter transformers, insofar as they are not in
contradiction with this International Standard.

A list of all parts of the IEC 60146 series, under the general title: Semiconductor converters, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60146-1-1 © IEC:2009 – 7 –
SEMICONDUCTOR CONVERTERS –
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND LINE COMMUTATED CONVERTERS –
Part 1-1: Specification of basic requirements
1 Scope and object

This International Standard specifies the requirements for the performance of all

semiconductor power converters and semiconductor power switches using controllable and/or

non-controllable electronic valve devices.

The electronic valve devices mainly comprise semiconductor devices, either not controllable

(i.e. rectifier diodes) or controllable (i.e. thyristors, triacs, turn-off thyristors and power

transistors). The controllable devices may be reverse blocking or reverse conducting and

controlled by means of current, voltage or light. Non-bistable devices are assumed to be

operated in the switched mode.

This standard is primarily intended to specify the basic requirements for converters in general

and the requirements applicable to line commutated converters for conversion of a.c. power to

d.c. power or vice versa. Parts of this standard are also applicable to other types of electronic

power converter provided that they do not have their own product standards.

These specific equipment requirements are applicable to semiconductor power converters

that either implement power conversion or use commutation (for example semiconductor self-

commutated converters) or involve particular applications (for example semiconductor

converters for d.c. motor drives) or include a combination of said characteristics (for example

direct d.c. converters for electric rolling stock).

This standard is applicable to all power converters not covered by a dedicated product

standard, or if special features are not covered by the dedicated product standard. Dedicated

product standards for power converters should refer to this International Standard.

NOTE 1 This standard is not intended to define EMC requirements. It covers all phenomena and therefore

introduces references to dedicated standards which are applicable according to their scope.

NOTE 2 A large part of this standard, particularly for power transformers, is covered in IEC 61378-1.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-101:1998, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 101: Mathematics

IEC 60050-551:1998, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 551: Power electronics

IEC 60050-551-20:2001, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 551-20: Power

electronics – Harmonic analysis

IEC 60364-1, Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 1: Fundamental principles,

assessment of general characteristics, definitions
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60146-1-1 © IEC:2009

IEC 60664-1:2007, Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems –

Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests

IEC 60700-1, Thyristor valves for high voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission –

Part 1: Electrical testing
IEC 61000 (all parts), Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

IEC 61000-2-2:2002, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2-2: Environment –

Compatibility levels for low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in public low-

voltage power supply systems

IEC 61000-2-4:2002, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2-4: Environment –

Compatibility levels in industrial plants for low-frequency conducted disturbances

IEC 61000-3-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-2: Limits – Limits for harmonic

current emissions (equipment with input current < 16 A per phase)

IEC 61000-3-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-3: Limits – Limitation of voltage

changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems for equipment

with rated current ≤ 16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection

IEC 61000-3-11, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-11: Limits – Limitation of

voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems –

Equipment with rated current ≤ 75 A and subject to conditional connection

IEC 61000-3-12:2004, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 3-12: Limits – Limits for

harmonic currents produced by equipment connected to public low-voltage systems with input

current > 16 A and ≤ 75 A per phase

IEC 61000-4-7, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-7: Testing and measurement

techniques – Gener
...

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