Semiconductor devices - Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation - Part 5: Test method for measuring generated power from flexible thermoelectric devices

IEC 62830-5:2021 specifies the test method for measuring generated electric power from flexible thermoelectric devices under bending conditions. This document provides terms, definitions, symbols, configurations, and test methods that can be used to evaluate and determine the performance of flexible thermoelectric devices. This document also describes the test conditions such as temperature, temperature difference, contact conditions, insulation and bending radius of flexible thermoelectric devices. This document is applicable to flexible energy harvesting devices for flexible semiconductor devices.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour récupération et production d'énergie - Partie 5: Méthode d’essai pour la mesure de la puissance générée par des dispositifs thermoélectriques souples

L’IEC 62830-5:2021 spécifie la méthode d’essai utilisée pour mesurer la puissance électrique générée par des dispositifs thermoélectriques souples dans des conditions de courbure. Le présent document fournit les termes, définitions, symboles, configurations et méthodes d’essai pouvant être utilisés pour évaluer et déterminer les performances des dispositifs thermoélectriques souples. Le présent document décrit également les conditions d’essai, telles que la température, la différence de température, les conditions de contact, l’isolement et le rayon de courbure des dispositifs thermoélectriques souples. Le présent document s’applique aux dispositifs souples de récupération d’énergie pour les dispositifs à semiconducteurs souples.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Jan-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
21-Jan-2021
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IEC 62830-5
Edition 1.0 2021-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 5: Test method for measuring generated power from flexible thermoelectric
devices
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et production d’énergie –
Partie 5: Méthode d’essai pour la mesure de la puissance générée par des
dispositifs thermoélectriques souples
IEC 62830-5:2021-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5
Edition 1.0 2021-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and
generation –
Part 5: Test method for measuring generated power from flexible thermoelectric
devices
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs à semiconducteurs pour
récupération et production d’énergie –
Partie 5: Méthode d’essai pour la mesure de la puissance générée par des
dispositifs thermoélectriques souples
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-9285-3

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 Testing method ................................................................................................................ 6

4.1 General experimental apparatus ............................................................................. 6

4.2 Application to flexible thermoelectric devices .......................................................... 8

4.3 Report of results ................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Example of experimental set-up and data for performance of

thermoelectric device ............................................................................................................ 12

A.1 Schematic experimental set-up for measuring generated power in a

thermoelectric device under the bending condition ................................................ 12

A.2 Experimental set-up for measuring contact pressure between a device and

the cold or hot side ............................................................................................... 13

A.3 Example of experimentally measured data under different conditions .................... 14

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 1 – General measurement apparatus for generated power in thermoelectric

device ..................................................................................................................................... 7

Figure 2 – Experimental apparatus for generated power in flexible thermoelectric

device ..................................................................................................................................... 9

Figure 3 – Experimental apparatus for different bending radiuses of curvature...................... 10

Figure A.1 – Example of experimental schematic diagram and set-up for measuring the

performance parameters of a flexible thermoelectric device under the bending

condition ............................................................................................................................... 13

Figure A.2 – Example of experimental set-up for measuring generated electric power .......... 14

Figure A.3 – Example of experimental data for generated power from a flexible

thermoelectric device under different conditions.................................................................... 15

Table 1 – Relation between the bending radius of curvature and typical parts of the

human body .......................................................................................................................... 10

Table 2 – Required parameters to be included in the test report ........................................... 11

Table 3 – Experimentally determined parameters for thermoelectric device .......................... 11

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR ENERGY
HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 5: Test method for measuring generated power
from flexible thermoelectric devices
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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International Standard IEC 63830-5 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2668/FDIS 47/2678/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021

A list of all parts in the IEC 62830 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Semiconductor devices for energy harvesting and generation, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 5 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR ENERGY
HARVESTING AND GENERATION –
Part 5: Test method for measuring generated power
from flexible thermoelectric devices
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62830 specifies the test method for measuring generated electric power from

flexible thermoelectric devices under bending conditions. This document provides terms,

definitions, symbols, configurations, and test methods that can be used to evaluate and

determine the performance of flexible thermoelectric devices. This document also describes

the test conditions such as temperature, temperature difference, contact conditions, insulation

and bending radius of flexible thermoelectric devices. This document is applicable to flexible

energy harvesting devices for flexible semiconductor devices.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
thermoelectric generator

device that converts heat (temperature difference) directly into electrical energy, using a

phenomenon called the Seebeck effect
3.2
bending radius

minimum radius, measured to the inside curvature, of a pipe, tube, sheet, cable or hose that

can be bent without kinking damaging it or shortening its life
3.3
Seebeck coefficient

magnitude of an induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference

across a material, and the entropy per charge carrier in the material
[SOURCE: IEC 62830-2:2017, 3.1]
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
3.4
thermal conductivity

at a point fixed in a medium with a temperature field, scalar quantity k characterizing the

ability of the medium to transmit heat through a surface element containing that point: φ = −k

grad T, where φ is the density of heat flow rate and T is thermodynamic temperature

Note 1 to entry: It appears primarily in Fourier's Law for heat conduction. This value is dependent on temperature.

Thermal resistivity is given by the reciprocal of thermal conductivity.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-113:2011, 113-04-38, modified – the scalar quantity has been changed

to k and the notes have been replaced by Note 1.]
3.5
temperature difference
h-c
difference between the cooling and heating sides
3.6
heat input
hot
measured (or calculated) input thermal energy to the thermoelectric device
3.7
dissipated heat
cold

measured (or calculated) dissipated thermal energy from the thermoelectric device

4 Testing method
4.1 General experimental apparatus

The general principle for the test set-up to measure the amount of power generation from

thermoelectric devices, especially focusing on flexible thermoelectric devices, is described. In

general, the thermoelectric device generates electric energy due to the temperature

difference between one surface of the device and the other surface. Hence, in order to

characterize the performance of the device, the temperature of both the cooling and heating

sides in an experimental set-up should be maintained consistently. The general schematic

diagram of the thermoelectric device, including the experimental set-up to measure the

generated power, is illustrated in Figure 1. An explanation about the commonly used formulas

related to the thermoelectric device and the experimental set-up is also included. The basic

principle of the measurement method for both rigid and flexible devices is the same but the

experimental apparatus can be different due to the flexibility of the flexible thermoelectric

device. In order to use the advantage of a flexible thermoelectric device as well as to

investigate its limitations, the performance of the flexible thermoelectric device should be

determined under the bending condition.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 7 –
Key
1 Heating side (Q )
hot
2 Cooling side (Q )
cold
3 Thermoelectric device for power generation
4 Insulator
5 Electrodes
6 Thermoelectric materials (n: n-type semiconductor, p: p-type semiconductor)
7 Load
Figure 1 – General measurement apparatus
for generated power in thermoelectric device

As shown in Figure 1, when a temperature differential is applied across the faces of the

thermoelectric device, it is possible to generate electrical power in the device. With no load,

the open circuit voltage as measured between two surfaces is
V S×T
(1)
hc−
where
V is the output voltage from the thermoelectric generator, in V;
S is the average Seebeck coefficient, in V/K;
T is the temperature difference across the thermoelectric generator, in K,
h-c
where T = T – T :
h-c h c
T is the surface temperature of the hot side for the generator, in K;
T is the surfacce temperature of the cold side for generator, in K.

When a load is connected to the thermoelectric generator, the output voltage (V) drops as a

result of the internal generator resistance. The current through the load is
S×T
h-c
(2)
RR+
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
where
I is the thermoelectric generator output current, in A;
R is the average internal resistance of the thermoelectric device, in Ω;
R is the load resistance in Ω.
The total generated power in the device (P ) is simply
P IV×
(3)
) is
The total heat input to the thermoelectric generator (Q
hot
(4)
Q=(S×T× I)− 0,5× IR+(K×T )
( )
hot h c h-c
where
Q is the heat input, in W;
hot
K is the thermal conductance of the generator, in W/K.
The efficiency of the generator is
η= (5)
hot
where
η is the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator.
4.2 Application to flexible thermoelectric devices

Subclause 4.2 gives the detailed experimental apparatus for measuring the generated power

in a thermoelectric device. It focuses on the detailed experimental apparatus for measuring

the generated power from flexible thermoelectric devices under the bending condition. In the

case of flexible thermoelectric devices, the main focus for the measurement is the generated

power under the bending condition. For this purpose, an experimental apparatus to determine

the generated power is illustrated in Figure 2 as an example. As shown in Figure 2, an

experimental apparatus enabling power measurement under the bending condition should be

used in the case of a flexible device. For the cooling side, cooling water, a pump, and

controller are used to maintain the temperature which is set to the cooling side. Electrical

heating with resistance is used to maintain the temperature of the heating side. However, the

method for cooling and heating can be employed according to the sample size and
temperature range.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 9 –
Key
1 Heating side (Q )
hot
2 Cooling side (Q
cold
3 Flexible thermoelectric device for power generation
Figure 2 – Experimental apparatus for generated
power in flexible thermoelectric device

In the case of a flexible thermoelectric device, the performance, including efficiency, can

change according to the bending radius of curvature. Hence, different bending radiuses of

curvature can be suggested according to the applications as shown in Figure 3. A detailed

schematic diagram for experimental set-up is described in Clause A.1. For example, in the

case of flexible thermoelectric devices generating power from the temperature difference

between the human body and environmental conditions, different bending radiuses according

to the part of the human body can be summarized in Table 1 as an example.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
Key
1. Different radiuses of curvature (cooling side, 30 mm, 60 mm, 90 mm)
2. Cylinder with different radiuses of curvature can be replaced (heating side)
Figure 3 – Experimental apparatus for different bending radiuses of curvature
Table 1 – Relation between the bending radius of curvature
and typical parts of the human body
Parts of human
Thumb Wrist Lower arm Upper arm Hand
body
Bending radius of It depends but it
9 28 40 50
curvature (mm) can be very large

Also, the amount of generated power from flexible thermoelectric devices can be different

according to the temperature, temperature difference, and contact conditions. This is due to

the fact that there should be a discrepancy in the temperature between the surface of the

cooling or heating side and the surface of the device. This discrepancy is dependent on the

contact conditions. The contact conditions between the surface of the device and the surface

of the cooling or heating side can be characterized by measuring the contact pressure in the

case of a rigid type thermoelectric device. In contrast, in the case of a flexible device, the

contact pressure can vary greatly depending on the package type or material of the flexible

thermoelectric device. Hence, it is strongly recommended that the description of the package

type, structure, dimension of the device including the distance between the cooling and

heating side, be included in the report. A detailed experimental set-up for measuring contact

pressure is described in Clause A.2 as an example. Table 2 summarizes those parameters

and Table 3 shows the performance parameters of the thermoelectric device including the

conditions of the experimental set-up. In addition, an example of experimentally determined

generated power under different conditions is presented in Clause A.3.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 11 –
Table 2 – Required parameters to be included in the test report
Parameters Explanations
– Location of temperature sensing part for both hot and cold
sides
Temperature sensing
– Types of temperature sensor
– Schematic to provide the information about the degree of
Insulation
insulation level
– Application of thermal interface material between device
and hot and cold sides
Thermal interface material
– Types of thermal interface material
– Schematic to provide the information on how the bend test
Bending radius of curvature
is performed
– Information to provide on how the device is pressed down
from heating and cooling sides

Distance between heating and cooling sides – The length of both sides shall be measured through a

radial direction.
(or contact pressure)
– Contact pressure can be determined by dividing the
applied force by the device area

Both the thickness of the sample and the distance between the heating and cooling sides are

important parameters. In general, the generated power is dependent on the contact pressure

between the sample and the heating or cooling side. However, unlike a flat type

thermoelectric device whose surface is rigid, the surface of the flexible thermoelectric device

is easily deformed by the contact pressure. Therefore, in the case of a flexible thermoelectric

device, it is better to report the distance between the hot and cold sides instead of the contact

pressure, including the description of the package structure of the flexible device.

Table 3 – Experimentally determined parameters for thermoelectric device
Electrical parameters Heating Temperature Efficiency
R V I Q T T P /Q
load load load hot c h g hot
4.3 Report of results
The report shall include the following items:
a) date of test;
b) atmospheric conditions during the test;

c) detailed information about the sample (structure, dimension, materials, and types of

package);
d) test apparatus (Table 2);
e) experimentally determined parameters (Table 3).
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
Annex A
(informative)
Example of experimental set-up and data
for performance of thermoelectric device
A.1 Schematic experimental set-up for measuring generated power in a
thermoelectric device under the bending condition

Figure A.1 shows a schematic diagram of an experimental set-up for measuring the electric

power of a flexible thermoelectric device under different experimental conditions and three-

dimensional drawings of the experimental set-up.
a) Schematic diagram of experimental set-up
Key
1 Different radiuses of curvature
(cooling and heating sides, 30 mm, 60 mm, 90 mm)
2 Cylinder with different radiuses of curvature can be replaced (hot side)
b) Schematic of experimental set-up
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021 – 13 –
Key
1 Cooling side
2 Heating side
3 Locations of thermocouple for temperature measurement
c) Zoomed-in view
Figure A.1 – Example of experimental schematic diagram and set-up
for measuring the performance parameters of a flexible
thermoelectric device under the bending condition
A.2 Experimental set-up for measuring contact pressure between a device and
the cold or hot side

Figure A.2 shows an experimental set-up for measuring the generated electric power from a

flexible thermoelectric device under the bending condition with different contact pressures,

different contact conditions, different hot temperatures and different radiuses of curvature.

These different experimental conditions can be implemented through the experimental set-up

shown in Figure A.2.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 62830-5:2021  IEC 2021
Key
1 Cooling part (by compressor)
2 Heating part (by resistance heating)
3 Contact pressure lever
4 Contact pressure measuring part
a) Experimental set-up
b) Zoomed-in views (right: contact pressure measuring part, left:
cooling and heating parts)

Figure A.2 – Example of experimental set-up for measuring generated electric power

A.3 Example of experimentally measured data under different conditions

The graphs in Figure A.3 show experimental data with different conditions. The graph in the

top left of Figure A.3 shows how different contact pressures between the cooling or heating

part and the flexible thermoelectric device impacts on the performance of the thermoelectric

device (Key 1). The graph in the top right shows how different contacts between the cooling

or heating part and the device such as air, thermal pad and thermal grease, impact on the

generated electric power (Key 2). The graph in the bottom left shows how the temperature of

the heating side impacts on the generated electric power (Key 3). The graph in the bottom

right shows how the bending radius of curvature of the thermoelectric device impacts on the

...

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