Magnetic materials - Part 17: Methods of measurement of the magnetostriction characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet by means of a single sheet tester and an optical sensor

IEC 60404-17:2021 is applicable to grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet specified in IEC 60404-8-7 for the measurement of magnetostriction characteristics under an applied AC magnetic field at 50 Hz or 60 Hz.
This document defines the general principles and technical details of the measurement of magnetostriction characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet by means of a single sheet tester and an optical sensor.
This document is applicable to the measurement of:
the butterfly loop;
the peak-to-peak value λp-p;
the zero-to-peak value λ0-p.  The magnetostriction characteristics are determined for a sinusoidal induced secondary voltage, for a specified peak value of the magnetic polarization and at a specified magnetizing frequency.

Matériaux magnétiques - Partie 17: Méthodes de mesure des caractéristiques de magnétostriction des bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier à grains orientés au moyen d’un essai sur tôle unique et d’un capteur optique

L’IEC 60404-17:2021 est applicable aux bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier à grains orientés spécifiées dans l’IEC 60404-8-7 pour le mesurage des caractéristiques de magnétostriction sous un champ magnétique appliqué alternatif à une fréquence de 50 Hz ou 60 Hz.
Le présent document définit les principes généraux et les détails techniques de mesure des caractéristiques de magnétostriction des bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier à grains orientés au moyen d’un essai sur tôle unique et d’un capteur optique.
Le présent document est applicable au mesurage:
de la boucle papillon;
de la valeur de crête à crête λp-p;
de la valeur zéro à crête λ0-p.  Les caractéristiques de magnétostriction sont déterminées pour une tension secondaire induite sinusoïdale, pour une valeur crête définie de la polarisation magnétique et à une fréquence magnétisante définie.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Nov-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
04-Nov-2021
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IEC 60404-17
Edition 1.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 17: Methods of measurement of the magnetostriction characteristics of

grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet by means of a single sheet tester

and an optical sensor
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 17: Méthodes de mesure des caractéristiques de magnétostriction des
bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier à grains orientés au moyen d’un essai sur
tôle unique et d’un capteur optique
IEC 60404-17:2021-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60404-17
Edition 1.0 2021-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 17: Methods of measurement of the magnetostriction characteristics of

grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet by means of a single sheet tester

and an optical sensor
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 17: Méthodes de mesure des caractéristiques de magnétostriction des
bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier à grains orientés au moyen d’un essai sur
tôle unique et d’un capteur optique
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20; 29.030 ISBN 978-2-8322-1042-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 General principles ........................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Principle of the method ........................................................................................... 9

4.2 Test specimen ...................................................................................................... 11

4.3 Test apparatus ...................................................................................................... 12

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

4.3.2 Yoke .............................................................................................................. 12

4.3.3 Windings ....................................................................................................... 13

4.3.4 Bridge ............................................................................................................ 14

4.3.5 Optical sensor ............................................................................................... 15

4.3.6 Optical target ................................................................................................. 16

4.3.7 Clamp ............................................................................................................ 16

4.3.8 End stop ........................................................................................................ 17

4.3.9 Flat glass plate .............................................................................................. 17

4.4 Air flux compensation ............................................................................................ 18

4.5 Power supply ........................................................................................................ 18

4.6 Measuring instruments .......................................................................................... 18

5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................................ 20

5.1 Principle of measurement...................................................................................... 20

5.2 Preparation of measurement ................................................................................. 20

5.3 Adjustment of power supply .................................................................................. 22

6 Determination of characteristics ..................................................................................... 22

6.1 Determination of the magnetic polarization J(t) ..................................................... 22

6.2 Determination of the magnetostriction strain λ(t) ................................................... 22

6.3 Determination of the butterfly loop ........................................................................ 23

6.4 Determination of the peak-to-peak value λ and the zero-to-peak
p‑p

value λ ............................................................................................................. 23

0‑p

7 Reproducibility of the measurement of the peak-to-peak value λ .............................. 23

p-p

8 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 24

Annex A (normative) Requirements of the test apparatus for measurements of the

magnetostriction characteristics ............................................................................................ 25

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

A.2 Correct setting of the base length of the magnetostriction measurement ............... 25

A.3 Strict control of the sinusoidal magnetic polarization ............................................. 26

A.4 Isolation of the test apparatus from external noise ................................................ 26

A.5 Control of the frictional force acting on the test specimen ..................................... 28

A.6 Suppression of out-of-plane vibrations of the test specimen .................................. 29

A.7 Avoidance of resonances in the test specimen and the test apparatus .................. 30

A.8 Calibration and verification of the test apparatus ................................................... 30

Annex B (informative) Measurements of the magnetostriction characteristics under an

externally applied compressive stress ................................................................................... 33

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 33

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

B.2 Test specimen ...................................................................................................... 33

B.3 Test apparatus ...................................................................................................... 33

B.4 Measurement procedure ....................................................................................... 34

B.5 Determination of characteristics ............................................................................ 34

Annex C (informative) Air flux compensation by digital means.............................................. 36

Annex D (informative) Sinusoidal waveform control of the induced secondary voltage

by digital means .................................................................................................................... 37

Annex E (informative) Magnetostriction characteristics for the acoustic design of

power transformers ............................................................................................................... 39

E.1 Transformer no-load noise/sound development process ........................................ 39

E.2 Transformer no-load sound levels and magnetostriction strain .............................. 39

E.3 Vibration levels characterizing magnetostriction strain .......................................... 40

E.4 Determination of vibration levels ........................................................................... 41

E.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 41

E.4.2 Velocity levels ............................................................................................... 41

E.4.3 Acceleration levels ........................................................................................ 42

E.4.4 Reproducibility of the measurements of the velocity level and the

acceleration level values................................................................................ 43

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 44

Figure 1 – Illustrations of butterfly loop, peak-to-peak value and zero-to-peak value .............. 8

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of a test apparatus (cross-sectional) ........................................ 9

Figure 3 – Schematic diagram of test frames with different types of yoke .............................. 13

Dimensions in millimetres ..................................................................................................... 14

Figure 4 – Cross-section of the winding former and the bridge (schematic) ........................... 14

Figure 5 – Fundamental circuit of the measurement system .................................................. 19

Figure A.1 – Butterfly loop of a high permeability grain-oriented electrical steel sheet

cut perpendicular to the rolling direction [3]........................................................................... 32

Figure B.1 – Schematic diagram of a test apparatus for the measurement under an

externally applied compressive stress (cross-sectional) ........................................................ 33

Table E.1 – A-weighting coefficients at a magnetizing frequency of 50 Hz ............................ 42

Table E.2 – A-weighting coefficients at a magnetizing frequency of 60 Hz ............................ 42

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 17: Methods of measurement of the magnetostriction
characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet
by means of a single sheet tester and an optical sensor
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 60404-17 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 68: Magnetic alloys and steels.

It is an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
68/685/CDV 68/692/RVC

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60404 series, published under the general title Magnetic materials,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

This document provides standard methods to measure the magnetostriction characteristics of

grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet under an applied AC magnetic field at 50 Hz or

60 Hz. The technical details are specified after intense considerations among magnetostriction

experts, so that a satisfactory reproducibility of the measurement can be expected. The

measurement requires detections of tiny vibrations of the test specimen at a resolution of

0,01 μm or better. In order to meet this challenging condition, not only the magnetic aspects,

but also mechanical aspects of the test apparatus, e.g. the influence of friction, Maxwell forces,

resonance and external vibrations, had to be specified.

The methods to determine magnetostriction characteristics of the butterfly loop, the peak-to-

peak and zero-to-peak values of magnetostriction strain are specified in this document.

Subsidiary characteristics of the velocity levels and the acceleration levels are described in

Annex E.

The technical report IEC TR 62581:2010 [1] reviewed the methods of measurement of the

magnetostriction characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel by means of a single sheet

tester. Various methods have been used for the measurement of the change in length of the

various test specimens. However, for methods using sensors in contact with the test specimen,

it is difficult to avoid measurement offsets associated with the contact methods. Moreover, the

methods require special skills to be used in order to carry out the measurements. Therefore,

this document provides methods using an optical sensor, namely a laser Doppler vibrometer,

which fulfils the requirements of non-contact, high resolution and high reproducibility of

measurements.

It is well known that mechanical stress in grain-oriented electrical steel has a strong influence

on magnetostriction [1]. Grain-oriented electrical steel has a particular behaviour with regards

to its sensitivity to compressive stress along the rolling direction compared to other kinds of

electrical steels. It depends on the degree of grain-orientation of the material and the level of

tensile stress in the material applied by surface coatings. Methods of measurement under an

externally applied compressive stress are described in Annex B.

International round robin comparisons of the magnetostriction measurements have been carried

out repeatedly by reducing the range of methods [2], [3], [4]. The reproducibility of the

measurement was characterized by a relative standard deviation of more than 20 % when

various methods were allowed. It became less than 2 % when test apparatuses following the

principles described in this document were used for the assessment of grain-oriented electrical

steel sheets cut along the rolling direction under the condition of a peak magnetic polarization

of 1,7 T and a magnetizing frequency of 50 Hz.
___________
Numbers in square bracket refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 17: Methods of measurement of the magnetostriction
characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet
by means of a single sheet tester and an optical sensor
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60404 is applicable to grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet specified

in IEC 60404-8-7 for the measurement of magnetostriction characteristics under an applied AC

magnetic field at 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

This document defines the general principles and technical details of the measurement of

magnetostriction characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet by means of a

single sheet tester and an optical sensor.

NOTE 1 The accelerometer method [5] is also an established method for the measurement of magnetostriction.

However, it is more suited to the measurement of magnetostriction under an externally applied tensile or compressive

stress, not zero stress, because it places a weight on the test specimen to prevent a deformation of the test specimen.

Since this document includes the measurement at zero stress, the optical sensor method is provided as the optimum

method.
This document is applicable to the measurement of:
– the butterfly loop;
– the peak-to-peak value λ ;
p-p
– the zero-to-peak value λ .
0-p

The magnetostriction characteristics are determined for a sinusoidal induced secondary voltage,

for a specified peak value of the magnetic polarization and at a specified magnetizing frequency.

NOTE 2 Throughout this document the term “magnetic polarization” is used as described in IEC 60050-121:1998,

121-11-54. In some standards of the IEC 60404 series, the term “magnetic flux density” is used.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-103, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 103: Mathematics – Functions

(available at www.electropedia.org)

IEC 60050-121, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 121: Electromagnetism

(available at www.electropedia.org)

IEC 60050-221, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 221: Magnetic materials

and components (available at www.electropedia.org)

IEC 60050-801, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 801: Acoustics and

electroacoustics (available at www.electropedia.org)
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021

IEC 60404-8-7, Magnetic materials – Part 8-7: Specifications for individual materials – Cold-

rolled grain-oriented electrical steel strip and sheet delivered in the fully-processed state

IEC 61672-1:2013, Electroacoustics – Sound level meters – Part 1: Specifications
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-103,

IEC 60050-121, IEC 60050-221, IEC 60050-801, IEC 61672-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
butterfly loop
butterfly curve

hysteresis loop of magnetostriction strain versus magnetic polarization along the direction of

applied AC magnetic field for a period of magnetization, as illustrated in Figure 1

EXAMPLE
Key
λ peak-to-peak value
p-p
λ zero-to-peak value
0-p
Figure 1 – Illustrations of butterfly loop, peak-to-peak
value and zero-to-peak value
3.2
p-p
peak-to-peak value

peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetostriction strain along the direction of applied AC magnetic

field, taking an absolute value, expressed in μm/m

Note 1 to entry: The peak-to-peak value can be read from the butterfly loop as shown in Figure 1.

3.3
0-p
zero-to-peak value

difference in magnetostriction strain along the direction of applied AC magnetic field between

the values at the prescribed peak magnetic polarization and at the zero value of the magnetic

polarization, taking a positive or negative value, expressed in μm/m
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60404-17:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –

Note 1 to entry: The zero-to-peak value can be read from the butterfly loop as shown in Figure 1.

3.4
velocity level

indicator of magnetostriction velocity comprising all harmonic components of magnetostriction

strain of interest, expressed in dB

Note 1 to entry: The frequency weighting filter “A” defined in IEC 61672-1:2013 can be applied to the velocity level

resulting as A-weighted velocity level, L , expressed in dB(A).
3.5
acceleration level
indicator of magnetostriction acceleration comprising all harmonic components of
magnetostriction strain of interest, expressed in dB

Note 1 to entry: The frequency weighting filter “A” defined in IEC 61672-1:2013 can be applied to the acceleration

level resulting as A-weighted acceleration level, L , expressed in dB(A).
4 General principles
4.1 Principle of the method

A length change of a test specimen for a base length under an AC magnetic field is measured

by means of a single sheet tester and an optical sensor. Magnetostriction characteristics of the

material are determined from the length change of the base length of the test specimen for

prescribed peak values of the magnetic polarization and at a specified magnetizing frequency.

A schematic diagram of a test apparatus is illustrated in Figure 2. The test apparatus consisting

of windings, a winding former, a bridge, a yoke, a clamp block, a weight, an end stop, an optical

sensor and auxiliary support structures shall be fixed to a vibration-free table. The test

apparatus may be assembled on a rigid base plate which is non-magnetic and fixed to the

vibration-free table.

NOTE 1 Methods of measurement under an externally applied compressive stress are described in Annex B.

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of a test apparatus (cross-sectional)

The test specimen shall be placed on the bridge inside the following two windings wound on

the winding form
...

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