Fire hazard testing - Part 8-2: Heat release - Summary and relevance of test methods

IEC 60695-8-2:2016 presents a summary of published test methods that are relevant to the determination of the heat released in fire tests on electrotechnical products or materials from which they are formed. It represents the current state of the art of the test methods and, where available, includes special observations on their relevance and use. The list of test methods is not to be considered exhaustive, and test methods that were not developed by the IEC are not to be considered as endorsed by the IEC unless this is specifically stated. Heat release data can be used as part of fire hazard assessment and in fire safety engineering, as discussed in IEC 60695-1-10, IEC 60695-1-11 and IEC 60695-1-12. This standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-8-1.
Key words: Fire Hazard, Heat Release, Fire Safety Engineering, Test Methods

Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 8-2: Dégagement de chaleur - Résumé et pertinence des méthodes d'essais

L'IEC 60695-8-2:2016 présente un résumé des méthodes d'essai publiées pertinentes pour la détermination du dégagement de chaleur dans les essais au feu réalisés sur les produits électrotechniques ou les matériaux à partir desquels ils sont constitués. Elle représente l'état actuel de la technique des méthodes d'essai et, le cas échéant, comprend des observations particulières portant sur leur pertinence et utilisation. La liste des méthodes d'essai ne doit pas être considérée comme étant exhaustive, et les méthodes d'essai non élaborées par l'IEC ne doivent pas être considérées comme entérinées par ce dernier sauf indication spécifique. Les données de dégagement de chaleur peuvent être utilisées comme partie intégrante de l'évaluation du danger d'incendie et pour l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie, comme indiqué dans l'IEC 60695-1-10, l'IEC 60695-1-11 et l'IEC 60695-1-12. Cette Norme internationale doit être utilisée conjointement avec l'IEC 60695-8-1.
Mots-clés: danger d'incendie, dégagement de chaleur, l'ingénierie de la sécurité incendie, méthodes d'essai

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Nov-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
16-Nov-2016
Ref Project

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IEC 60695-8-2
Edition 1.0 2016-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 8-2: Heat release – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 8-2: Dégagement de chaleur – Résumé et pertinence des méthodes
d’essais
IEC 60695-8-2:2016-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2
Edition 1.0 2016-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
BASIC SAFETY PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE DE SÉCURITÉ
Fire hazard testing –
Part 8-2: Heat release – Summary and relevance of test methods
Essais relatifs aux risques du feu –
Partie 8-2: Dégagement de chaleur – Résumé et pertinence des méthodes
d’essais
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 13.220.40; 29.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-3750-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Summary of test methods .............................................................................................. 11

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Measurement of complete combustion .................................................................. 11

4.2.1 The bomb calorimeter .................................................................................... 11

4.2.2 Purpose and principle .................................................................................... 11

4.2.3 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 11

4.2.4 Test procedure .............................................................................................. 11

4.2.5 Repeatability and reproducibility .................................................................... 12

4.2.6 Relevance of test data ................................................................................... 12

4.3 Measurements of incomplete combustion .............................................................. 12

4.3.1 Cone calorimeter ........................................................................................... 12

4.3.2 Microscale calorimetry ................................................................................... 13

4.3.3 The Ohio State University calorimeter ............................................................ 14

4.3.4 Fire propagation apparatus (ISO 12136) ........................................................ 15

4.3.5 Single Burning Item (SBI) test ........................................................................ 16

4.3.6 Vertical cable ladder tests ............................................................................. 17

4.3.7 Horizontal cable ladder test ........................................................................... 20

4.3.8 Open calorimetry fire tests ............................................................................. 22

5 Overview of test methods .............................................................................................. 22

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 24

Table 1 – Summary and comparison of vertical cable ladder tests ........................................ 20

Table 2 – Overview of heat release test methods .................................................................. 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 8-2: Heat release –
Summary and relevance of test methods
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

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governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60695-8-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 89: Fire

hazard testing.

This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TR 60695-8-2 published in 2008. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
89/1343/FDIS 89/1349/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016

It has the status of a basic safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104 and

ISO/IEC Guide 51.

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60695 series, under the general title Fire hazard testing, can

be found on the IEC website.
This International Standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60695-8-1.
IEC 60695-8 consists of the following parts:
• Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance
• Part 8-2: Heat release – Summary and relevance of test methods

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

In the design of an electrotechnical product, the risk of fire and the potential hazards

associated with fire need to be considered. In this respect the objective of component, circuit

and equipment design, as well as the choice of materials, is to reduce the risk of fire to a

tolerable level even in the event of reasonably foreseeable (mis)use, malfunction or failure.

IEC 60695-1-10, IEC 60695-1-11, and IEC 60695-1-12 provide guidance on how this is to be

accomplished.

Fires involving electrotechnical products can also be initiated from external non-electrical

sources. Considerations of this nature are dealt with in an overall fire hazard assessment.

The aim of the IEC 60695 series of standards is to save lives and property by reducing the

number of fires or reducing the consequences of the fire. This can be accomplished by:

• trying to prevent ignition caused by an electrically energised component part and, in the

event of ignition, to confine any resulting fire within the bounds of the enclosure of the

electrotechnical product;

• trying to minimise flame spread beyond the product’s enclosure and to minimise the

harmful effects of fire effluents including heat, smoke, and toxic or corrosive combustion

products.

Fires are responsible for creating hazards to life and property as a result of the generation of

heat (thermal hazard), toxic and/or corrosive compounds and obscuration of vision due to

smoke. The severity of a fire increases as the heat released increases, possibly leading to a

flashover fire.

One of the most important measurements in fire testing is the measurement of heat release

and it is used as an important factor in the determination of fire hazard; it is also used as one

of the parameters in fire safety engineering calculations.

The measurement and use of heat release data, together with other fire test data, can be

used to reduce the likelihood of (or the effects of) fire, even in the event of foreseeable

abnormal use, malfunction or failure of electrotechnical products.

When a material is heated by some external source, fire effluent can be generated and can

form a mixture with air that can ignite and initiate a fire. The heat released in the process is

carried away by the fire effluent-air mixture, radiatively lost or transferred back to the solid

material, to generate further pyrolysis products, thus continuing the process.

Heat may also be transferred to other nearby products, which may burn, and then release

additional heat and fire effluent.

The rate at which thermal energy is released in a fire is defined as the heat release rate. Heat

release rate is important because of its influence on flame spread and on the initiation of

secondary fires. Other characteristics are also important, such as ignitability, flame spread

and other side effects of the fire (see the IEC 60695 series of standards).
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016
FIRE HAZARD TESTING –
Part 8-2: Heat release –
Summary and relevance of test methods
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60695-8 presents a summary of published test methods that are relevant to

the determination of the heat released in fire tests on electrotechnical products or materials

from which they are formed. It represents the current state of the art of the test methods and,

where available, includes special observations on their relevance and use.

The list of test methods is not to be considered exhaustive, and test methods that were not

developed by the IEC are not to be considered as endorsed by the IEC unless this is

specifically stated.

Heat release data can be used as part of fire hazard assessment and in fire safety

engineering, as discussed in IEC 60695-1-10, IEC 60695-1-11 [39] and IEC 60695-1-12 [40].

This basic safety publication is primarily intended for use by technical Committees in the

preparation of standards in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC Guide 104 and

lSO/lEC Guide 51. It is not intended for use by manufacturers or certification bodies.

One of the responsibilities of a technical committee is, wherever applicable, to make use of

basic safety publications in the preparation of its publications. The requirements, test

methods or test conditions of this basic safety publication will not apply unless specifically

referred to or included in the relevant publications.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60695-1-10, Fire hazard testing – Part 1-10: Guidance for assessing the fire hazard of

electrotechnical products – General guidelines

IEC 60695-4:2012, Fire hazard testing – Part 4: Terminology concerning fire tests for

electrotechnical products
IEC 60695-8-1, Fire hazard testing – Part 8-1: Heat release – General guidance

IEC Guide 104, The preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications

and group safety publications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
ISO 13943:2008, Fire safety – Vocabulary
____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60695-4:2012 and

ISO 13943:2008 (some of which are reproduced below), as well as the following, apply.

3.1
combustion
exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizing agent

Note 1 to entry: Combustion generally emits fire effluent accompanied by flames and/or glowing.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.46]
3.2
combustion product
product of combustion
solid, liquid and gaseous material resulting from combustion

Note 1 to entry: Combustion products can include fire effluent, ash, char, clinker and/or soot.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.48]
3.3
complete combustion
combustion in which all the combustion products are fully oxidized

Note 1 to entry: This means that, when the oxidizing agent is oxygen, all carbon is converted to carbon dioxide

and all hydrogen is converted to water.

Note 2 to entry: If elements other than carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are present in the combustible material,

those elements are converted to the most stable products in their standard states at 298 K.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.50]
3.4
effective heat of combustion

heat released from a burning test specimen in a given time interval divided by the mass lost

from the test specimen in the same time period

Note 1 to entry: It is the same as the net heat of combustion if all the test specimen is converted to volatile

combustion products and if all the combustion products are fully oxidized.
Note 2 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ⋅g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.74]
3.5
fire

〈general〉 process of combustion characterized by the emission of heat and fire effluent and

usually accompanied by smoke, flame, glowing or a combination thereof

Note 1 to entry: In the English language the term “fire” is used to designate three concepts, two of which, fire (3.6)

and fire (3.7), relate to specific types of self-supporting combustion with different meanings and two of them are

designated using two different terms in both French and German.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.96]
3.6
fire

〈controlled〉 self-supporting combustion that has been deliberately arranged to provide useful

effects and is limited in its extent in time and space
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.97]
3.7
fire

〈uncontrolled〉 self-supporting combustion that has not been deliberately arranged to provide

useful effects and is not limited in its extent in time and space
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.98]
3.8
fire effluent

totality of gases and aerosols, including suspended particles, created by combustion or

pyrolysis in a fire
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.105]
3.9
fire hazard

physical object or condition with a potential for an undesirable consequence from fire (3.7)

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.112]
3.10
fire-safety engineering

application of engineering methods based on scientific principles to the development or

assessment of designs in the built environment through the analysis of specific fire scenarios

or through the quantification of risk for a group of fire scenarios
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.126]
3.11
fire test

test that measures behaviour of a fire or exposes an item to the effects of a fire

Note 1 to entry: The results of a fire test can be used to quantify fire severity or determine the fire resistance or

reaction to fire of the test specimen.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.132]
3.12
flashover

〈stage of fire〉 transition to a state of total surface involvement in a fire of combustible

materials within an enclosure
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.156]
3.13
gross heat of combustion

heat of combustion of a substance when the combustion is complete and any produced water

is entirely condensed under specified conditions
cf. complete combustion (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ⋅g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.170]
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 9 –
3.14
heat of combustion
DEPRECATED: calorific potential
DEPRECATED: calorific value
thermal energy produced by combustion of unit mass of a given substance

cf. effective heat of combustion (3.4), gross heat of combustion (3.13) and net heat of

combustion (3.19).
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ⋅g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.174]
3.15
heat release
thermal energy produced by combustion
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are joules (J).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.176]
3.16
heat release rate
DEPRECATED: burning rate
DEPRECATED: rate of burning
rate of thermal energy production generated by combustion
Note 1 to entry: The typical units are watts (W).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.177]
3.17
intermediate-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of medium dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen for which the maximum dimension is between 1 m and

3 m is usually called an intermediate-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.200]
3.18
large-scale fire test

fire test, that cannot be carried out in a typical laboratory chamber, performed on a test

specimen of large dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is greater than 3 m is

usually called a large-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.205]
3.19
net heat of combustion

heat of combustion when any water produced is considered to be in the gaseous state

Note 1 to entry: The net heat of combustion is always smaller than the gross heat of combustion because the

heat released by the condensation of the water vapour is not included.
Note 2 to entry: The typical units are kilojoules per gram (kJ⋅g ).
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.237]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016
3.20
oxidation

chemical reaction in which the proportion of oxygen or other electronegative element in a

substance is increased

Note 1 to entry: In chemistry, the term has the broader meaning of a process that involves the loss of an electron

or electrons from an atom, molecule or ion.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.245]
3.21
oxidizing agent
substance capable of causing oxidation
Note 1 to entry: Combustion is an oxidation.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.246]
3.22
oxygen consumption principle

proportional relationship between the mass of oxygen consumed during combustion and the

heat released
Note 1 to entry: A value of 13,1 kJ⋅g is commonly used.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.247]
3.23
pyrolysis
chemical decomposition of a substance by the action of heat

Note 1 to entry: Pyrolysis is often used to refer to a stage of fire before flaming combustion has begun.

Note 2 to entry: In fire science, no assumption is made about the presence or absence of oxygen.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.266]
3.24
small-scale fire test
fire test performed on a test specimen of small dimensions

Note 1 to entry: A fire test performed on a test specimen of which the maximum dimension is less than 1 m is

usually called a small-scale fire test.
[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.292]
3.25
test specimen
item subjected to a procedure of assessment or measurement

Note 1 to entry: In a fire test (3.11), the item may be a material, product, component, element of construction, or

any combination of these. It may also be a sensor that is used to simulate the behaviour of a product.

[SOURCE: ISO 13943:2008, 4.321]
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60695-8-2:2016 © IEC 2016 – 11 –
4 Summary of test methods
4.1 General

This summary does not replace published standards, which are the only valid reference

documents.

In cases where fire tests are not yet specified, and need to be developed or altered for the

special purpose of an IEC technical committee, this shall be done in liaison with the relevant

IEC technical committee, as mandated by IEC Guide 104. The test method(s) selected shall

be relevant to the fire scenario of concern. Guidance on the selection and relevance of fire

tests for electrotechnical products is given in IEC 60695-1-10.
General guidance on heat release tests for electrotechnical products is given in
IEC 60695-8-1.
4.2 Measurement of complete combustion
4.2.1 The bomb calorimeter
See ISO 1716 [1].
4.2.2 Purpose and principle

The purpose of the method is to measure the gross heat of combustion at constant volume. A

test specimen of specified mass is burned under standardized conditions, at constant volume,

in an atmosphere of oxygen, in a sealed calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified

benzoic acid. The heat of combustion determined under these conditions is calculated on the

basis of the observed temperature rise, taking into account heat loss and the latent heat of

vaporization of water.
4.2.3 Test specimen

The test specimen is typically a mixture of 0,5 g of finely powdered benzoic acid and, also in a

finely divided state, 0,5 g of the material under test.
4.2.4 Test procedure
The “bomb” is
...

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