Semiconductor devices - Micro-electromechanical devices - Part 41: RF MEMS circulators and isolators

IEC 62047-41:2021 specifies the terminology, essential ratings and characteristics, and measuring methods of RF (Radio Frequency) MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) circulators and isolators.

Dispositifs à semiconducteurs - Dispositifs microélectromécaniques - Partie 41: Circulateurs et isolateurs à MEMS RF

L’IEC 62047-41:2021 spécifie la terminologie, les valeurs assignées et caractéristiques essentielles, ainsi que les méthodes de mesure des circulateurs et isolateurs à système microélectromécanique (MEMS) radiofréquence (RF).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
15-Jun-2021
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IEC 62047-41
Edition 1.0 2021-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Micro-electromechanical devices –
Part 41: RF MEMS circulators and isolators
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs microélectromécaniques –
Partie 41: Circulateurs et isolateurs à MEMS RF
IEC 62047-41:2021-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41
Edition 1.0 2021-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices – Micro-electromechanical devices –
Part 41: RF MEMS circulators and isolators
Dispositifs à semiconducteurs – Dispositifs microélectromécaniques –
Partie 41: Circulateurs et isolateurs à MEMS RF
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-9886-2

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

3.1 General terms ......................................................................................................... 8

3.2 RF characteristics parameters ................................................................................ 8

4 Essential ratings and characteristics ................................................................................ 9

4.1 Identification and types ........................................................................................... 9

4.2 Application and specification description ................................................................. 9

4.3 Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 10

4.4 RF characteristics ................................................................................................. 10

4.5 Reliability characteristics ...................................................................................... 10

4.6 Additional information ........................................................................................... 11

5 Measuring methods ....................................................................................................... 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.1.1 General precautions ...................................................................................... 11

5.1.2 Characteristic impedance .............................................................................. 11

5.1.3 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 11

5.1.4 Handling precautions ..................................................................................... 12

5.2 Insertion loss (L ) .............................................................................................. 12

ins

5.2.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 12

5.2.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 12

5.2.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 15

5.2.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 15

5.2.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 15

5.2.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 16

5.3 Isolation (L ) ...................................................................................................... 17

iso

5.3.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 17

5.3.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 17

5.3.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 17

5.3.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 18

5.3.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 18

5.3.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 19

5.4 Return loss (L ) .................................................................................................. 19

ret

5.4.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 19

5.4.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 19

5.4.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 19

5.4.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 20

5.4.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 20

5.4.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 21

5.5 Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) (optional) ...................................................... 21

5.5.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 21

5.5.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 21

5.5.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 21

5.5.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 22

5.5.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

5.5.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 23

5.6 Input impedance (Z ) (optional) ............................................................................ 23

5.6.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 23

5.6.2 Circuit diagram .............................................................................................. 23

5.6.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 23

5.6.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 24

5.6.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 24

5.6.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 25

5.7 Magnetic leakage (optional) .................................................................................. 25

5.7.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................... 25

5.7.2 System diagram ............................................................................................. 25

5.7.3 Principle of measurement .............................................................................. 26

5.7.4 Precautions to be observed ........................................................................... 26

5.7.5 Measurement procedure ................................................................................ 26

5.7.6 Specified conditions ....................................................................................... 26

6 Reliability (performance) test ......................................................................................... 26

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

6.2 Power handling capability ..................................................................................... 27

6.3 Life time ................................................................................................................ 27

6.4 Operating temperature .......................................................................................... 27

6.5 Shock testing ........................................................................................................ 27

6.6 Vibration testing .................................................................................................... 28

6.7 Bond/Solder shear testing ..................................................................................... 28

Annex A (informative) General description of circulators and isolators ................................. 29

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 32

Figure 1 – Terminals of RF MEMS circulators ......................................................................... 9

Figure 2 – RF MEMS isolator with terminated load .................................................................. 9

Figure 3 – Measurement procedure of RF MEMS circulators/isolators ................................... 11

Figure 4 – Measuring circuit diagram of the circulator with 4-port network analysers ............. 13

Figure 5 – Measuring circuit diagram of the isolator with 4-port network analysers ................ 13

Figure 6 – Measuring circuit diagram of the circulator with 2-port network analysers ............. 14

Figure 7 – Measuring circuit diagram of the isolator with 2-port network analysers ................ 14

Figure 8 – Insertion loss of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator ................................................. 15

Figure 9 – Isolation of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator ......................................................... 17

Figure 10 – Return loss of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator .................................................. 20

Figure 11 – Smith Chart plot of input impedance of RF MEMS circulators/isolators ............... 24

Figure 12 – Near-field scanning measurement system .......................................................... 26

Figure 13 – Block diagram of a test setup for evaluating the reliability of the RF MEMS

circulator ............................................................................................................................... 27

Figure A.1 – Signal transmission in circulators ...................................................................... 29

Figure A.2 – Signal transmission in isolators ......................................................................... 30

Figure A.3 – Typical structure of RF MEMS circulators/isolators ........................................... 30

Figure A.4 – Typical RF MEMS circulators/ isolators ............................................................. 31

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– 4 – IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021

Table 1 – Limiting values and operating conditions ............................................................... 10

Table 2 – RF characteristics ................................................................................................. 10

Table 3 – Reliability characteristics ....................................................................................... 10

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES –
Part 41: RF MEMS circulators and isolators
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 62047-41 has been prepared by subcommittee 47F: Micro electro-mechanical systems, of

IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices. It is an International Standard.

The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47F/376/FDIS 47F/380/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement,

available at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by

IEC are described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62047 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices – Micro-electromechanical devices, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

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colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES –
Part 41: RF MEMS circulators and isolators
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62047 specifies the terminology, essential ratings and characteristics, and

measuring methods of RF (Radio Frequency) MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)

circulators and isolators.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60747-1:2010, Semiconductor devices – Part 1: General

IEC 60749-10, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 10:

Mechanical shock

IEC 60749-12, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 12:

Vibration, variable frequency

IEC 60749-21, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 21:

Solderability

IEC 60749-22, Semiconductor devices – Mechanical and climatic test methods – Part 22:

Bond strength

IEC 62047-1, Semiconductor devices – Micro-electromechanical devices – Part 1: Terms and

definitions

IEC TS 61967-3, Integrated circuits – Measurement of electromagnetic emissions – Part 3:

Measurement of radiated emissions – Surface scan method
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 62047-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
circulator

three-port device in which the incident wave to any port is transmitted to the next port

according to an order of sequence determined by the sense of a static magnetic biasing field

Note 1 to entry: By reversing the magnetic biasing field, the order of sequence is reversed.

Note 2 to entry: This property may be used to switch electromagnetic waves.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726:1982, 726-17-08, modified – The word “multiport” is replaced by

“three-port”]
3.1.2
isolator

two-port device having much greater attenuation in one direction of propagation than in the

opposite direction
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726:1982, 726-17-19]
3.2 RF characteristics parameters
3.2.1
insertion loss
ins

resulting from the insertion of a network into a transmission system, the ratio of the power

delivered to that part of the system following the network, before insertion of the network, to

the power delivered to that same part after insertion of the network
Note 1 to entry: The insertion loss is generally expressed in decibels.
[SOURCE: IEC 60050-726:1982, 726-06-07]
3.2.2
isolation
iso

amplitude of the power attenuation, in the reverse direction of signal transmitted

3.2.3
return loss
ret

ratio of the incident power at the specified port to the reflected power at the same port

Note 1 to entry: Usually the return loss is expressed in decibels.
[SOURCE: IEC 60747-16-4:2004, 3.3 modified – “in the linear region”, “∆P (dBm) =
ref
∆P (dBm)” and “of the power transfer curve” are deleted.]
inc
3.2.4
magnetic leakage
leak
maximum spatial field intensity of a RF MEMS circulator/isolator
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
4 Essential ratings and characteristics
4.1 Identification and types

General description of the function of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator and their applications

should be stated. The statement should include the details of manufacturing technologies

about the RF MEMS circulator/isolator with different operation, configuration, and actuation

mechanism. The statement should also include packaged form including terminal numbering

and package materials.

The RF MEMS circulator/isolator shall be clearly and durably marked in the order given below:

a) manufacture’s name or trade mark;
b) device type and serial number;
c) year and week (or month) of manufacture;
d) terminal identification (optional);
e) factory identification code (optional).
4.2 Application and specification description

Information on application of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator shall be given. Block diagrams

of the RF MEMS circulator/isolator and the applied systems should be also given. All

terminals should be identified in the block diagram and their functions shall also be stated.

See Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Key
1 terminal 1
2 terminal 2
3 terminal 3
Figure 1 – Terminals of RF MEMS circulators
Key
1 terminal 1
2 terminal 2
R terminated load
Figure 2 – RF MEMS isolator with terminated load
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021
4.3 Limiting values and operating conditions

This statement should include limiting conditions and values. In particular, electrical limiting

values (input power, handling power, power dissipation, etc.) and temperature conditions

(operating, ambient, storage, and soldering) shall be given in the statement. These values are

indicated within Table 1.
Table 1 – Limiting values and operating conditions
Parameters Symbol Unit Min. Max.
power handling capability P W +
max
operating temperature T °C + +
soldering temperature T °C +
sol
storage temperature T °C + +
stg
4.4 RF characteristics

RF characteristic parameters shall be stated with minimum (Min.), typical (Typ.), and

maximum (Max.) values as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 – RF characteristics
Parameters Symbol Unit Min. Typ. Max.
insertion loss L dB + +
ins
isolation L dB + +
iso
return loss L dB + +
ret
center frequency f GHz +
center
VSWR(optional) VSWR +
impedance (optional) R Ω +
magnetic leakage
B A/m +
leak
(optional)
4.5 Reliability characteristics

Any specific mechanical characteristics and environmental ratings applicable shall be stated.

The characteristics shall be stated with their symbol, unit, minimum (Min), typical (Typ.), and

maximum (Max.) values as shown in Table 3.
Table 3 – Reliability characteristics
Parameters Symbol Unit Min. Typ. Max.
Power handling capability P W +
max
Life time t h +
life
Shock A g +
shock
Vibration A m/s +
vibration
Bond/Solder Shear
P MPa +
Strength
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 62047-41:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –
4.6 Additional information

Some additional information should be given such as handling precautions, physical

information (e.g. outline dimensions, terminals, accessories, etc.), package information,

printed circuit board interface and mounting information, and other information, etc.

5 Measuring methods
5.1 General
5.1.1 General precautions

The measurement accuracy, protection of devices and measuring equipment and accuracy of

measuring circuits listed in 6.3, 6.4 and 6.6 of IEC 60747-1:2010 shall be applied. Although

the level of the signal can be specified in either power or voltage, in this document it is

expressed in power unless otherwise specified.
5.1.2 Characteristic impedance
The characteristic impedance of the measurement system, as
...

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