Magnetic materials - Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials

IEC 60404-15:2012 specifies a solenoid method, a magnetic moment method, a magnetic balance method and a permeability meter method for the determination of the relative magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials (including austenitic stainless steel). The magnetic balance and permeability meter methods are both comparison methods calibrated using reference materials to determine the value of the relative magnetic permeability of the test specimen.

Matériaux magnétiques - Partie 15: Méthodes de détermination de la perméabilité magnétique relative des matériaux faiblement magnétiques

La CEI 60404-15:2012 spécifie une méthode utilisant un solénoïde, une méthode utilisant le moment magnétique, une méthode utilisant une balance magnétique et une méthode utilisant un appareil de mesure de la perméabilité pour déterminer la perméabilité magnétique relative des matériaux faiblement magnétiques (y compris l'acier inoxydable austénitique). La méthode utilisant une balance magnétique et la méthode utilisant un appareil de mesure de la perméabilité sont toutes les deux des méthodes de comparaison étalonnées utilisant des matériaux de référence en vue de déterminer la valeur de la perméabilité magnétique relative de l'éprouvette.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Sep-2012
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Sep-2012
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 60404-15:2012 - Magnetic materials - Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials
English and French language
41 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 60404-15
Edition 1.0 2012-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative magnetic permeability of
feebly magnetic materials
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 15: Méthodes de détermination de la perméabilité magnétique relative des
matériaux faiblement magnétiques
IEC 60404-15:2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2012 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester.

If you have any questions about IEC copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication,

please contact the address below or your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de la CEI ou du Comité national de la CEI du pays du demandeur.

Si vous avez des questions sur le copyright de la CEI ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette

publication, utilisez les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de la CEI de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
CH-1211 Geneva 20 info@iec.ch
Switzerland www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
Useful links:

IEC publications search - www.iec.ch/searchpub Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The advanced search enables you to find IEC publications The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

by a variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical electrical terms containing more than 30 000 terms and

committee,…). definitions in English and French, with equivalent terms in

It also gives information on projects, replaced and additional languages. Also known as the International

withdrawn publications. Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) on-line.

IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication

details all new publications released. Available on-line and or need further assistance, please contact the

also once a month by email. Customer Service Centre: csc@iec.ch.
A propos de la CEI

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (CEI) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications CEI

Le contenu technique des publications de la CEI est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez

l’édition la plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Liens utiles:

Recherche de publications CEI - www.iec.ch/searchpub Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

La recherche avancée vous permet de trouver des Le premier dictionnaire en ligne au monde de termes

publications CEI en utilisant différents critères (numéro de électroniques et électriques. Il contient plus de 30 000

référence, texte, comité d’études,…). termes et définitions en anglais et en français, ainsi que

Elle donne aussi des informations sur les projets et les les termes équivalents dans les langues additionnelles.

publications remplacées ou retirées. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire Electrotechnique

International (VEI) en ligne.
Just Published CEI - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications de la CEI.

Just Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur

Disponible en ligne et aussi une fois par mois par email. cette publication ou si vous avez des questions

contactez-nous: csc@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60404-15
Edition 1.0 2012-09
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Magnetic materials –
Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative magnetic permeability of
feebly magnetic materials
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 15: Méthodes de détermination de la perméabilité magnétique relative des
matériaux faiblement magnétiques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX S
ICS 17.220.01; 29.030 ISBN 978-2-83220-343-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – 60404-15  IEC:2012
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................... 7

4 Solenoid and magnetic moment method ........................................................................... 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Principle .................................................................................................................. 7

4.3 Apparatus ................................................................................................................ 8

4.4 Test specimen for the solenoid method ................................................................. 10

4.5 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 11

4.6 Calculation ............................................................................................................ 12

4.7 Uncertainty ............................................................................................................ 13

5 Magnetic balance method ............................................................................................... 13

5.1 Principle ................................................................................................................ 13

5.2 Disc inserts and reference materials ...................................................................... 14

5.3 Test specimen ....................................................................................................... 14

5.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 15

5.5 Evaluation of the relative magnetic permeability .................................................... 15

5.6 Uncertainty ............................................................................................................ 15

6 Permeability meter method ............................................................................................. 15

6.1 Principle ................................................................................................................ 15

6.2 Reference specimens and materials ...................................................................... 16

6.3 Test specimen ....................................................................................................... 17

6.4 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 17

6.5 Uncertainty ............................................................................................................ 17

7 Test report ...................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Correction for self-demagnetization ................................................... 18

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 20

Figure 1 – Circuit diagram for the solenoid method ................................................................. 8

Figure 2 – Coil system for the determination of the magnetic dipole moment .......................... 9

Figure 3 – Magnetic balance: side view ................................................................................. 14

Figure 4 – Schematic of the permeability meter arrangement and magnetic field

distribution without and with test specimen ........................................................................... 16

Table 1 – Relative magnetic permeability ranges for the methods described ........................... 6

Table 2 – Cylindrical sample with a 1:1 aspect ratio .............................................................. 10

Table 3 – Circular cross section rod with an aspect ratio of 10:1 ........................................... 10

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
60404-15  IEC:2012 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative
magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60404-15 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 68:

Magnetic alloys and steels.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
68/442/FDIS 68/443/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – 60404-15  IEC:2012

A list of all the parts in the IEC 60404 series, under the general title Magnetic materials, can

be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
60404-15  IEC:2012 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

The determination of the relative magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials is often

required to assess their effect on the ambient magnetic field. Typical feebly magnetic

materials are austenitic stainless steels and "non-magnetic" brass.

The relative magnetic permeability of some of these materials can vary significantly with the

applied magnetic field strength. In the majority of cases, these materials find application in the

ambient earth's magnetic field. This field in Europe is 35 A/m to 40 A/m, in the far East, it is

25 A/m to 35 A/m and in North America, it is 25 A/m to 35 A/m. However, at present, methods

of measurement are not available to determine the relative magnetic permeability of feebly

magnetic materials at such a low value of magnetic field strength.

Studies of the properties of feebly magnetic materials have been carried out, primarily with a

view to the production of improved reference materials. These studies have shown [1] that it

is possible to produce reference materials which have a substantially constant relative

magnetic permeability over the range from the earth's magnetic field to at least a magnetic

field strength of 100 kA/m.

Since conventional metallic materials can also be used as reference materials their relative

magnetic permeability can be determined using the reference method. It is important that the

magnetic field strength used during the determination of the relative magnetic permeability is

stated for all materials but in particular for conventional materials since the changes with

applied magnetic field can be large. This behaviour also needs to be considered when using

reference materials made from conventional materials to calibrate comparator methods. This

is because these methods use magnetic fields that vary through the volume of the material

being tested and this makes it difficult to know the relative magnetic permeability to use for

the calibration.

Where the effect of a feebly magnetic material on the ambient earth's magnetic field is critical,

the direct measurement of this effect using a sensitive magnetometer should be considered.

___________
Figures in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – 60404-15  IEC:2012
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 15: Methods for the determination of the relative
magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60404 specifies a solenoid method, a magnetic moment method, a magnetic

balance method and a permeability meter method for the determination of the relative

magnetic permeability of feebly magnetic materials (including austenitic stainless steel). The

magnetic balance and permeability meter methods are both comparison methods calibrated

using reference materials to determine the value of the relative magnetic permeability of the

test specimen. The relative magnetic permeability range for each of these methods is shown

in Table 1. The methods given are for applied magnetic field strengths of between 5 kA/m and

100 kA/m.
Table 1 – Relative magnetic permeability ranges for the methods described
Measurement method Relative magnetic permeability range
Solenoid 1,003 to 2
Magnetic moment 1,003 to 1,2
Magnetic balance 1,003 to 5
Permeability meter 1,003 to 2

NOTE 1 The relative magnetic permeability range given for the magnetic balance method covers the inserts

provided with a typical instrument. These can only be assessed at values for which calibrated reference materials

exist.

NOTE 2 For a relative magnetic permeability larger than 2, a reference material cannot be calibrated using this

written standard. A note of this is given in the test report explaining that the values measured using the magnetic

balance are for indication only.

The solenoid method is the reference method. The magnetic moment method described is

used mainly for the measurement of the relative magnetic permeability of mass standards.

Two comparator methods used by industry are described. These can be calibrated using

reference materials for which the relative magnetic permeability has been determined using

the reference method. When suitable, the magnetic moment method can also be used. The

dimensions of the reference material need to be given careful consideration when determining

the uncertainty in the calibration value due to self-demagnetization effects. See Annex A for

more information on correcting for self-demagnetization.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
IEC 60050 (all parts), International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (available at
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60404-15  IEC:2012 – 7 –

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement – Part 3: Guide to the expression of

uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-221,

IEC 60050-121 as well as the following apply.
3.1
self-demagnetization

generation of a magnetic field within a magnetized body that opposes the magnetization

3.2
demagnetize
to bring a magnetic material to a magnetically neutral state
3.3
feebly magnetic material
material that is essentially non-magnetic in character
4 Solenoid and magnetic moment method
4.1 General

The methods that are described in Clause 4 are reference methods for determining the

relative magnetic permeability of test specimens of feebly magnetic materials with a length to

diameter ratio of at least 10:1. When the relative magnetic permeability is less than 1,2, it is

possible to use a moment detection coil and a test specimen with a length to diameter ratio of

1:1. Both methods use similar equipment and involve similar calculations to determine the

relative magnetic permeability. The descriptions of both methods are therefore presented

together here with significant differences explained in the text.
4.2 Principle

The relative magnetic permeability of a feebly magnetic test specimen is determined from the

magnetic polarization J and the corresponding magnetic field strength H measured using the

circuit shown in Figure 1, using
= 1+
(1)
where
μ is the relative magnetic permeability of the test specimen (ratio);
μ is the magnetic constant (4π × 10 ) (in H/m);
J is the magnetic polarization (in T);

H is the magnetic field strength (as calculated from the magnetizing current and the

magnetic field strength to current ratio (known as the coil constant) for the solenoid)

(in A/m).
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – 60404-15  IEC:2012
Test specimen
R S
IEC 1691/12
Key
A current measuring device or ammeter
E d.c. supply
F flux integrator
N solenoid
N search coil or magnetic moment detection coil
R variable resistor (controlling magnetizing current)
S switch
Figure 1 – Circuit diagram for the solenoid method

NOTE In Figure 1, the search coil N is replaced by a moment detection coil for the magnetic moment method.

4.3 Apparatus

4.3.1 Solenoid. The solenoid shall have a length to diameter ratio of not less than 10:1 or, in

the case of lower length, it shall contain coaxial supplementary coils at the ends or it shall

consist of a split pair coil system (Garrett [2]). The last two coil systems shall yield at least the

same degree of field homogeneity in the centre as is obtained with the long solenoid. The

coils shall be wound on non-magnetic, non-conducting formers. The winding shall have a

sufficient number of turns of wire to be capable of carrying a current that will produce a

magnetic field strength of 100 kA/m. The magnetic field to current ratio of the solenoid (known

as the coil constant) shall be determined with an uncertainty of ± 0,5 % or better, either by an

independent calibration or alternatively by measuring the magnetic field strength by means of

a calibrated Hall effect probe and by measuring the corresponding magnetizing current (using

the method described in 4.3.5).

NOTE 1 More than one solenoid (or split pair coil system) may be required to cover the complete range of

magnetic field strength.

NOTE 2 The optimal diameter of the solenoid depends upon the diameter of test specimens to be measured and

the sensitivity of the measurement. For measurements on bars up to 30 mm in diameter having a relative magnetic

permeability of 1,005, the internal diameter of the solenoid would be approximately 80 mm to accommodate the

requisite search coil.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60404-15  IEC:2012 – 9 –

4.3.2 Search coil. The search coil shall be wound on a non-magnetic, non-conducting former.

Typically, for test specimens up to 30 mm in diameter, the internal diameter of the aperture in

the search coil is 32 mm to allow test specimens to be freely inserted and withdrawn. The

length of the winding shall be 40 mm; end cheeks of between 75 mm and 80 mm diameter

shall be fitted to the former. The winding can be, for example, 10 000 turns of 0,2 mm

diameter insulated wire with interleaving as necessary.

NOTE The winding may be tapped at intervals to facilitate the adjustment of the sensitivity of the measuring

system when determining the relative magnetic permeability of test specimens in the higher part of the permeability

range.

4.3.3 For much shorter solid right cylinders with a length to diameter ratio of 1:1, a moment

detection coil with a homogeneous sensitivity over the volume of the test specimen shall be

used for measuring the magnetic dipole moment of the cylinder (see Figure 2). The magnetic

polarization is calculated from
J= (2)
where
j is the magnetic dipole moment (in Wbm);
V is the volume of the test specimen (in m ).

The moment detection coil can be a solenoid with additional homogenizing windings close to

the ends of the coil.
Test specimen
Moment detection coil
Compensation coil
Magnetizing solenoid
IEC 1692/12
Figure 2 – Coil system for the determination
of the magnetic dipole moment

The measurement of the magnetic moment of short cylinders with a length to diameter ratio of

1:1 shall be restricted to materials having a relative permeability smaller than μ = 1,2. If this

condition is not met, the magnetic field strength inside the test specimen and the polarization

become inhomogeneous and this will produce significant errors in the measured relative

magnetic permeability.

In the region μ = 1,003 to 1,2, a linear correction for the effect of the self-demagnetizing field

is appropriate. See Annex A for more information.

NOTE Typically, weight pieces of the classes E , E and F according to OIML R111-1 (2004) [3] fall into this

1 2 1
range.

For this correction, equation (A.2) of Annex A is to be used together with the value of the

magnetometric self-demagnetization factor N as obtained from reference [6].

For example, for a cylindrical sample with a 1:1 aspect ratio, values of the relative correction

to the applied magnetic field for different relative magnetic permeabilities due to self-

demagnetization are given in Table 2.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – 60404-15  IEC:2012
Table 2 – Cylindrical sample with a 1:1 aspect ratio
µ N ∆H/H
r m
1,000 1 0,311 6 0,003 %
1,007 0,311 4 0,22 %
1,2 0,309 3 6,2 %

ΔH/H is the relative correction of the magnetic field strength and N is the magnetometric

self-demagnetization factor.
This is discussed in more detail in Annex A.

4.3.4 Flux integrator. The flux integrator shall be an electronic charge integrator or similar

device, calibrated with an uncertainty of ± 0,5 % or better.

4.3.5 Current measuring device. The current measuring device shall consist of a calibrated

resistor connected in series with the magnetizing circuit and a calibrated digital voltmeter.

The magnetizing current shall be determined from the measurement of the voltage developed

across the resistor. The combined uncertainties of the resistor and voltmeter shall be such

that the magnetizing current can be determined with an uncertainty of ± 0,2 % or better.

Alternatively, an ammeter calibrated with an equivalent uncertainty can be used.

4.3.6 Micrometer. The micrometer for measuring the transverse dimensions of the test

specimen for the solenoid method shall be calibrated. For the magnetic moment method, the

volume is required and appropriate dimensional measurements shall be made.
4.4 Test specimen for the solenoid method

The test specimen shall consist of a round or rectangular bar, or a number of strips or wires

having a total cross-sectional area of at least 100 mm . The maximum cross-sectional area

shall be determined by the diameter of the central aperture of the search coil. Allowance shall

be made for the easy insertion and withdrawal of the test specimen without disturbing the

position of the search coil.

To avoid significant errors introduced by self-demagnetization, the length to equivalent

diameter ratio of the test specimen shall be not less than 10:1. When corrections for self-

demagnetization are required see Annex A.

For example, values are given in Table 3 for a rod of circular cross section with an aspect

ratio of 10:1, a diameter of 30 mm and a search coil with an effective average diameter of

52,2 mm. The relative corrections to the applied magnetic field strength and the magnetic

polarization for different relative magnetic permeabilities due to self-demagnetization are

shown.
Table 3 – Circular cross section rod with an aspect ratio of 10:1
µ N ∆H/H ∆J/J
r f
1,000 1 0,004 927 0,000 % 1,49 %
1,007 0,004 931 0,003 % 1,49 %
1,2 0,005 054 0,101 % 1,53 %
2 0,005 541 0,554 % 1,68 %
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60404-15  IEC:2012 – 11 –

ΔH/H is the relative correction of the magnetic field strength, N is the fluxmetric self-

demagnetization factor and ΔJ/J is the relative correction of the magnetic polarization.

This is discussed in more detail in Annex A.
4.5 Procedure

4.5.1 The cross-sectional area of the test specimen shall be established from a number of

measurements of each dimension. For a test specimen for the solenoid method, the diameter

or transverse dimensions shall be measured by means of a calibrated micrometer (see 4.3.6)

at approximately 10 mm intervals along the central 40 mm of length. The mean cross-

sectional area, expressed in square metres, shall be calculated from the mean dime

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.