Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests - Part 0: Wide range of accuracy for various types and sizes of turbines

IEC 60953-0:2022 constitutes a technical revision.This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) IEC 60953-2:1990 has been used as the basis to develop IEC 60953-0;
b) Outdated measuring techniques have been updated and the corresponding reduction of the expected test result measuring uncertainty indicated;
c) Guarantee of power output at specified steam flow has been included;
d) A proposal for assignment of unaccounted for leakages has been included;
e) Correction methods and guarantee comparisons are updated;
f) Various appendices deleted:
- Appendix B (flow nozzle)
- Appendix E (generalized correction curves)
- Appendix G (power measurement uncertainty)
g) Annex added:
- Annex E (Temperature variation method) taken over from IEC 60953-3:2002,Annex L
The rules given in this document are applicable to thermal acceptance tests covering a wide range of accuracy on steam turbines of every type, rating and application. Only the relevant portion of these rules will apply to any individual case.
The rules provide for the testing of turbines, whether operating with either superheated or saturated steam. They include measurements and procedures required to determine specific enthalpy within the moisture region and describe precautions necessary to permit testing while respecting radiological safety rules in nuclear plants.
Uniform rules for the preparation, carrying out, evaluation, comparison with guarantee and calculation of measuring uncertainty of acceptance tests are defined in this standard. Details of the conditions under which the acceptance test can take place are included.
Should any complex or special case arise which is not covered by these rules, appropriate agreement is to be reached by manufacturer and purchaser before the contract is signed.
This first edition cancels and replaces IEC 60953-2, published in 1990.

Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur - Partie 0: Plage de précision étendue pour différents types et dimensions de turbines

IEC 60953-0:2022 Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition comprend les modifications techniques importantes suivantes par rapport à l’édition précédente :
a) IEC 60953-2:1990 a servi de base à l’élaboration de la IEC 60953-0;
b) Des techniques de mesure obsolètes ont été mises à jour et la réduction correspondante de l’incertitude de mesure des résultats d’essai attendus a été indiquée;
c) La garantie de la puissance de sortie au débit de vapeur spécifié a été incluse;
d) Une proposition d’attribution des fuites non comptabilisées a été incluse;
e) les méthodes de correction et les comparaisons de garantie sont mises à jour;
f) Diverses annexes supprimées:
- Annexe B (buse d’écoulement)
- Annexe E (courbes de correction généralisées)
- Annexe G (incertitude de mesure de la puissance)
g) Annexe ajoutée:
- Annexe E (Méthode de variation de température) reprise de la IEC 60953-3:2002, Annexe L
Les règles données dans le présent document sont applicables aux essais d’acceptation thermique couvrant un large éventail de précision sur les turbines à vapeur de tout type, de toute puissance nominale et de toute application. Seule la partie pertinente de ces règles s’appliquera à un cas individuel.
Les règles prévoient l’essai des turbines, qu’elles fonctionnent à la vapeur surchauffée ou saturée. Ils comprennent les mesures et les procédures requises pour déterminer l’enthalpie spécifique dans la région humide et décrivent les précautions nécessaires pour permettre les essais tout en respectant les règles de sûreté radiologique dans les centrales nucléaires.
Des règles uniformes pour la préparation, la réalisation, l’évaluation, la comparaison avec la garantie et le calcul de l’incertitude de mesure des essais de réception sont définies dans cette norme. Les détails des conditions dans lesquelles l’essai d’acceptation peut avoir lieu sont inclus.
En cas de cas complexe ou particulier qui n’est pas couvert par ces règles, un accord approprié doit être conclu entre le fabricant et l’acheteur avant la signature du contrat.
Cette première édition annule et remplace la CEI 60953-2, publiée en 1990.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-May-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
30-May-2022
Ref Project

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IEC 60953-0
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests –
Part 0: Wide range of accuracy for various types and sizes of turbines
Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur –
Partie 0: Plage de précision étendue pour différents types et dimensions de
turbines
IEC 60953-0:2022-05(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60953-0
Edition 1.0 2022-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Rules for steam turbine thermal acceptance tests –
Part 0: Wide range of accuracy for various types and sizes of turbines
Règles pour les essais thermiques de réception des turbines à vapeur –
Partie 0: Plage de précision étendue pour différents types et dimensions de
turbines
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-0938-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

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® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60953-0:2022 © IEC 2022
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 9

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 11

1.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

1.2 Object ................................................................................................................... 11

1.3 Matters to be considered in the contract ............................................................... 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Units, symbols, terms and definitions ............................................................................. 12

3.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

3.2 Symbols, units ...................................................................................................... 13

3.3 Subscripts, superscripts and definitions ................................................................ 14

3.4 Definition of guarantee values and test results ...................................................... 16

3.4.1 Guidance on guarantee parameters ............................................................... 16

3.4.2 Thermal efficiency ......................................................................................... 16

3.4.3 Heat rate ....................................................................................................... 18

3.4.4 Thermodynamic efficiency ............................................................................. 18

3.4.5 Steam rate ..................................................................................................... 19

3.4.6 Main steam flow capacity ............................................................................... 19

3.4.7 Power output ................................................................................................. 19

3.4.8 Guarantee values for extraction and mixed-pressure turbines ........................ 20

3.4.9 Thermal Load Capacity (for Nuclear applications) .......................................... 20

4 Guiding principles .......................................................................................................... 20

4.1 Advance planning for test...................................................................................... 20

4.2 Preparatory agreements and arrangements for tests ............................................. 21

4.3 Planning of the test ............................................................................................... 22

4.3.1 Time for acceptance tests .............................................................................. 22

4.3.2 Direction of acceptance tests ......................................................................... 22

4.4 Preparation of the tests ......................................................................................... 22

4.4.1 Condition of the plant .................................................................................... 22

4.4.2 Condition of the steam turbine ....................................................................... 23

4.4.3 Condition of the condenser ............................................................................ 23

4.4.4 Isolation of the cycle ...................................................................................... 24

4.4.5 Checks for leakage of condenser and feed water heaters .............................. 26

4.4.6 Cleanliness of the steam strainers ................................................................. 26

4.4.7 Checking of the test measuring equipment .................................................... 26

4.5 Comparison measurements ................................................................................... 26

4.6 Settings for tests ................................................................................................... 27

4.6.1 Load settings ................................................................................................. 27

4.6.2 Special settings ............................................................................................. 28

4.7 Preliminary tests ................................................................................................... 28

4.8 Acceptance tests .................................................................................................. 28

4.8.1 Constancy of test conditions .......................................................................... 28

4.8.2 Maximum deviation and fluctuation in test conditions ..................................... 28

4.8.3 Duration of test runs and frequency of reading............................................... 29

4.8.4 Reading of integrating measuring instruments ............................................... 30

4.8.5 Alternative methods ....................................................................................... 30

4.8.6 Recording of tests ......................................................................................... 30

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IEC 60953-0:2022 © IEC 2022 – 3 –

4.8.7 Additional measurement ................................................................................ 30

4.8.8 Preliminary calculations ................................................................................. 30

4.8.9 Consistency and number of tests ................................................................... 30

4.9 Repetition of acceptance tests .............................................................................. 31

5 Measuring techniques and measuring instruments ......................................................... 31

5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 31

5.1.1 Instrument accuracy requirements ................................................................. 31

5.1.2 Measuring instruments .................................................................................. 31

5.1.3 Measuring uncertainty ................................................................................... 31

5.1.4 Calibration of instruments .............................................................................. 32

5.1.5 Alternative instrumentation ............................................................................ 32

5.2 Measurement of power.......................................................................................... 36

5.2.1 Determination of mechanical turbine output ................................................... 36

5.2.2 Measurement of boiler feed pump power ....................................................... 36

5.2.3 Determination of electrical power of a turbine generator ................................ 37

5.2.4 Measurement of electrical power ................................................................... 38

5.2.5 Electrical instrument connections................................................................... 38

5.2.6 Electrical instruments .................................................................................... 38

5.2.7 Instrument transformers ................................................................................. 39

5.3 Flow measurement ................................................................................................ 39

5.3.1 Determination of flows to be measured .......................................................... 39

5.3.2 Measurement of primary flow ......................................................................... 39

5.3.3 Installation and location of flow measuring devices ........................................ 42

5.3.4 Calibration of primary flow devices for water flow .......................................... 43

5.3.5 Inspection of flow measuring devices ............................................................. 44

5.3.6 Differential pressure measurements .............................................................. 45

5.3.7 Water flow fluctuation .................................................................................... 45

5.3.8 Secondary flow measurements ...................................................................... 45

5.3.9 Occasional secondary flows........................................................................... 48

5.3.10 Density of water and steam ........................................................................... 49

5.3.11 Determination of cooling water flow of condenser .......................................... 49

5.4 Pressure measurement (excluding condensing turbine exhaust pressure) ............. 50

5.4.1 Pressures to be measured ............................................................................. 50

5.4.2 Instruments ................................................................................................... 50

5.4.3 Main pressure measurements ........................................................................ 50

5.4.4 Pressure tapping holes and connecting lines ................................................. 51

5.4.5 Shut-off valves .............................................................................................. 52

5.4.6 Calibration of pressure measuring devices .................................................... 52

5.4.7 Atmospheric pressure .................................................................................... 52

5.4.8 Correction of readings ................................................................................... 52

5.5 Condensing turbine exhaust pressure measurement ............................................. 53

5.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 53

5.5.2 Plane of measurement ................................................................................... 53

5.5.3 Pressure taps ................................................................................................ 53

5.5.4 Manifolds ....................................................................................................... 54

5.5.5 Connecting lines ............................................................................................ 54

5.5.6 Instruments ................................................................................................... 54

5.5.7 Calibration ..................................................................................................... 54

5.6 Temperature measurement ................................................................................... 54

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– 4 – IEC 60953-0:2022 © IEC 2022

5.6.1 Points of temperature measurement .............................................................. 54

5.6.2 Instruments ................................................................................................... 55

5.6.3 Main temperature measurements ................................................................... 55

5.6.4 Feed train temperature measurements (including bled steam) ....................... 55

5.6.5 Condenser cooling water temperature measurement ..................................... 56

5.6.6 Thermometer wells ........................................................................................ 56

5.6.7 Precautions to be observed in the measurement of temperature .................... 57

5.7 Steam quality determination .................................................................................. 57

5.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 57

5.7.2 Tracer technique ........................................................................................... 57

5.7.3 Condensing method ....................................................................................... 58

5.7.4 Constant rate injection method ...................................................................... 61

5.7.5 Extraction enthalpy determined by constant rate injection method ................. 62

5.7.6 Tracers and their use ..................................................................................... 64

5.8 Time measurement ............................................................................................... 65

5.9 Speed measurement ............................................................................................. 65

6 Evaluation of tests ......................................................................................................... 65

6.1 Preparation of evaluation ...................................................................................... 65

6.2 Computation of results .......................................................................................... 66

6.2.1 Calculation of average values of instrument readings .................................... 66

6.2.2 Correction and conversion of averaged readings ........................................... 66

6.2.3 Checking of measured data ........................................................................... 66

6.2.4 Thermodynamic properties of steam and water .............................................. 67

6.2.5 Calculation of test results .............................................................................. 68

7 Correction of test results and comparison with guarantee .............................................. 68

7.1 Guarantee values and guarantee conditions ......................................................... 68

7.2 Correction of initial steam flow capacity ................................................................ 68

7.3 Correction of output .............................................................................................. 69

7.3.1 Correction of maximum output ....................................................................... 69

7.3.2 Correction of Output with specified initial steam flow ..................................... 69

7.4 Correction of the thermal performance .................................................................. 69

7.5 Definition and application of correction values ...................................................... 70

7.6 Correction methods ............................................................................................... 70

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 70

7.6.2 Correction by heat balance calculation .......................................................... 71

7.6.3 Correction by use of correction curves prepared by the manufacturer ............ 72

7.6.4 Tests to determine correction values ............................................................. 72

7.7 Variables to be considered in the correction of specific turbine cycles .................. 72

7.7.1 Scope of corrections ...................................................................................... 72

7.7.2 Turbines with regenerative feed-water heating ............................................... 72

7.7.3 Turbines which have no provision for the addition or extraction of steam

after partial expansion ................................................................................... 74

7.7.4 Turbines with steam extraction for purposes other than feed-water

heating (extraction turbines) .......................................................................... 74

7.7.5 Other types of turbine .................................................................................... 74

7.8 Guarantee comparison .......................................................................................... 75

7.8.1 Tolerance and weighting ................................................................................ 75

7.8.2 Guarantee comparison with locus curve ......................................................... 75

7.8.3 Guarantee comparison with guarantee point .................................................. 76

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IEC 60953-0:2022 © IEC 2022 – 5 –

7.8.4 Guarantee comparison for turbines with throttle governing ............................ 76

7.8.5 Guarantee comparison for extraction turbines ................................................ 76

7.9 Deterioration of turbine performance (ageing) ....................................................... 77

7.9.1 Timing to minimise deterioration .................................................................... 77

7.9.2 Correction with comparison tests ................................................................... 77

7.9.3 Correction without comparison tests .............................................................. 77

8 Measuring uncertainty ................................................................................................... 78

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 78

8.2 Determination of measuring uncertainty of steam and water properties ................. 79

8.2.1 Pressure ........................................................................................................ 79

8.2.2 Temperature .................................................................................................. 79

8.2.3 Enthalpy and enthalpy difference ................................................................... 79

8.3 Calculation of measuring uncertainty of output ...................................................... 80

8.3.1 Electrical measurement ................................................................................. 80

8.3.2 Mechanical measurement .............................................................................. 82

8.3.3 Additional uncertainty allowance because of unsteady load conditions .......... 82

8.4 Determination of measuring uncertainty of mass flow ............................................ 82

8.4.1 Measuring uncertainty of mass flow measurements ....................................... 82

8.4.2 Measuring uncertainty of multiple measurements of primary flow ................... 82

8.4.3 Uncertainty allowance for cycle imperfections ................................................ 83

8.5 Calculation of measuring uncertainty of results ..................................................... 83

8.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 83

8.5.2 Measuring uncertainty of thermal efficiency ................................................... 83

8.5.3 Measuring uncertainty of thermodynamic efficiency ....................................... 84

8.5.4 Uncertainty of corrections .............................................................................. 84

8.5.5 Guiding values for the measuring uncertainty of results ................................. 85

8.6 Example uncertainty calculation ............................................................................ 85

Annex A (normative) Feedwater heater leakage and condenser leakage tests ..................... 87

A.1 Feedwater heater leakage tests ............................................................................ 87

A.2 Condenser leakage tests ...................................................................................... 87

Annex B (normative) Evaluation of multiple measurements, compatibility ............................. 88

Annex C (normative) Mass flow balances ............................................................................. 89

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 89

C.2 Flows for further evaluations (informative) ............................................................ 90

Annex D (informative) Short-statistical definition of measuring uncertainty and error

propagation in acceptance tests .................................................................................... 92

Annex E (informative) Temperature variation method ........................................................... 96

E.1 Description of the problem .................................................................................... 96

E.2 Possibility to determine the leakage flow ............................................................... 96

E.3 Applied example ................................................................................................... 98

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 102

Figure 1 – Diagrams for interpretation of symbols and subscripts .......................................... 17

Figure 2 – Diagram showing location and type of test instrumentation (fossil fuel plant) ........ 33

Figure 3 – Diagram showing location and type of test instrumentation (nuclear plant) ........... 34

Figure 4 – USM with flow conditioner or flow straightener. .................................................... 41

Figure 5 – Throttle steam quality calculations for boiling water reactor .................................. 60

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60953-0:2022 © IEC 2022

Figure 6 – Throttle steam quality calculations for pressurized water reactor .......................... 61

Figure 7 – Typical installation of injection and sampling points ............................................. 63

Figure 8 – Oxygen content of sample stream ........................................................................ 64

Figure 9 – Guarantee comparison on locus curve ................................................................. 76

Figure 10 – Correction factor for steam table tolerance ......................................................... 80

Figure C.1 – Diagram of cycle for plant with steam turbine with single reheating and

five stages of regenerative feedwater heating extraction ....................................................... 90

Figure E.1 – IP turbine bowl expansion line depending on different labyrinth flow rates ........ 97

Figure E.2 – Schematic diagram of a combined HP/IP1/IP2 turbine ...................................... 98

Figure E.3 – Result of temperature variation tests. IP2 turbine bowl efficiency as a

function of the labyrinth flow rate (sealing 2) for varying live and reheat temperatures ........ 101

Table 1 – Maximum deviations and fluctuations in operating conditions ................................ 29

Table 2 – Acceptable instrumentation and uncertainties for acceptance tests ....................... 35

Table 3 – Apportionment of unaccounted leakages ............................................................... 67

Table 4 – Average deterioration by ageing ............................................................................ 77

Table 5 – Deterioration of thermal efficiency and power output .........................................

...

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