Power electronics systems and equipment - Operation conditions and characteristics of active infeed converter (AIC) applications including design recommendations for their emission values below 150 kHz

IEC TS 62578:2015 describes the operation conditions and typical characteristics of active infeed converters (AIC) of all technologies and topologies which can be connected between the electrical power supply network (lines) a.c. side and a constant current or voltage type d.c. side and which can convert electrical power (active and reactive) in both directions (generative or regenerative). The following is excluded from the scope:
- Requirements for the design, development or further functionality of active infeed applications.
- Probability of interactions or influences of the AIC with other equipment caused by parasitic elements in an installation or caused by poor electronic design as well as their mitigations.
- "Overhead line" power supply networks because of lack of information (measurements) of their three phase impedances. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) IEC TS 62578, in its revised version includes observed values out of practical applications for emission values below 150 kHz.
b) Therefore the document has been extended compared to the first edition, several detailed analysis results are given in the extended Annexes.
c) Design recommendations have been derived from the international working group by an assessment of the power supply impedances between 2 kHz and 9 kHz, a comprehensive analysis of the withstand capability of power capacitors against harmonic currents injected by AIC, immunity tests of equipment and considerations about shifted resonances in the power supply network with increased population of undamped filter capacitors.

Systèmes et équipements électroniques de puissance - Conditions de fonctionnement et caractéristiques des convertisseurs à alimentation active (AIC), y compris les recommandations de conception pour leurs valeurs d'émission inférieures à 150 kHz

L'IEC TS 62578:2015 décrit les conditions de fonctionnement et les caractéristiques typiques des convertisseurs à alimentation active (AIC), quelles que soient leurs technologies et topologies, qui peuvent être connectés entre le réseau (les phases) d'alimentation électrique côté alternatif et un type de courant ou de tension constant(e) côté continu, et qui peuvent convertir la puissance électrique (active et réactive) dans les deux directions (génératrice ou régénératrice). Les aspects suivants sont exclus du domaine d'application:
- Les exigences de conception, de développement ou autres fonctionnalités des applications à alimentation active.
- La probabilité d'interactions ou d'influences de l'AIC avec d'autres équipements générées par des éléments parasites dans une installation ou par une conception électronique peu avancée, ainsi que leurs limitations.
- Les réseaux d'alimentation par "ligne aérienne", en raison du manque d'informations (mesures) relatives à leurs impédances triphasées. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a) L'IEC TS 62578, dans sa version révisée, inclut les valeurs observées hors des applications pratiques pour les valeurs d'émission inférieures à 150 kHz.
b) Par conséquent, le document a été développé comparé à la première édition, plusieurs résultats d'analyse détaillée étant donnés dans les Annexes étendues.
c) Les recommandations de conception ont été établies par le groupe de travail international suite à une évaluation des impédances d'alimentation comprises entre 2 kHz et 9 kHz, à une analyse approfondie de la capacité de tenue des condensateurs de puissance par rapport aux courants harmoniques injectés par l'AIC, à des essais d'immunité de l'équipement et à des considérations relatives aux résonances décalées dans le réseau d'alimentation avec l'augmentation de la population des condensateurs de filtrage sans amortissement.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Apr-2015
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
15-Apr-2015
Completion Date
15-Apr-2015
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IEC TS 62578
Edition 2.0 2015-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
Power electronics systems and equipment – Operation conditions and
characteristics of active infeed converter (AIC) applications including design
recommendations for their emission values below 150 kHz
Systèmes et équipements électroniques de puissance – Conditions de
fonctionnement et caractéristiques des convertisseurs à alimentation active
(AIC), y compris les recommandations de conception pour leurs valeurs
d'émission inférieures à 150 kHz
IEC TS 62578:2015-04(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62578
Edition 2.0 2015-04
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
SPECIFICATION
TECHNIQUE
colour
inside
Power electronics systems and equipment – Operation conditions and
characteristics of active infeed converter (AIC) applications including design
recommendations for their emission values below 150 kHz
Systèmes et équipements électroniques de puissance – Conditions de
fonctionnement et caractéristiques des convertisseurs à alimentation active
(AIC), y compris les recommandations de conception pour leurs valeurs
d'émission inférieures à 150 kHz
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-2585-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62578:2015  IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 12

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 13

4 General system characteristics of PWM active infeed converters connected to the

power supply network .................................................................................................... 18

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

4.2 Basic topologies and operating principles ............................................................. 18

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

4.2.2 Operating principles ....................................................................................... 18

4.2.3 Equivalent circuit of an AIC ............................................................................ 20

4.2.4 Filters ............................................................................................................ 21

4.2.5 Pulse patterns ............................................................................................... 21

4.2.6 Control methods ............................................................................................ 22

4.2.7 Control of current components ....................................................................... 22

4.2.8 Active power factor correction ........................................................................ 22

4.3 AIC rating ............................................................................................................. 23

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

4.3.2 Converter rating under sinusoidal conditions ................................................. 23

4.3.3 Converter rating in case of harmonic currents ................................................ 23

4.3.4 Converter rating under dynamic conditions .................................................... 24

5 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) considerations for the use of AICs ........................ 24

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24

5.2 Low-frequency phenomena (<150 kHz) ................................................................. 25

5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 25

5.2.2 Emerging converter topologies and their advantages for the power

supply network .............................................................................................. 25

5.2.3 Active equalizing of the power supply network ............................................... 27

5.2.4 Measured power supply network impedances in the range between

2 kHz to 20 kHz ............................................................................................. 32

5.2.5 Proposal of an appropriate line impedance stabilisation network (LISN)

from 2 kHz to 9 kHz ....................................................................................... 37

5.2.6 Effects on industrial equipment in the frequency band 2 kHz to 9 kHz ............ 41

5.3 High-frequency phenomena (> 150 kHz) ............................................................... 44

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

5.3.2 Mitigation of distortion ................................................................................... 44

5.3.3 Immunity ........................................................................................................ 44

5.3.4 EMI filters ...................................................................................................... 44

5.4 Audible noise effects ............................................................................................. 45

5.5 Leakage currents .................................................................................................. 45

5.6 Aspects of system integration and dedicated tests ................................................ 45

6 Characteristics of a PWM active infeed converter of voltage source type and two

level topology ................................................................................................................ 46

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 46

6.2 General function, basic circuit topologies .............................................................. 46

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TS 62578:2015  IEC 2015 – 3 –

6.3 Power control ........................................................................................................ 49

6.4 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 50

6.5 Desired non-sinusoidal line currents ..................................................................... 50

6.6 Undesired non-sinusoidal line currents.................................................................. 50

6.7 Availability and system aspects ............................................................................. 51

6.8 Operation in active filter mode .............................................................................. 52

7 Characteristics of a PWM active infeed converter of voltage source type and three

level topology ................................................................................................................ 52

7.1 General function, basic circuit topologies .............................................................. 52

7.2 Power control ........................................................................................................ 53

7.3 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 53

7.4 Undesired non-sinusoidal line currents.................................................................. 54

7.5 Availability and system aspects ............................................................................. 54

8 Characteristics of a PWM Active Infeed Converter of Voltage Source Type and

Multi Level Topology ...................................................................................................... 55

8.1 General function, basic circuit topologies .............................................................. 55

8.2 Power control ........................................................................................................ 56

8.3 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 57

8.4 Power supply network distortion ............................................................................ 57

8.5 Availability and system aspects ............................................................................. 57

9 Characteristics of a F3E AIC of the Voltage Source Type .............................................. 58

9.1 General function, basic circuit topologies .............................................................. 58

9.2 Power control and line side filter ........................................................................... 59

9.3 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 61

9.4 Harmonic current .................................................................................................. 61

10 Characteristics of an AIC of Voltage Source Type in Pulse Chopper Topology ............... 62

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 62

10.2 General function, basic circuit topologies .............................................................. 62

10.3 Desired non-sinusoidal line current ....................................................................... 63

10.4 Undesired non-sinusoidal line current ................................................................... 63

10.5 Reliability .............................................................................................................. 63

10.6 Performance ......................................................................................................... 64

10.7 Availability and system aspects ............................................................................. 64

11 Characteristics of a two level PWM AIC of current source type (CSC) ............................ 64

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 64

11.2 General function, basic converter connections ...................................................... 64

11.3 Power control ........................................................................................................ 66

11.4 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................... 67

11.5 Line current distortion ........................................................................................... 68

11.6 Operation in active filter mode .............................................................................. 68

11.7 Availability and system aspects ............................................................................. 68

Annex A (informative) ........................................................................................................... 69

A.1 Control methods for AICs in VSC (Voltage Source Converter) topology ................. 69

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 69

A.1.2 Considerations of control methods ................................................................. 69

A.1.3 Short-circuit ride through functionality for decentralized power infeed

with AIC ......................................................................................................... 70

A.1.4 Fault ride through mode ................................................................................. 70

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 62578:2015  IEC 2015

A.2 Examples of practical realized AIC applications .................................................... 72

A.2.1 AIC of current source type (CSC)................................................................... 72

A.2.2 Active infeed converter with commutation on the d.c. side (reactive

power converter)............................................................................................ 74

A.3 Details concerning two level and multi-level AICs in VSC Topology....................... 76

A.3.1 Properties of active infeed converters (PWM) with different number of

levels ............................................................................................................. 76

A.3.2 Examples of typical waveforms of AICs ......................................................... 77

A.3.3 Construction and realization .......................................................................... 78

A.4 Basic transfer rules between voltage and current distortion of an AIC ................... 78

A.5 Examples of the influence of AICs to the voltage quality ....................................... 79

A.6 Withstand capability of power capacitors towards distortion in the range of

2 kHz to 9 kHz ...................................................................................................... 80

A.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 80

A.6.2 Catalogue information about permissible harmonic load ................................ 82

A.6.3 Frequency boundaries for permissible distortion levels .................................. 82

A.6.4 Frequency spectrum of active infeed converters ............................................ 83

A.6.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 84

A.7 Impact of additional AIC filter measures in the range of 2 kHz to 9 kHz ................. 85

A.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 85

A.7.2 Example of a PDS constellation (AIC and CSI) .............................................. 86

A.7.3 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 88

A.8 Example of the power supply network impedance measurement ........................... 89

A.8.1 General ......................................................................................................... 89

A.8.2 Basic principle of measurement ..................................................................... 89

A.8.3 Harmonic component injection methods for measurement .............................. 90

A.8.4 Harmonic current generation by disturbing device .......................................... 90

A.8.5 References based on current injection by disturbance (Method A) ................. 90

A.8.6 References based on sinusoidal single frequency injection (Method B) .......... 92

Annex B (informative) ........................................................................................................... 94

B.1 Basic considerations for design recommendations of AICs in the range of

2 kHz to 9 kHz ...................................................................................................... 94

B.1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 94

B.1.2 General ......................................................................................................... 94

B.1.3 Withstand capability of power capacitors connected to the power
supply network and recommendation for the compatibility in the

frequency range 2 kHz to 9 kHz ..................................................................... 95

B.1.4 Basic conditions for setting the capacitor withstand capability curve .............. 95

B.1.5 Matching of AIC converters (2-Level PWM) to different power supply

network conditions without overloading the power capacitor burden............... 97

B.1.6 Considerations in regard to medium voltage power supply networks .............. 99

B.1.7 AIC filtering considerations .......................................................................... 100

B.1.8 AIC appropriate technical and economical amount ....................................... 100

B.1.9 Frequency range from 2 kHz to 9 kHz .......................................................... 101

B.2 Design recommendations for conducted emission of low voltage AICs in the

reasonable context of higher frequencies between 9 kHz and 150 kHz................ 102

B.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 102

B.2.2 Data collection results ................................................................................. 103

B.2.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 105

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 107

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 62578:2015  IEC 2015 – 5 –

Figure 1 – AIC in VSC topology, basic structure .................................................................... 19

Figure 2 – AIC in CSC topology, basic structure ................................................................... 19

Figure 3 – Equivalent circuit for the interaction of the power supply network with an AIC ...... 20

Figure 4 – Voltage and current vectors of line and converter at fundamental frequency

for different load conditions ................................................................................................... 23

Figure 5 – The basic issues of EMC as tools of economics ................................................... 24

Figure 6 – Typical power supply network current i (t) and voltage u (t) of a phase

L LN

controlled converter with d.c. output and inductive smoothing ............................................... 26

Figure 7 – Typical power supply network current i (t) and voltage u (t) of an
L LN

uncontrolled converter with d.c. output and capacitive smoothing ......................................... 26

Figure 8 – Typical power supply network current i (t) and voltage u (t) of an AIC

L LN

realized by a PWM Converter with capacitive smoothing without additional filters ................. 26

Figure 9 – Example of attainable active and reactive power of the AIC (VSC-type) at

different line to line voltages in per unit (with 10 % combined transformer and filter

inductor short-circuit voltage, X/R ratio = 10/1, d.c. voltage = 6,5 kV) ................................... 27

Figure 10 – Principle of compensating given harmonics in the power supply system by

using an AIC and suitable control simultaneously .................................................................. 28

Figure 11 – Typical Voltage Distortion in the Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltage

generated by an AIC without additional filters (u in % and t in degrees) ................................ 29

Figure 12 – Basic characteristic of the relative voltage distortion (59th harmonic) of

one AIC operated at a pulse frequency of 3 kHz versus R with the line impedance
SCe

according to 5.2.4 ................................................................................................................. 30

Figure 13 – Basic characteristic of the relative current emission (59th harmonic) of one

AIC at a pulse frequency of 3 kHz versus R with the line impedance according to
SCe

5.2.4 ..................................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 14 – Single phase electric circuit of the three commonly used differential mode

passive line filter topologies for VSC and one example for passive damping ......................... 31

Figure 15 – Example of the attenuation of the VSC line to line voltage to the line to line

voltage at the IPC with state of the art differential mode passive line filter topologies ........... 32

Figure 16 – Connection of the power supply network impedance measurement

equipment ............................................................................................................................. 33

Figure 17 – Example of the measured impedance of a low-voltage transformer under

no load condition S = 630 kVA, u = 6,08 % .......................................................................... 34

Figure 18 – Measured variation of the power supply network impedance over the

course of a day at one location ............................................................................................. 34

Figure 19 – Power supply network impedance with partly negative imaginary part ................ 35

Figure 20 – Distribution of power system impedance (measured between phase and

neutral conductor) in low-voltage systems versus frequency ................................................. 35

Figure 21 – Statistical distribution of positive-sequence impedance versus frequency in

low-voltage power supply networks ....................................................................................... 37

Figure 22 – Equivalent circuit describing the power supply network impedance .................... 38

Figure 23 – Circuit topology for power system simulation ...................................................... 38

Figure 24 – Approximated and measured 50 % impedance curve .......................................... 39

Figure 25 – Single phase circuit topology according to IEC 61000-4-7+ used for line

impedance stabilisation network ........................................................................................... 40

Figure 26 – Three-phase circuit topology for the line impedance stabilisation network .......... 41

Figure 27 – Impedance variation in the 90 % curve of the LISN described in Figure 26 ......... 41

Figure 28 – PDS with large d.c. capacitance ......................................................................... 43

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 62578:2015  IEC 2015

Figure 29 – PDS with large capacitance and line inductor ..................................................... 43

Figure 30 – PDS with a large d.c. capacitance and inductors in the d.c. link ......................... 43

Figure 31 – Basic EMI filter topology ..................................................................................... 45

Figure 32 – Block diagram of a PDS with high frequency EMI filter system ........................... 45

Figure 33 – Basic illustration of a topology of a two level PWM voltage source AIC............... 47

Figure 34 – Typical waveforms of voltages u / U and voltage u / U
S1N LN, 1 S12 LN, 1

at pulse frequency of 4 kHz................................................................................................... 48

Figure 35 – Typical waveforms of the common mode voltage u / U at pulse
CM LN,1

frequency of 4 kHz. Power supply frequency is 50Hz ............................................................ 48

Figure 36 – Waveform of the current i / I at pulse frequency of 4 kHz, relative
L1 equ

impedance of u = 6 % .............................................................................................. 49

SCV,equ
Figure 37 – Block diagram of a two level PW
...

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