Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas

IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 establishes the concepts, techniques, validation procedures, uncertainties and limitations of the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) when used for determining the peak spatial-average and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) in a standardized human anatomical model exposed to the electromagnetic field emitted by vehicle mounted antennas in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 1 GHz, which covers typical high power mobile radio products and applications. This document specifies and provides the test vehicle, human body models and the general benchmark data for those models. It defines antenna locations, operating configurations, exposure conditions, and positions that are typical of persons exposed to the fields generated by vehicle mounted antennas. The extended frequency range up to 6 GHz will be considered in future revisions of this document. This document does not recommend specific peak spatial-average and whole-body average SAR limits since these are found in other documents, e.g. IEEE C95.1-2005, ICNIRP (1998).
Key words: Electromagnetic Field, Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD), Spatial-Average Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), vehicle mounted antennas

Détermination du débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans le corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communications sans fil, 30 MHz à 6 GHz - Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques relatives à la modélisation de l'exposition des antennes sur véhicule, à l'aide de la méthode des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD)

IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 définit les concepts, les techniques, les procédures de validation, les incertitudes et les limitations de la technique des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD) appliqués pour déterminer le débit d’absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné et le débit d’absorption spécifique global moyen. Cette détermination est réalisée au moyen d'un modèle normalisé de corps humain, exposé au champ électromagnétique émis par des antennes sur véhicule, dans la plage de fréquences de 30 MHz à 1 GHz, qui concerne les produits et les applications typiques de radio mobile haute puissance. La présente partie de l'IEC/IEEE 62704 définit et fournit les données relatives aux véhicules d’essai, aux modèles de corps humains et les données générales de référence pour ces modèles. Elle définit les emplacements des antennes, les configurations de fonctionnement, les conditions d’exposition et les positions typiques des personnes exposées aux champs générés par des antennes sur véhicule. La plage de fréquences étendue jusqu’à 6 GHz sera prise en compte dans les futures révisions du présent document. Le présent document ne recommande pas de limites spécifiques de DAS maximal moyenné et de DAS global moyen, celles-ci étant disponibles dans d’autres documents, par exemple, l’IEEE C95.1-2005, ICNIRP (1998).
Mots clés: champ électromagnétique, technique des différences finies dans le domaine temporel (FDTD), maximal moyenné, débit d’absorption spécifique (DAS), antennes sur véhicule

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jun-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
28-Jun-2017
Completion Date
28-Jun-2017
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 - Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz - Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas
English and French language
108 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC/IEEE 62704-2
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the
human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz –
Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling
of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas
Détermination du débit d’absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans le
corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communications sans fil, 30 MHz à
6 GHz –
Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques relatives à la modélisation de l’exposition des
antennes sur véhicule, à l’aide de la méthode des différences finies dans le
domaine temporel (FDTD)
IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017-06(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland
Copyright © 2017 IEEE

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing being

secured. Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either IEC at the address below or IEC’s

member National Committee in the country of the requester or from IEEE.
IEC Central Office Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
3, rue de Varembé 3 Park Avenue
CH-1211 Geneva 20 New York, NY 10016-5997
Switzerland United States of America
Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11 stds.ipr@ieee.org
Fax: +41 22 919 03 00 www.ieee.org
info@iec.ch
www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About the IEEE

IEEE is the world’s largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for

the benefit of humanity. IEEE and its members inspire a global community through its highly cited publications,

conferences, technology standards, and professional and educational activities.
About IEC/IEEE publications

The technical content of IEC/IEEE publications is kept under constant review by the IEC and IEEE. Please make sure

that you have the latest edition, a corrigendum or an amendment might have been published.

IEC Catalogue - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The stand-alone application for consulting the entire The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

bibliographical information on IEC International Standards, electrical terms containing 20 000 terms and definitions in

Technical Specifications, Technical Reports and other English and French, with equivalent terms in 16 additional

documents. Available for PC, Mac OS, Android Tablets languages. Also known as the International

and iPad. Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) online.

IEC publications search - www.iec.ch/searchpub IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a 65 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in English and

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical French extracted from the Terms and Definitions clause of

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries have

replaced and withdrawn publications. been collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37, 77,

86 and CISPR.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

details all new publications released. Available online and If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or

also once a month by email. need further assistance, please contact the Customer
Service Centre: csc@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-2
Edition 1.0 2017-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the
human body from wireless communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz –
Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling
of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas
Détermination du débit d’absorption spécifique (DAS) maximal moyenné dans le
corps humain, produit par les dispositifs de communications sans fil, 30 MHz à
6 GHz –
Partie 2: Exigences spécifiques relatives à la modélisation de l’exposition des
antennes sur véhicule, à l’aide de la méthode des différences finies dans le
domaine temporel (FDTD)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 17.220.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-4259-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................... 9

5 Exposure configuration modelling .................................................................................. 10

5.1 General considerations ......................................................................................... 10

5.2 Vehicle modelling .................................................................................................. 10

5.3 Communications device modelling ........................................................................ 11

5.4 Exposed subject modelling .................................................................................... 14

5.5 Exposure conditions .............................................................................................. 15

5.6 Accounting for variations in population relative to the standard human body

model.................................................................................................................... 18

5.6.1 Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors ................................................ 18

5.6.2 Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors ............................................... 20

6 Validation of the numerical models ................................................................................ 22

6.1 Validation of antenna model .................................................................................. 22

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

6.1.2 Experimental antenna model validation .......................................................... 22

6.1.3 Numerical antenna model validation .............................................................. 23

6.2 Validation of the human body model ..................................................................... 24

6.3 Validation of the vehicle numerical model ............................................................. 26

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 26

6.3.2 Vehicle model validation for bystander exposure simulations ......................... 27

6.3.3 Vehicle model validation for passenger exposure simulations ........................ 28

7 Computational uncertainty ............................................................................................. 30

7.1 General considerations ......................................................................................... 30

7.2 Contributors to overall numerical uncertainty in standard test configurations ......... 31

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

7.2.2 Uncertainty of the numerical algorithm ........................................................... 31

7.2.3 Uncertainty of the numerical representation of the vehicle and

pavement....................................................................................................... 31

7.2.4 Uncertainty of the antenna model .................................................................. 32

7.2.5 Uncertainty of SAR evaluation in the standard bystander and passenger

models........................................................................................................... 33

7.3 Uncertainty budget ................................................................................................ 33

8 Benchmark simulation models ....................................................................................... 34

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

8.2 Benchmark for bystander exposure simulations .................................................... 35

8.3 Benchmark for passenger exposure simulations .................................................... 36

9 Documenting SAR simulation results ............................................................................. 38

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 38

9.2 Test device ........................................................................................................... 38

9.3 Simulated configurations ....................................................................................... 38

9.4 Software and standard model validation ................................................................ 38

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 – 3 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017

9.5 Antenna numerical model validation ...................................................................... 38

9.6 Results of the benchmark simulation models ......................................................... 38

9.7 Simulation uncertainty ........................................................................................... 39

9.8 SAR results ........................................................................................................... 39

Annex A (normative) File format and description of the standard human body models ......... 40

A.1 File format ............................................................................................................ 40

A.2 Tissue parameters ................................................................................................ 42

Annex B (informative) Population coverage .......................................................................... 47

Annex C (informative) Peak spatial-average SAR locations for the validation and the

benchmark simulation models ............................................................................................... 51

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 52

Figure 1 – Antenna feed model ............................................................................................. 12

Figure 2 – Voltage and current at the matched antenna feed-point ........................................ 13

Figure 3 – Bystander model (left) and passenger/driver model (right) for the SAR

simulations ........................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 4 – Passenger and driver positions in the vehicle for the SAR simulations ................. 17

Figure 5 – Bystander positions relative to the vehicle for the SAR simulations ...................... 17

Figure 6 – Experimental setup for antenna model validation ................................................. 23

Figure 7 – Benchmark configuration for bystander model exposed to a front or back

plane wave ........................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 8 – Benchmark configuration for passenger model exposed to a front or back

plane wave ........................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 9 – Configuration for vehicle numerical model validation ............................................ 27

Figure 10 – Side view (top) and rear view (bottom) benchmark validation configuration

for bystander and trunk mount antenna ................................................................................. 35

Figure 11 – Benchmark validation configuration for passenger and trunk mount

antenna ................................................................................................................................ 37

Table 1 – Pavement model parameters ................................................................................. 14

Table 2 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander and trunk

mount antennas .................................................................................................................... 19

Table 3 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander and roof

mount antennas .................................................................................................................... 19

Table 4 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger and trunk

mount antennas .................................................................................................................... 19

Table 5 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger and roof

mount antennas .................................................................................................................... 20

Table 6 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

trunk mount antennas ........................................................................................................... 21

Table 7 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

roof mount antennas ............................................................................................................. 21

Table 8 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model and

trunk mount antennas ........................................................................................................... 21

Table 9 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model and

roof mount antennas ............................................................................................................. 22

Table 10 – Peak spatial-average SAR for 1 g and 10 g and whole-body average SAR

for the front and back plane wave exposure of the 3-mm resolution bystander model ............ 25

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017
Table 11 – Peak spatial-average SAR for 1 g and 10 g and whole-body average SAR

for the front and back plane wave exposure of the 3-mm resolution passenger model ........... 26

Table 12 – Antenna length for the vehicle model validation configurations ............................ 27

Table 13 – The reference electric field (top) and magnetic field (bottom) values for the

numerical validation of the vehicle model for bystander exposure ......................................... 28

Table 14 – Coordinates of the test points for the standard vehicle validation

simulations for the passenger ............................................................................................... 29

Table 15 – The reference electric field (top) and magnetic field (bottom) values for the

numerical validation of the vehicle model for passenger exposure ........................................ 30

Table 16 – Numerical uncertainty budget for exposure simulations with vehicle

mounted antennas and bystander and/or passenger models ................................................. 34

Table 17 – Reference SAR values for the bystander benchmark validation model ................. 36

Table 18 – Reference SAR values for the passenger benchmark validation model ................ 37

Table A.1 – Voxel counts in each data file ............................................................................ 41

Table A.2 – Tissues and the associated RGB colours in the binary data file .......................... 41

Table A.3 – Cole–Cole parameters and density for the standard human body model

tissues .................................................................................................................................. 43

Table A.4 – Relative dielectric constant and conductivity for the standard human body

model at selected reference frequencies ............................................................................... 45

Table B.1 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

trunk mount antenna ............................................................................................................. 47

Table B.2 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

roof mount antenna ............................................................................................................... 48

Table B.3 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model

and trunk mount antenna ...................................................................................................... 48

Table B.4 – Whole-body average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model and

roof mount antenna ............................................................................................................... 48

Table B.5 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

trunk mount antenna ............................................................................................................. 49

Table B.6 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the bystander model and

roof mount antenna ............................................................................................................... 49

Table B.7 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model and

trunk mount antenna ............................................................................................................. 49

Table B.8 – Peak spatial-average SAR adjustment factors for the passenger model

and roof mount antenna ........................................................................................................ 50

Table C.1 – Location of the peak spatial-average SAR for the front and back plane

wave exposure of the standard human body models ............................................................. 51

Table C.2 – Location of the peak spatial-average SAR for the vehicle mounted antenna

benchmark simulation models ............................................................................................... 51

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 – 5 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017
DETERMINING THE PEAK SPATIAL-AVERAGE SPECIFIC
ABSORPTION RATE (SAR) IN THE HUMAN BODY FROM
WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES, 30 MHz TO 6 GHz –
Part 2: Specific requirements for finite difference time domain
(FDTD) modelling of exposure from vehicle mounted antennas
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation.

IEEE Standards documents are developed within IEEE Societies and Standards Coordinating Committees of the

IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board. IEEE develops its standards through a consensus

development process, approved by the American National Standards Institute, which brings together volunteers

representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve the final product. Volunteers are not necessarily

members of IEEE and serve without compensation. While IEEE administers the process and establishes rules

to promote fairness in the consensus development process, IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or

verify the accuracy of any of the information contained in its standards. Use of IEEE Standards documents is

wholly voluntary. IEEE documents are made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers

(see http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html for more information).

IEC collaborates closely with IEEE in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations. This Dual Logo International Standard was jointly developed by the IEC and IEEE under the

terms of that agreement.

2) The formal decisions of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of

opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC

National Committees. The formal decisions of IEEE on technical matters, once consensus within IEEE Societies

and Standards Coordinating Committees has been reached, is determined by a balanced ballot of materially

interested parties who indicate interest in reviewing the proposed standard. Final approval of the IEEE

standards document is given by the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board.

3) IEC/IEEE Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC

National Committees/IEEE Societies in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the

technical content of IEC/IEEE Publications is accurate, IEC or IEEE cannot be held responsible for the way in

which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

(including IEC/IEEE Publications) transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional

publications. Any divergence between any IEC/IEEE Publication and the corresponding national or regional

publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC and IEEE do not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC and IEEE are not responsible

for any services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or IEEE or their directors, employees, servants or agents including individual

experts and members of technical committees and IEC National Committees, or volunteers of IEEE Societies

and the Standards Coordinating Committees of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) Standards Board,

for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect,

or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this

IEC/IEEE Publication or any other IEC or IEEE Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that implementation of this IEC/IEEE Publication may require use of

material covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the

existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. IEC or IEEE shall not be held responsible for

identifying Essential Patent Claims for which a license may be required, for conducting inquiries into the legal

validity or scope of Patent Claims or determining whether any licensing terms or conditions provided in

connection with submission of a Letter of Assurance, if any, or in any licensing agreements are reasonable or

non-discriminatory. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any patent

rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.

International Standard IEC/IEEE 62704-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017
© IEC/IEEE 2017

human exposure, in cooperation with International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety of

the IEEE Standards Association , under the IEC/IEEE Dual Logo Agreement.
This publication is published as an IEC/IEEE Dual Logo standard.
The text of this standard is based on the following IEC documents:
FDIS Report on voting
106/391/FDIS 106/392/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC

Directives, Part 2.

This standard contains attached files in the form of CAD model datasets described in Annex

A. These files are available at:
http://www.iec.ch/dyn/www/f?p=103:227:0::::FSP_ORG_ID,FSP_LANG_ID:1303,25

A list of all parts in the IEC/IEEE 62704 series, published under the general title Determining

the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human body from wireless

communications devices, 30 MHz to 6 GHz, can be found on the IEC website.

The IEC technical committee and IEEE technical committee have decided that the contents of

this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC website

under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the

publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
___________

A list of IEEE participants can be found at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/downloads/24748-

5/24748-5-2017/24748-5-2017_wg-participants.pdf
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC/IEEE 62704-2:2017 – 7 –
© IEC/IEEE 2017
INTRODUCTION

Computational techniques have reached a level of maturity which allows their use in

compliance assessments of wireless communication devices with vehicle mounted antennas.

The increasing complexity of assessing product compliance with exposure standards

according to specific absorption rate (SAR) limits calls for new compliance techniques. This

technique should be time efficient and cost effective. Experimental compliance assessments

for wireless communication devices used in combination with vehicles are extremely complex

to perform or even not possible at all. National regulatory bodies (e.g. US Federal

Communications Commission) encouraged the development of consensus standards as well

as the establishment of the related IEEE TC34 SC2 subcommittee and IEC PT62704-2

working group. The benefits to the user include standardized and accepted protocols,

standardized anatomical models, validation techniques, benchmark data, reporting format,

means for estimating the overall uncertainty in order to produce valid, accurate, repeatable,

and reproducible results.

The results obtained by following the protocols specified in this document represent a

conservative estimate of the peak spatial-average and whole-body average SAR induced in

the standard human body models and exposure conditions established for this document

inside or nearby the vehicles representing typical use cases with transmitting mobile radios.

The protocols set forth in this document produce results subject to modelling, simulations and

other uncertainties that are defined in this document.

The standardized vehicle and human models, test configurations, and related results are

representative of the typical exposure conditions expected
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.