Magnetic materials - Part 9: Methods of determination of the geometrical characteristics of electrical steel strip and sheet

IEC 60404-9:2018 specifies the measurement and test methods for the determination of the following geometrical characteristics of electrical steel strip and sheet:
– edge wave (wave factor);
– residual curvature;
– edge camber;
– deviation from the shearing line (internal stress);
– burr height.
This document applies to electrical steel strip and sheet intended for the construction of magnetic circuits and corresponding to Classes B2, C21, C22 and C23 of IEC 60404-1.
This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a. revision of terms and definitions;
b. specification of the length of test specimens for the determinations of edge wave (wave factor) and edge camber;
c. addition of the horizontal method for the determination of residual curvature, and a note that informs about a safety concern of the vertical method;
d. clarification that the burr height was characterized by the maximum value;
e. addition of the measuring procedure using a hand-held micrometer to determine the burr height.

Matériaux magnétiques - Partie 9: Méthodes de détermination des caractéristiques géométriques des bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier

L'IEC 60404-9:2018 spécifie les méthodes de mesure et d'essai pour la détermination des caractéristiques géométriques suivantes des bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier:
– onde de surface (facteur d'ondulation);
– courbure résiduelle;
– rectitude;
– écart par rapport à la ligne de cisaillage (contrainte interne);
- hauteur de bavure.
Le présent document s'applique aux bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier destinées à la construction de circuits magnétiques et correspondant aux Classes B2, C21, C22 et C23 de l'IEC 60404-1.
Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
a. révision des termes et définitions;
b. spécification de la longueur des éprouvettes d'essai pour la détermination de l'onde de surface (facteur d'ondulation) et de la rectitude;
c. ajout de la méthode horizontale pour la détermination de la courbure résiduelle et une note informative sur une question de sécurité concernant la méthode verticale;
d. clarification sur le fait que la hauteur de bavure a été caractérisée par la valeur maximale;
e. ajout de la procédure de mesure à l'aide d'un micromètre manuel pour déterminer la hauteur de bavure.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Nov-2018
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
28-Nov-2018
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IEC 60404-9
Edition 2.0 2018-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Magnetic materials –

Part 9: Methods of determination of the geometrical characteristics of electrical

steel strip and sheet
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 9: Méthodes de détermination des caractéristiques géométriques des
bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier
IEC 60404-9:2018-11(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9
Edition 2.0 2018-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Magnetic materials –

Part 9: Methods of determination of the geometrical characteristics of electrical

steel strip and sheet
Matériaux magnétiques –
Partie 9: Méthodes de détermination des caractéristiques géométriques des
bandes et tôles magnétiques en acier
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.030; 77.140.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-6296-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 5

4 Measurement and test methods ....................................................................................... 6

4.1 Edge wave (wave factor) ......................................................................................... 6

4.1.1 Test specimen ................................................................................................. 6

4.1.2 Measuring procedure ....................................................................................... 6

4.2 Residual curvature .................................................................................................. 7

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................... 7

4.2.2 Horizontal method ........................................................................................... 8

4.2.3 Vertical method ............................................................................................... 8

4.3 Edge camber .......................................................................................................... 9

4.3.1 Test specimen ................................................................................................. 9

4.3.2 Measuring procedure ....................................................................................... 9

4.4 Deviation from the shearing line (internal stress) .................................................. 10

4.4.1 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 10

4.4.2 Measuring procedure ..................................................................................... 10

4.5 Burr height ............................................................................................................ 11

4.5.1 Test specimen ............................................................................................... 11

4.5.2 Measuring procedure ..................................................................................... 11

5 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Examples of the clamping system ...................................................... 15

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 17

Figure 1 – Example of test specimen with edge waves placed on a surface plate .................... 7

Figure 2 – Verification of the wave factor (w) .......................................................................... 7

Figure 3 – Verification of the residual curvature (horizontal method) ....................................... 8

Figure 4 – Verification of the residual curvature (vertical method) ........................................... 9

Figure 5 – Verification of the edge camber ............................................................................ 10

Figure 6 – Verification of the deviation from the shearing line (internal stress) ...................... 11

Figure 7 – Example of the burr height (h ) ............................................................................ 12

Figure 8 – Apparatus for measuring burr height using a linear measuring device .................. 13

Figure 9 – Position of the moving anvil ................................................................................. 13

Figure A.1 – An example of the clamping system (type A) ..................................................... 15

Figure A.2 – An example of the clamping system (type B) ..................................................... 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 9: Methods of determination of the geometrical
characteristics of electrical steel strip and sheet
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60404-9 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 68:

Magnetic alloys and steels.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first published in 1987. This edition constitutes

a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:
a) revision of terms and definitions;

b) specification of the length of test specimens for the determinations of edge wave (wave

factor) and edge camber;

c) addition of the horizontal method for the determination of residual curvature, and a note

that informs about a safety concern of the vertical method;
d) clarification that the burr height was characterized by the maximum value;
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018

e) addition of the measuring procedure using a hand-held micrometer to determine the burr

height.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
68/597/CDV 68/607/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 60404 series, published under the general title Magnetic materials,

can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 5 –
MAGNETIC MATERIALS –
Part 9: Methods of determination of the geometrical
characteristics of electrical steel strip and sheet
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60404 specifies the measurement and test methods for the determination of

the following geometrical characteristics of electrical steel strip and sheet:
– edge wave (wave factor);
– residual curvature;
– edge camber;
– deviation from the shearing line (internal stress);
– burr height.

This document applies to electrical steel strip and sheet intended for the construction of

magnetic circuits and corresponding to Classes B2, C21, C22 and C23 of IEC 60404-1.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-121, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Part 121: Electromagnetism

IEC 60050-221, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 221: Magnetic materials

and components
IEC 60404-1, Magnetic materials – Part 1: Classification
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-121 and

IEC 60050-221 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
edge wave
wave factor

variations of flatness of a length of strip or a sheet taking a form of waves at the slit edge of

the product

Note 1 to entry: Edge wave is characterized by the wave factor which is the relation of the height of the wave to

its length, expressed as a percentage.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018
3.2
residual curvature

variations of flatness of a length of strip or a sheet taking a permanent curvature in the rolling

direction of the product
3.3
edge camber

greatest distance between a longitudinal edge of a length of strip or a sheet and the line

joining the two extremities of the measured length of this edge
3.4
deviation from the shearing line
internal stress

greatest distance between corresponding points on the two sheared edges of a length of strip

or a sheet sheared in the middle of the width, in parallel to the rolling direction of the product,

which characterizes the internal stress of the materials
3.5
burr height

difference between the thicknesses of a length of strip or a sheet measured respectively at

the slit edge and at a distance of 10 mm from this edge
4 Measurement and test methods
4.1 Edge wave (wave factor)
4.1.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the length shall be 1 m. Its

width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The axis of the test specimen shall

be parallel to the rolling direction of the product.
4.1.2 Measuring procedure

The test specimen shall be placed on a surface plate which is sufficiently large so that the test

specimen does not overhang the edges (see Figure 1). It shall then be lifted up on one edge

and allowed to fall back. The height of the maximum wave (h) shall be measured by means of

an instrument having a resolution of 0,1 mm or better. The length of the wave (l) shall be

measured by means of an instrument having a resolution of 1 mm or better (see Figure 2).

Only complete waves are taken into account.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 7 –
Figure 1 – Example of test specimen with edge waves placed on a surface plate

The wave factor (w) shall be determined as the ratio of the height of wave (h) to its length (l),

expressed as a percentage (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 – Verification of the wave factor (w)
4.2 Residual curvature
4.2.1 General

Two methods for the determination of the residual curvature in the rolling direction of the

product are described in this document: a horizontal method and a vertical method. The

horizontal method is recommended from the aspect of worker’s safety and consistency with

ISO standards.

NOTE 1 The horizontal method is adopted in IEC 60404-8-5:1989 [2] and consistent with ISO 16162:2012 [5].

The vertical method is adopted in IEC 60404-8-4:2013 [1], IEC 60404-8-7:2017 [3] and IEC 60404-8-8:2017 [4].

___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018

Cut edges of the test specimen are usually sharp and should be handled with care. Test

specimens in the delivery width of the product are sometimes heavy. Placing the test

specimen vertically against a support plate according to the vertical method is rather

hazardous for the operator compared with the horizontal method.

For the horizontal method, the maximum distance (d) between the test specimen and a

surface plate, on which the test specimen is placed, shall be measured. For the vertical

method, the maximum distance (a) between the bottom edge of the test specimen and a

supporting plate shall be measured.

NOTE 2 Both the horizontal and vertical methods are applicable to test specimens obtained from electrical steel

strips and sheets of any grade. These two methods give different values.
4.2.2 Horizontal method
4.2.2.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the length shall be 1 m. Its

width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The axis of the test specimen shall

be parallel to the rolling direction of the product. The test specimen for the determination of

edge wave (wave factor) may be used.
4.2.2.2 Measuring procedure

The test shall consist of placing the test specimen lying under its weight on a surface plate

sufficiently large so that the test specimen does not overhang the edges (see Figure 1). The

convex surface of the test specimen shall be in contact with the surface plate. The maximum

distance (d) between the lower surface of the test specimen and the surface plate shall be

measured by means of an instrument having a resolution of 1 mm or better (see Figure 3).

Figure 3 – Verification of the residual curvature (horizontal method)
4.2.3 Vertical method
4.2.3.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the length shall be 500 mm.

Its width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The axis of the test specimen

shall be parallel to the rolling direction of the product.
4.2.3.2 Measuring procedure

The test shall consist of placing the test specimen vertically against a supporting plate. The

top of the test specimen shall be held against the supporting plate over a clamping length of

30 mm with its convex surface facing the supporting plate. The maximum distance (a)

between the bottom edge of the test specimen and the supporting plate shall then be

measured at the axis of the test specimen by means of a graduated rule having a resolution of

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 9 –

1 mm or better (see Figure 4). The clamping force shall be sufficient to allow the full width of

the test specimen to be in contact with the supporting plate.
NOTE Annex A gives examples of the clamping system.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 4 – Verification of the residual curvature (vertical method)
4.3 Edge camber
4.3.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the length shall be 1 m. Its

width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The axis of the test specimen shall

be parallel to the rolling direction of the product. The test specimen for the determination of

edge wave (wave factor) may be used.
4.3.2 Measuring procedure

The test specimen shall be placed on a surface plate (see Figure 1). A rule shall be placed in

contact with the extremities of the concave side (see Figure 5). The maximum distance (e)

between the edge and the rule shall be measured by means of an instrument having a

resolution of 0,1 mm or better.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018
Figure 5 – Verification of the edge camber
4.4 Deviation from the shearing line (internal stress)
4.4.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the length shall be 1 m. Its

width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The axis of the test specimen shall

be parallel to the rolling direction of the product. The test specimen for the determination of

edge wave (wave factor) may be used.
4.4.2 Measuring procedure

The test specimen shall be sheared in the middle of the width, parallel to the rolling direction

of the product. The two parts, neither of which shall be turned over, shall be weighted so that

they remain flat on a surface plate. The two sheared edges shall then be brought together

again so as to give the smallest gap (see Figure 6). The maximum distance (c) between the

two sheared edges shall be measured by means of an instrument having a resolution of

0,1 mm or better.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 11 –
a) Case of a convex gap b) Case of a concave gap

Figure 6 – Verification of the deviation from the shearing line (internal stress)

4.5 Burr height
4.5.1 Test specimen

The test specimen shall consist of a length of strip or a sheet, the length of which is defined in

the product standard. If it is not defined in the product standard, the effective length for the

measurement shall be 1 m. Its width shall be equal to the delivered width of the product. The

axis of the test specimen shall be parallel to the rolling direction of the product. The test

specimen for the determination of edge wave (wave factor) may be used.

NOTE The 1 m length of the test specimen can be considered to be greater than the circumference of the slitting

blade since the condition of the blade is a principal determining factor in the quality of slitting.

4.5.2 Measuring procedure
4.5.2.1 General

The burr height (h ) shall be determined as the difference between thicknesses measured

respectively at the slit edge (h ) of the test specimen and at a distance of 10 mm from the

edge (h ) (see Figure 7).

The thicknesses shall be measured by using a hand-held micrometer with non-rotating anvils

and a constant measuring force, or by using a linear measuring device.

The burr height (h ) shall be characterized by the maximum value of any slit edge on the

effective length of 1 m.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 7 – Example of the burr height (h )
4.5.2.2 Measuring procedure using a hand-held micrometer
The measurement shall be done by a hand-held micrometer having the following
characteristics:
– resolution: 0,001 mm or better;
– uncertainty: 0,002 mm or better;
– anvils: non-rotating;
– anvils of minimum 6 mm in diameter;
– applied force on the test specimen: a constant force not exceeding 10 N.

The measuring force of the micrometer shall not exceed 10 N. A force in the range of 4 N to

8 N is recommended. Such a range of force would ensure a sufficiently accurate
measurement of the burrs without flattening them.

The thickness at the slit edge (h ) and at a distance of 10 mm from the edge (h ) shall be

2 1

measured (see Figure 7). The measurements shall be made along a length of the slit edge at

different positions by the micrometer.
4.5.2.3 Measuring procedure using a linear measuring device

The burr height shall be determined using a linear measuring device such as a comparator.

The device shall have the following characteristics:
– resolution: 0,001 mm or better;
– uncertainty: 0,002 mm or better;
– axial movement of the sliding anvil shall be obtained without rotation;
– dimension of the sliding anvil: 16 mm × 8 mm;
– applied force on the sliding anvil: 4 N ± 0,2 N.

The test specimen shall be held flat on a support table. The linear measuring device shall be

rigidly fixed on a stand so that the movement of the anvil is perpendicular to the support table

(see Figure 8).
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
IEC 60404-9:2018 © IEC 2018 – 13 –
Figure
...

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